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Photoreceptor protein

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Photoreceptor proteins are light-sensitive proteins involved in the sensing and response to light in a variety of organisms. [1]

39 relations: Bacteria, Bacteriorhodopsin, Bilin (biochemistry), Channelrhodopsin, Circadian clock, Circadian rhythm, Cone cell, Cryptochrome, Cyanobacteriochrome, Eyespot apparatus, Flavin group, Flavoprotein, Halorhodopsin, Light-dependent reactions, Melanopsin, OPN5, Photoisomerization, Photomorphogenesis, Photoperiodism, Photopigment, Photopsin, Photoreceptor cell, Phototaxis, Phototropin, Phototropism, Phytochrome, Protein, Protein kinase C, Proteorhodopsin, Retina, Retinal, Retinylidene protein, Rhodopsin, Rod cell, Signal transduction, Ultraviolet, UVR8, Visual perception, Visual phototransduction.


Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacteriorhodopsin is a protein used by Archaea, most notably by Halobacteria, a class of the Euryarchaeota.

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Bilin (biochemistry)

Bilins, bilanes or bile pigments are biological pigments formed in many organisms as a metabolic product of certain porphyrins.

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Channelrhodopsins are a subfamily of retinylidene proteins (rhodopsins) that function as light-gated ion channels.

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Circadian clock

A circadian clock, or circadian oscillator, is a biochemical oscillator that cycles with a stable phase and is synchronized with solar time.

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Circadian rhythm

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.

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Cone cell

Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).

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Cryptochromes (from the Greek κρυπτός χρώμα, "hidden colour") are a class of flavoproteins that are sensitive to blue light.

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Cyanobacteriochromes are phytochrome-related photoreceptor proteins found only in the cyanobacteria.

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Eyespot apparatus

The eyespot apparatus (or stigma) is a photoreceptive organelle found in the flagellate or (motile) cells of green algae and other unicellular photosynthetic organisms such as euglenids.

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Flavin group

Flavin (from Latin flavus, "yellow") is the common name for a group of organic compounds based on pteridine, formed by the tricyclic heterocycle isoalloxazine.

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Flavoproteins are proteins that contain a nucleic acid derivative of riboflavin: the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN).

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Halorhodopsin is a light-gated ion pump, specific for chloride ions, found in archaea, known as halobacteria.

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Light-dependent reactions

In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions take place on the thylakoid membranes.

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Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.

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Neuropsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPN5 gene.

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In chemistry, photoisomerization is a molecular behavior in which structural change between isomers is caused by photoexcitation.

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In developmental biology, photomorphogenesis is light-mediated development, where plant growth patterns respond to the light spectrum.

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Photoperiodism is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night.

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Photopigments are unstable pigments that undergo a chemical change when they absorb light.

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Photopsins (also known as Cone opsins) are the photoreceptor proteins found in the cone cells of the retina that are the basis of color vision.

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Photoreceptor cell

A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.

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Phototaxis is a kind of taxis, or locomotory movement, that occurs when a whole organism moves towards or away from stimulus of light.

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Phototropins are photoreceptor proteins (more specifically, flavoproteins) that mediate phototropism responses in higher plants.

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Phototropism is the growth of an organism which responds to a light stimulus.

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Phytochromes are a class of photoreceptor in plants, bacteria and fungi use to detect light.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein kinase C

Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC, is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.

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Proteorhodopsin (also known as pRhodopsin) is a family of over 50 photoactive retinylidene proteins, a larger family of transmembrane proteins that use retinal as a chromophore for light-mediated functionality, in this case, a proton pump.

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The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.

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Retinylidene protein

Retinylidene protein, is a family of proteins that use retinal as a chromophore for light reception.

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Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.

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Rod cell

Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.

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Signal transduction

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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UV-B resistance 8 (UVR8) also known as ultraviolet-B receptor UVR8 is an UV-B – sensing protein found in plants and possibly other sources.

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Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

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Visual phototransduction

Visual phototransduction is the sensory transduction of the visual system.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoreceptor_protein

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