107 relations: Absorbance, Action potential, Adenosine triphosphate, Amacrine cell, Axon, Bipolar neuron, Blind spot (vision), Brain, Calcium, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Chemical synapse, Cilium, Circadian rhythm, Cofactor (biochemistry), Color, Color vision, Cone cell, Consciousness, Contrast (vision), Cyclic guanosine monophosphate, Depolarization, Diurnality, Edge detection, Electric current, Electrochemical gradient, Electromagnetic radiation, Enzyme, Eric Kandel, Fovea centralis, G protein, G protein–coupled receptor, Glutamic acid, Human, Hyperpolarization (biology), Insect, Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, Ion, Ion channel, Lateral geniculate nucleus, Ligand-gated ion channel, Light, Luminous intensity, Macular degeneration, Melanopsin, Membrane potential, Mesopic vision, Metabotropic receptor, Mitochondrion, Mollusca, ..., Na+/K+-ATPase, Neuroepithelial cell, Neuronal noise, Neuroscience Information Framework, Neurotransmitter, Nocturnality, Notch signaling pathway, Nyctalopia, Opponent process, Opsin, Optic nerve, Optical resolution, Organelle, Phosphodiesterase, Photon, Photopic vision, Photopsin, Photoreceptor protein, Photosensitivity, Pigment, Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, Pretectal area, Principles of Neural Science, Pupillary light reflex, Pupillary reflex, Receptive field, Receptor (biochemistry), Resting potential, Retina, Retina bipolar cell, Retina horizontal cell, Retinal, Retinal ganglion cell, Retinal mosaic, Retinitis pigmentosa, Retinohypothalamic tract, Rhodopsin, Rod cell, Schiff base, Scotopic vision, Sensory nervous system, Signal transduction, Simple eye in invertebrates, Sodium, Sodium channel, Soma (biology), Stimulus (physiology), Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Tawny owl, Transducin, Trichromacy, Visual acuity, Visual impairment, Visual perception, Visual phototransduction, Visual system, Wavelength. Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
A bipolar neuron or bipolar cell, is a type of neuron which has two extensions.
A blind spot, scotoma, is an obscurity of the visual field.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Contrast is the difference in luminance or colour that makes an object (or its representation in an image or display) distinguishable.
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.
Edge detection includes a variety of mathematical methods that aim at identifying points in a digital image at which the image brightness changes sharply or, more formally, has discontinuities.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is an Austrian-American neuroscientist and a University Professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University.
The fovea centralis is a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN; also called the lateral geniculate body or lateral geniculate complex) is a relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In photometry, luminous intensity is a measure of the wavelength-weighted power emitted by a light source in a particular direction per unit solid angle, based on the luminosity function, a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye.
Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.
Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.
The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.
Mesopic vision is a combination of photopic vision and scotopic vision in low but not quite dark lighting situations.
A metabotropic receptor is a type of membrane receptor of eukaryotic cells that acts through a second messenger.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
Neuroepithelial cells are the "stem cells" of the nervous system, deriving from actual stem cells in several different stages of neural development.
Neuronal noise or neural noise refers to the random intrinsic electrical fluctuations within neuronal networks.
The Neuroscience Information Framework is a repository of global neuroscience web resources, including experimental, clinical, and translational neuroscience databases, knowledge bases, atlases, and genetic/genomic resources and provides many authoritative links throughout the neuroscience portal of Wikipedia.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.
The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell signaling system present in most multicellular organisms.
Nyctalopia, also called night-blindness, is a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in relatively low light.
The color opponent process is a color theory that states that the human visual system interprets information about color by processing signals from cones and rods in an antagonistic manner.
Opsins are a group of proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
Optical resolution describes the ability of an imaging system to resolve detail in the object that is being imaged.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme that breaks a phosphodiester bond.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photopic vision is the vision of the eye under well-lit conditions (luminance level 10 to 108 cd/m2).
Photopsins (also known as Cone opsins) are the photoreceptor proteins found in the cone cells of the retina that are the basis of color vision.
Photoreceptor proteins are light-sensitive proteins involved in the sensing and response to light in a variety of organisms.
Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons, especially visible light.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide also known as PACAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADCYAP1 gene.
The pretectal area, or pretectum, is a midbrain structure composed of seven nuclei and comprises part of the subcortical visual system.
First published in 1981 by Elsevier, Principles of Neural Science is an influential neuroscience textbook edited by Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, and Thomas M. Jessell.
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the retina in the back of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness.
Pupillary reflex refers to one of the reflexes associated with pupillary function.
The receptive field of an individual sensory neuron is the particular region of the sensory space (e.g., the body surface, or the visual field) in which a stimulus will modify the firing of that neuron.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
The relatively static membrane potential of quiescent cells is called the resting membrane potential (or resting voltage), as opposed to the specific dynamic electrochemical phenomena called action potential and graded membrane potential.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
As a part of the retina, bipolar cells exist between photoreceptors (rod cells and cone cells) and ganglion cells.
Horizontal cells are the laterally interconnecting neurons having cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer of the retina of vertebrate eyes.
Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.
A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye.
Retinal mosaic is the name given to the distribution of any particular type of neuron across any particular layer in the retina.
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic disorder of the eyes that causes loss of vision.
The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) is a photic neural input pathway involved in the circadian rhythms of mammals.
Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
A Schiff base (named after Hugo Schiff) is a compound with the general structure R2C.
Scotopic vision is the vision of the eye under low-light levels.
The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.
The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), neurocyton, or cell body is the bulbous, non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.
The tawny owl or brown owl (Strix aluco) is a stocky, medium-sized owl commonly found in woodlands across much of Eurasia.
Transducin (Gt) is a protein naturally expressed in vertebrate retina rods and cones and it is very important in vertebrate phototransduction.
Trichromacy or trichromatism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye.
Visual acuity (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision.
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
Visual phototransduction is the sensory transduction of the visual system.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Cones and rods, Dark current (biochemistry), Light sensitive cell, Light sensitive cells, Photoreception, Photoreceptor cells, Receptor layer of retina, Retinal elements, Retinal visual cell, Retinal visual cells, Rods and cones, Vertebrate photoreceptor.