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Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.
The American Council on Exercise (ACE) is a nonprofit fitness certification, education and training provider with more than 73,000 certified professionals who hold more than 83,000 ACE certifications.
The American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) is a large American cancer research organization associated with the World Cancer Research Fund umbrella organization.
Anaerobic exercise is a physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form.
Aquajogging is a water sport and activity.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) refers to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity.
A century ride is a road cycling ride of 100 miles (160.9 km) or more within 12 hours, usually as a cycling club-sponsored event.
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
Diseases of affluence is a term sometimes given to selected diseases and other health conditions which are commonly thought to be a result of increasing wealth in a society.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
A fitness professional is a professional in the field of fitness and exercise, most often instruction (fitness instructor), including aerobics and yoga instructors and authors of fitness instruction books or manuals.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is a form of interval training, a cardiovascular exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less intense recovery periods, until too exhausted to continue.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The International Sports Sciences Association is an organization that operates as a teaching institution and certification agency for fitness trainers, aerobic instructors, and medical professionals.
Isometric exercise or isometrics are a type of strength training in which the joint angle and muscle length do not change during contraction (compared to concentric or eccentric contractions, called dynamic/isotonic movements).
Jogging is a form of trotting or running at a slow or leisurely pace.
Lifestyle is the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture.
The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
Middle-distance running events are track races longer than sprints, up to 3000 metres.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).
A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.
The National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM) is an American nonprofit fitness certification, education and training provider with more than 100,000 members.
The are numerous and involve a wide range of interrelated effects on brain structure, brain function, and cognition.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to exercise: Exercise – any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to sports: Sport – a physical activity that is governed by a set of rules or customs and often engaged in competitively, sports can be played on land, in water and in the air.
A personal trainer is an individual certified to have a varying degree of knowledge of general fitness involved in exercise prescription and instruction.
Plyometrics, also known as jump training or plyos, are exercises in which muscles exert maximum force in short intervals of time, with the goal of increasing power (speed-strength).
Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move rapidly on foot.
The social determinants of health are linked to the economic and social conditions and their distribution among the population that influence individual and group differences in health status.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
In strength training and fitness, the squat is a compound, full body exercise that trains primarily the muscles of the thighs, hips and buttocks, quadriceps femoris muscle (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius and rectus femoris), hamstrings, as well as strengthening the bones, ligaments and insertion of the tendons throughout the lower body.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through fresh or salt water, usually for recreation, sport, exercise, or survival.
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of ones arms and legs to move the body through water.
The systole is that part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood.
A test or examination (informally, exam or evaluation) is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs).
A treadmill is a device generally for walking or running or climbing while staying in the same place.
A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) is designed to test the muscular strength, endurance, and cardiovascular respiratory fitness of soldiers in the Army.
VO2 max (also maximal oxygen consumption, maximal oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity) is the maximum rate of oxygen consumption measured during incremental exercise (exercise of increasing intensity).
Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals.
Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 100 metres, or 100-metre dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions.
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