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Photoreceptor protein

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Photoreceptor proteins are light-sensitive proteins involved in the sensing and response to light in a variety of organisms. [1]

39 relations: Bacteria, Bacteriorhodopsin, Bilin (biochemistry), Channelrhodopsin, Circadian clock, Circadian rhythm, Cone cell, Cryptochrome, Cyanobacteriochrome, Eyespot apparatus, Flavin group, Flavoprotein, Halorhodopsin, Light-dependent reactions, Melanopsin, OPN5, Photoisomerization, Photomorphogenesis, Photoperiodism, Photopigment, Photopsin, Photoreceptor cell, Phototaxis, Phototropin, Phototropism, Phytochrome, Protein, Protein kinase C, Proteorhodopsin, Retina, Retinal, Retinylidene protein, Rhodopsin, Rod cell, Signal transduction, Ultraviolet, UVR8, Visual perception, Visual phototransduction.

Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacteriorhodopsin

Bacteriorhodopsin is a protein used by Archaea, most notably by Halobacteria, a class of the Euryarchaeota.

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Bilin (biochemistry)

Bilins, bilanes or bile pigments are biological pigments formed in many organisms as a metabolic product of certain porphyrins.

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Channelrhodopsin

Channelrhodopsins are a subfamily of retinylidene proteins (rhodopsins) that function as light-gated ion channels.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Circadian clock

A circadian clock, or circadian oscillator, is a biochemical oscillator that cycles with a stable phase and is synchronized with solar time.

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Circadian rhythm

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.

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Cone cell

Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).

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Cryptochrome

Cryptochromes (from the Greek κρυπτός χρώμα, "hidden colour") are a class of flavoproteins that are sensitive to blue light.

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Cyanobacteriochrome

Cyanobacteriochromes are phytochrome-related photoreceptor proteins found only in the cyanobacteria.

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Eyespot apparatus

The eyespot apparatus (or stigma) is a photoreceptive organelle found in the flagellate or (motile) cells of green algae and other unicellular photosynthetic organisms such as euglenids.

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Flavin group

Flavin (from Latin flavus, "yellow") is the common name for a group of organic compounds based on pteridine, formed by the tricyclic heterocycle isoalloxazine.

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Flavoprotein

Flavoproteins are proteins that contain a nucleic acid derivative of riboflavin: the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN).

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Halorhodopsin

Halorhodopsin is a light-gated ion pump, specific for chloride ions, found in archaea, known as halobacteria.

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Light-dependent reactions

In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions take place on the thylakoid membranes.

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Melanopsin

Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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OPN5

Neuropsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPN5 gene.

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Photoisomerization

In chemistry, photoisomerization is a molecular behavior in which structural change between isomers is caused by photoexcitation.

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Photomorphogenesis

In developmental biology, photomorphogenesis is light-mediated development, where plant growth patterns respond to the light spectrum.

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Photoperiodism

Photoperiodism is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night.

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Photopigment

Photopigments are unstable pigments that undergo a chemical change when they absorb light.

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Photopsin

Photopsins (also known as Cone opsins) are the photoreceptor proteins found in the cone cells of the retina that are the basis of color vision.

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Photoreceptor cell

A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.

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Phototaxis

Phototaxis is a kind of taxis, or locomotory movement, that occurs when a whole organism moves towards or away from stimulus of light.

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Phototropin

Phototropins are photoreceptor proteins (more specifically, flavoproteins) that mediate phototropism responses in higher plants.

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Phototropism

Phototropism is the growth of an organism which responds to a light stimulus.

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Phytochrome

Phytochromes are a class of photoreceptor in plants, bacteria and fungi use to detect light.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein kinase C

Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 2.7.11.13), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.

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Proteorhodopsin

Proteorhodopsin (also known as pRhodopsin) is a family of over 50 photoactive retinylidene proteins, a larger family of transmembrane proteins that use retinal as a chromophore for light-mediated functionality, in this case, a proton pump.

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Retina

The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Retinal

Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.

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Retinylidene protein

Retinylidene protein, is a family of proteins that use retinal as a chromophore for light reception.

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Rhodopsin

Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.

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Rod cell

Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.

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Signal transduction

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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UVR8

UV-B resistance 8 (UVR8) also known as ultraviolet-B receptor UVR8 is an UV-B – sensing protein found in plants and possibly other sources.

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Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

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Visual phototransduction

Visual phototransduction is the sensory transduction of the visual system.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoreceptor_protein

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