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Index Phragmites

Phragmites is a genus of four species of large perennial grasses found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world. [1]

107 relations: Aaru, Acrocephalus (bird), Albrecht Wilhelm Roth, Alkali, Amsterdam, Anders Jahan Retzius, Antonio José Cavanilles, Aquatic plant, Arundo donax, Asia, Basket, Bearded reedling, Biodiversity, Bioremediation, Biotransformation, Bird, Blaise Pascal, Botanical name, Brackish water, British Isles, Carl Bernhard von Trinius, Carl Borivoj Presl, Carl Linnaeus, Clarinet, Constructed wetland, Culm (botany), Cyperus papyrus, David Unaipon, Deben Estuary, Egypt, Ernst Gottlieb von Steudel, Estuary, Eurasian bittern, Europe, Fauna, Fishing rod, Flower, France, Gallic acid, Grassland, Grazing, Grazing marsh, Greywater, Groundwater recharge, Habitat, Hinrich Lichtenstein, Hungary, Introduced species, Invasive species, Iran, ..., Irrigation, Jean de La Fontaine, Johann Jacob Roemer, Josef August Schultes, Juybar, Leaf, Ligule, Livestock, London, Louisiana, Mason bee, Mesoxalic acid, Michel Adanson, Midas, Middle East, Mississippi Delta, Monoculture, Morphology (biology), Moses, Native plant, Netherlands, Nipponaclerda biwakoensis, North America, Oak, Oboe, Orchidaceae, Panicle, Paper, Pass a Loutre Wildlife Management Area, Perennial plant, Philippines, Phytoremediation, Plant nutrition, Poaceae, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Reed (plant), Reed bed, Reed boat, Reed mat (craft), Romania, Root, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Sipsi, Spartina alterniflora, Spear, Stolon, Subspecies, Typha, Ultraviolet, United States National Agricultural Library, Virginia, Wastewater, Wetland, Wheat, Wild rice, William C. Sturtevant, Zurna. Expand index (57 more) »


In ancient Egyptian mythology, the fields of Aaru (jꜣrw "Reeds, rushes"), known also as sḫt-jꜣrw or the Field of Reeds, are the heavenly paradise where Osiris rules once he had displaced Anubis in the Ogdoad.

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Acrocephalus (bird)

The Acrocephalus warblers are small, insectivorous passerine birds belonging to the genus Acrocephalus.

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Albrecht Wilhelm Roth

Albrecht Wilhelm Roth (6 January 1757 – 16 October 1834) was a physician and botanist born in Dötlingen, Germany.

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In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

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Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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Anders Jahan Retzius

Anders Jahan Retzius (3 October 1742 – 6 October 1821) was a Swedish chemist, botanist and entomologist.

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Antonio José Cavanilles

Antonio José Cavanilles (16 January 1745 – 5 May 1804) was a leading Spanish taxonomic botanist of the 18th century.

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Aquatic plant

Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater).

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Arundo donax

Arundo donax, giant cane, is a tall perennial cane, is one of several so-called reed species.

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Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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A basket is a container which is traditionally constructed from stiff fibers, which can be made from a range of materials, including wood splints, runners, and cane.

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Bearded reedling

The bearded reedling (Panurus biarmicus) is a small, sexually dimorphic reed-bed passerine bird.

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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.

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Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.

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Botanical name

A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP).

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Brackish water

Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.

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British Isles

The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.

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Carl Bernhard von Trinius

Carl Bernhard von Trinius (6 March 1778, Eisleben – 12 March 1844, St. Petersburg) was a German-born botanist and physician.

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Carl Borivoj Presl

Karel Bořivoj Presl (17 February 1794 – 2 October 1852) was a Czech botanist.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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The clarinet is a musical-instrument family belonging to the group known as the woodwind instruments.

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Constructed wetland

A constructed wetland (CW) is an artificial wetland to treat municipal or industrial wastewater, greywater or stormwater runoff.

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Culm (botany)

Culm, in botanical context, originally referred to a stem of any type of plant.

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Cyperus papyrus

Cyperus papyrus (papyrus,papyrus sedge, paper reed, Indian matting plant, Nile grass) is a species of aquatic flowering plant belonging to the sedge family Cyperaceae.

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David Unaipon

No description.

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Deben Estuary

Deben Estuary is a 981.1 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) covering the River Deben and its banks from its mouth north of Felixstowe to Woodbridge in Suffolk.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Ernst Gottlieb von Steudel

Ernst Gottlieb von Steudel (30 May 1783, Esslingen am Neckar – 12 May 1856) was a German physician and an authority on grasses.

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An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.

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Eurasian bittern

The Eurasian bittern or great bittern (Botaurus stellaris) is a wading bird in the bittern subfamily (Botaurinae) of the heron family Ardeidae.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.

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Fishing rod

A fishing rod is a long, flexible rod used to catch fish.

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A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Gallic acid

Gallic acid (also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and other plants.

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Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.

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Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae.

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Grazing marsh

Grazing marsh is a British Isles term for flat, marshy grassland in polders.

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Greywater (also spelled graywater, grey water and gray water) or sullage is all wastewater generated in households or office buildings from streams without fecal contamination, i.e. all streams except for the wastewater from toilets.

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Groundwater recharge

Groundwater recharge or deep drainage or deep percolation is a hydrologic process where water moves downward from surface water to groundwater.

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In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.

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Hinrich Lichtenstein

Martin Hinrich Carl Lichtenstein (10 January 1780 – 2 September 1857) was a German physician, explorer, botanist and zoologist.

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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Introduced species

An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.

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Invasive species

An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.

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Jean de La Fontaine

Jean de La Fontaine (8 July 162113 April 1695) was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century.

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Johann Jacob Roemer

Johann Jacob Roemer (8 January 1763, Zurich – 15 January 1819) was a physician and professor of botany in Zurich, Switzerland.

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Josef August Schultes

Josef (Joseph) August Schultes (15 April 1773 in Vienna – 21 April 1831 in Landshut) was an Austrian botanist and professor from Vienna.

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Juybar (جويبار, also Romanized as Jūybār; also known as Bāghlū) is a city and capital of Juybar County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.

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A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.

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A ligule (from "strap", variant of lingula, from lingua "tongue") — is a thin outgrowth at the junction of leaf and leafstalk of many grasses (Poaceae) and sedges.

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Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Mason bee

Mason bee is a name now commonly used for species of bees in the genus Osmia, of the family Megachilidae.

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Mesoxalic acid

Mesoxalic acid, also called oxomalonic acid or ketomalonic acid, is an organic compound with formula C3H2O5 or HO-(C.

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Michel Adanson

Michel Adanson (7 April 17273 August 1806) was an 18th-century French botanist and naturalist, of Scottish descent.

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Midas (Μίδας) is the name of at least three members of the royal house of Phrygia.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Mississippi Delta

The Mississippi Delta, also known as the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta, is the distinctive northwest section of the U.S. state of Mississippi (and small portions of Arkansas and Louisiana) which lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers.

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Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop, plant, or livestock species, variety, or breed in a field or farming system at a time.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.

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Native plant

Native plants are plants indigenous to a given area in geologic time.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Nipponaclerda biwakoensis

Nipponaclerda biwakoensis is a scale insect originally described from Japan, and naturally occurring in China; in these countries it is most often associated with reeds in the genus Phragmites.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.

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Oboes are a family of double reed woodwind instruments.

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The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.

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A panicle is a much-branched inflorescence.

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Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

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Pass a Loutre Wildlife Management Area

Pass a Loutre Wildlife Management Area (WMA) is a protected wetland in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, United States.

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Perennial plant

A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Phytoremediation /ˌfaɪtəʊrɪˌmiːdɪˈeɪʃən/ refers to the technologies that use living plants to clean up soil, air, and water contaminated with hazardous contaminants.

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Plant nutrition

Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements and compounds necessary for plant growth, plant metabolism and their external supply.

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Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Reed (plant)

Reed is a common name for several tall, grass-like plants of wetlands.

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Reed bed

Reed beds are natural habitats found in floodplains, waterlogged depressions, and estuaries.

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Reed boat

Reed boats and rafts, along with dugout canoes and other rafts, are among the oldest known types of boats.

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Reed mat (craft)

Reed mats are handmade mats of plaited reed, made throughout most of Cambodia, India, and Thailand.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.

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Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (brand name Kew) is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

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The sipsi is a Turkish woodwind instrument.

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Spartina alterniflora

Spartina alterniflora, the smooth cordgrass, saltmarsh cordgrass, or salt-water cordgrass, is a perennial deciduous grass which is found in intertidal wetlands, especially estuarine salt marshes.

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A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.

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In biology, stolons (from Latin stolō "branch"), also known as runners, are horizontal connections between organisms.

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In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.

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Typha is a genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United States National Agricultural Library

The United States National Agricultural Library (NAL) is one of the world's largest agricultural research libraries, and serves as a national library of the United States and as the library of the United States Department of Agriculture.

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Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.

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Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.

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A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.

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Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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Wild rice

Wild rice (Ojibwe: Manoomin, Sanskrit: 'नीवार', IAST:; also called Canada rice, Indian rice, and water oats) are four species of grasses forming the genus Zizania, and the grain that can be harvested from them.

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William C. Sturtevant

William Curtis Sturtevant (1926 Morristown, New Jersey – March 2, 2007) was an anthropologist and ethnologist.

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The zurna (also called surnay, birbynė, lettish horn, zurla, surla, sornai, dili tuiduk, zournas, or zurma), is a wind instrument played in central Eurasia, ranging from the Balkans to Central Asia.

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Redirects here:

Arundo phragmites, Common Reed, Common reed, Common reed grass, Czernya, Norfolk reed, Oxyanthe, Phragmite, Phragmites altissimus, Phragmites australis, Phragmites berlandieri, Phragmites communis, Phragmites dioicus, Phragmites maximus, Phragmites vulgaris, Phragmyte, Roseau cane, Trichoon, Xenochloa.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phragmites

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