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Physical geography

Index Physical geography

Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography. [1]

171 relations: Africa, Al-Biruni, Alexander von Humboldt, Alfred Russel Wallace, Americas, Antarctica, Aquifer, Arnold Henry Guyot, Asia, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Australia, Avicenna, Bernhardus Varenius, Biogeochemical cycle, Biogeography, Biological oceanography, Biosphere, Built environment, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Carl Troll, Cartography, Charles Darwin, Chemical oceanography, Circa, Climate, Climatic Change (journal), Climatology, Coastal geography, Continental drift, Cosmos (Humboldt), Cryosphere, Cycle of erosion, Dansgaard–Oeschger event, Denudation, Desert, Earth Interactions, Earth science, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Earth system science, Ecohydrology, Ecology, Edaphology, Engineering, Environmental determinism, Environmental science, Environmental studies, Eratosthenes, Ernest Shackleton, Evolution, ..., Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, Fluvial, Fossil, Friedrich Ratzel, Geodesy, Geographic information science, Geography, Geography (Ptolemy), Geology, Geomatics, Geomorphology, Geomorphometry, Geophysical Research Letters, Georges Cuvier, Geosphere, Geostatistics, Gerardus Mercator, Glacier, Glaciology, Greenwood Publishing Group, Hans Oeschger, Henry Morton Stanley, Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, History of science, Holocene, Human geography, Hydrology, Hydrosphere, Ice, Ice sheet, Industrial Revolution, Infiltration (hydrology), Insular biogeography, Integrated geography, Isaiah Bowman, J Harlen Bretz, James Hutton, John Francon Williams, Journal of Biogeography, Journal of Climate, Journal of Hydrometeorology, Journal of Quaternary Science, Konstantin Glinka, Lake, Landform, Landscape ecology, Law of superposition, Limnology, List of environmental issues, Lithosphere, Louis Agassiz, Luis García Sainz, Marine geology, Mark Jefferson (geographer), Martín Fernández de Enciso, Mercator projection, Meteorology, Mikhail Lomonosov, Missoula Floods, Moscow State University, Muhammad al-Idrisi, Natural environment, Natural science, Nature (journal), Nicholas Shackleton, Oceanography, Palaeogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleomagnetism, Pedogenesis, Pedology, Phylogeography, Physical oceanography, Physiographic regions of the world, Phytogeography, Piri Reis, Piri Reis map, Plate tectonics, Polar Research, Princeton University Press, Ptolemy, Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, Quantitative revolution, Quaternary, Quaternary science, Remote sensing, Richard Chorley, River, Robert E. Horton, Samuel Baker, Scientific literature, Sea level rise, Siberia, Snow, Soil classification, Soil morphology, Soil science, Stadial, Stefan Rahmstorf, Strabo, Supercontinent, Surface runoff, Systems theory, Tabula Rogeriana, Tectonic uplift, The Book of Healing, The Professional Geographer, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Tropical cyclone rainfall climatology, Uniformitarianism, United States, Vasily Dokuchaev, Wallace Line, Walther Penck, Water cycle, Weathering, Willi Dansgaard, William Morris Davis, Wilson cycle, Wladimir Köppen, Zoogeography. Expand index (121 more) »


Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.

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Alexander von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.

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Alfred Russel Wallace

Alfred Russel Wallace (8 January 18237 November 1913) was an English naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist.

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The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.

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An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).

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Arnold Henry Guyot

Arnold Henry Guyot (September 28, 1807February 8, 1884) was a Swiss-American geologist and geographer.

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Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Bernhardus Varenius

Bernhardus Varenius (Bernhard Varen) (1622, Hitzacker, Lower Saxony1650) was a German geographer.

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Biogeochemical cycle

In geography and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.

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Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.

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Biological oceanography

Biological oceanography is the study of how organisms affect and are affected by the physics, chemistry, and geology of the oceanographic system.

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The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.

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Built environment

In social science, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to parks.

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Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

The Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society is a scientific journal published by the American Meteorological Society.

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Carl Troll

Carl Troll (24 December 1899 in Gabersee – 21 July 1975 in Bonn), was a German geographer, brother of botanist Wilhelm Troll.

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Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Chemical oceanography

Chemical oceanography is the study of ocean chemistry: the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth's oceans.

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Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.

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Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Climatic Change (journal)

Climatic Change is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media covering cross-disciplinary work on all aspects of climate change and variability.

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Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.

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Coastal geography

Coastal geography is the study of the constantly changing region between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology and oceanography) and the human geography (sociology and history) of the coast.

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Continental drift

Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.

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Cosmos (Humboldt)

Cosmos (in German Kosmos – Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung) is an influential treatise on science and nature written by the German scientist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt.

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The cryosphere (from the Greek κρύος kryos, "cold", "frost" or "ice" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "globe, ball") is those portions of Earth's surface where water is in solid form, including sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, and frozen ground (which includes permafrost).

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Cycle of erosion

The geographic cycle or cycle of erosion is an idealized model that explains the development of relief in landscapes.

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Dansgaard–Oeschger event

Dansgaard–Oeschger events (often abbreviated D–O events) are rapid climate fluctuations that occurred 25 times during the last glacial period.

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In geology, denudation involves the processes that cause the wearing away of the Earth's surface by moving water, by ice, by wind and by waves, leading to a reduction in elevation and in relief of landforms and of landscapes.

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A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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Earth Interactions

Earth Interactions (EI) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Meteorological Society, American Geophysical Union, and Association of American Geographers.

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Earth science

Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.

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Earth Surface Processes and Landforms

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms is the journal of the British Society for Geomorphology (BSG), formerly the British Geomorphological Research Group (BGRG) and is an international journal of geomorphology, publishing on all aspects of Earth Surface Science.

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Earth system science

Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences.

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Ecohydrology (from Greek οἶκος, oikos, "house(hold)"; ὕδωρ, hydōr, "water"; and -λογία, -logia) is an interdisciplinary field studying the interactions between water and ecosystems.

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Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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Edaphology (from Greek ἔδαφος, edaphos, "ground", and -λογία, -logia) is one of two main divisions of soil science, the other being pedology.

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Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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Environmental determinism

Environmental determinism (also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism) is the study of how the physical environment predisposes societies and states towards particular development trajectories.

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Environmental science

Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.

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Environmental studies

Environmental studies is a multidisciplinary academic field which systematically studies human interaction with the environment in the interests of solving complex problems.

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Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.

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Ernest Shackleton

Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was a polar explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic, and one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society

Fellowship of the Royal Geographical Society (FRGS) is a prestigious Fellowship granted by the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) that is open to those over the age of 21 who can demonstrate.

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In geography and geology, fluvial processes are associated with rivers and streams and the deposits and landforms created by them.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Friedrich Ratzel

Friedrich Ratzel (August 30, 1844 – August 9, 1904) was a German geographer and ethnographer, notable for first using the term Lebensraum ("living space") in the sense that the National Socialists later would.

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Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.

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Geographic information science

Geographic information science or geographical information science (GIScience) is the scientific discipline that studies data structures and computational techniques to capture, represent, process, and analyze geographic information.

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Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.

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Geography (Ptolemy)

The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.

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Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

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Geomatics (including geomatics engineering), also known as surveying engineering or geospatial science (including geospatial engineering and geospatial technology), is the discipline of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering geographic information or spatially referenced information.

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Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.

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Geomorphometry, or geomorphometrics, is the science of quantitative land surface analysis.

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Geophysical Research Letters

Geophysical Research Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union that was established in 1974.

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Georges Cuvier

Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".

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There are several conflicting definitions for geosphere.

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Geostatistics is a branch of statistics focusing on spatial or spatiotemporal datasets.

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Gerardus Mercator

Gerardus Mercator (5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century German-Flemish cartographer, geographer and cosmographer.

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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Hans Oeschger

Hans Oeschger (2 April 1927, Ottenbach – 25 December 1998, Bern) was the founder of the Division of Climate and Environmental Physics at the Physics Institute of the University of Bern in 1963 and director until his retirement in 1992.

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Henry Morton Stanley

Sir Henry Morton Stanley (born John Rowlands; 28 January 1841 – 10 May 1904) was a Welsh journalist and explorer who was famous for his exploration of central Africa and his search for missionary and explorer David Livingstone.

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Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration

The Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration was an era which began at the end of the 19th century, and ended after the First World War; the Shackleton–Rowett Expedition of 1921–22 is often cited by historians as the dividing line between the "Heroic" and "Mechanical" ages.

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History of science

The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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Human geography

Human geography is the branch of geography that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place.

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Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.

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The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.

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Ice is water frozen into a solid state.

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Ice sheet

An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Infiltration (hydrology)

Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil.

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Insular biogeography

Insular biogeography or island biogeography is a field within biogeography that examines the factors that affect the species richness of isolated natural communities.

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Integrated geography

Integrated geography (also referred to as integrative geography, environmental geography or human–environment geography) is the branch of geography that describes and explains the spatial aspects of interactions between human individuals or societies and their natural environment.

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Isaiah Bowman

Isaiah Bowman, AB, Ph.

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J Harlen Bretz

J Harlen Bretz (September 2, 1882 – February 3, 1981) was an American geologist, best known for his research that led to the acceptance of the Missoula Floods and for his work on caves.

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James Hutton

James Hutton (3 June 1726 – 26 March 1797) was a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist.

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John Francon Williams

John Francon Williams FRGS (1854 – 4 September 1911) was a Welsh journalist, writer, geographer, historian, cartographer and inventor, born in Llanllechid, Caernarvonshire.

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Journal of Biogeography

The Journal of Biogeography is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in biogeography that was established in 1974.

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Journal of Climate

The Journal of Climate (JCLI) is a scientific journal published semi-monthly by the American Meteorological Society.

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Journal of Hydrometeorology

The Journal of Hydrometeorology is a scientific journal published by the American Meteorological Society.

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Journal of Quaternary Science

The Journal of Quaternary Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal published on behalf of the Quaternary Research Association.

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Konstantin Glinka

Konstantin Dmitrievich Glinka (1867–1927) was a prominent Russian soil scientist.

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A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.

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A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body.

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Landscape ecology

Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems.

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Law of superposition

The law of superposition is an axiom that forms one of the bases of the sciences of geology, archaeology, and other fields dealing with geological stratigraphy.

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Limnology (from Greek λίμνη, limne, "lake" and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), is the study of inland aquatic ecosystems.

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List of environmental issues

This is an alphabetical list of environmental issues, harmful aspects of human activity on the biophysical environment.

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A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.

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Louis Agassiz

Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (May 28, 1807December 14, 1873) was a Swiss-American biologist and geologist recognized as an innovative and prodigious scholar of Earth's natural history.

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Luis García Sainz

Luis García Sáinz (Saragossa, 1894-Saragossa, March 11, 1965) was a pioneer of physical geography in Spain.

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Marine geology

Marine geology or geological oceanography is the study of the history and structure of the ocean floor.

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Mark Jefferson (geographer)

Mark Jefferson (1863-1949) was the chief cartographer of the American Delegation to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.

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Martín Fernández de Enciso

Martín Fernández de Enciso (c. 1470 – 1528) was a navigator and geographer from Seville, Spain.

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Mercator projection

The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569.

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Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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Mikhail Lomonosov

Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (ləmɐˈnosəf|a.

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Missoula Floods

The Missoula Floods (also known as the Spokane Floods or the Bretz Floods) refer to the cataclysmic floods that swept periodically across eastern Washington and down the Columbia River Gorge at the end of the last ice age.

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Moscow State University

Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.

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Muhammad al-Idrisi

Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II.

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Natural environment

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.

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Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nicholas Shackleton

Sir Nicholas John Shackleton FRS (23 June 1937 – 24 January 2006) was an English geologist and paleoclimatologist who specialised in the Quaternary Period.

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Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.

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Palaeogeography (or paleogeography) is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes.

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Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.

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This term is also sometimes used for natural remanent magnetization. Paleomagnetism (or palaeomagnetism in the United Kingdom) is the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials.

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Pedogenesis (from the Greek pedo-, or pedon, meaning 'soil, earth,' and genesis, meaning 'origin, birth') (also termed soil development, soil evolution, soil formation, and soil genesis) is the process of soil formation as regulated by the effects of place, environment, and history.

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Pedology (from Greek: πέδον, pedon, "soil"; and λόγος, logos, "study") is the study of soils in their natural environment.

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Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals.

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Physical oceanography

Physical oceanography is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical properties of ocean waters.

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Physiographic regions of the world

The physiographic regions of the world are a means of defining the Earth's landforms into distinct regions, based upon the classic three-tiered approach by Nevin Fenneman in 1916, that further defines landforms into: 1.

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Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.

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Piri Reis

Ahmed Muhiddin Piri (1465/70–1553), better known as Piri Reis (Reis or Hacı Ahmet Muhittin Pîrî Bey), was an Ottoman admiral, navigator, geographer and cartographer.

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Piri Reis map

The Piri Reis map is a world map compiled in 1513 from military intelligence by the Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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Polar Research

Polar Research is a biannual peer-reviewed scientific journal covering natural and social scientific research on the polar regions.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky

Pyotr Petrovich Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky (Пётр Петрович Семёнов-Тян-Шанский) (2 January (New style: 14 January), 1827 – 26 February (New style: March 11), 1914) was a Russian geographer and statistician who managed the Russian Geographical Society for more than 40 years.

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Quantitative revolution

The quantitative revolution (QR)n was a paradigm shift that sought to develop a more rigorous and systematic methodology for the discipline of geography.

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Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).

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Quaternary science

Quaternary science is an inter-disciplinary field of study focusing on the Quaternary period, which encompasses the last 2.6 million years.

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Remote sensing

Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.

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Richard Chorley

Richard John Chorley (4 September 1927 – 12 May 2002) was an English geographer, and Professor of Geography at Cambridge University, known as leading figure in quantitative geography in the late 20th century, who played an instrumental role in bringing in the use of systems theory to geography.

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A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.

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Robert E. Horton

Born in Parma, Michigan, he earned his B.S. from Albion College in 1897.

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Samuel Baker

Sir Samuel White Baker, KCB, FRS, FRGS (8 June 1821 – 30 December 1893) was an English explorer, officer, naturalist, big game hunter, engineer, writer and abolitionist.

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Scientific literature

Scientific literature comprises scholarly publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences, and within an academic field, often abbreviated as the literature.

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Sea level rise

A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.

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Soil classification

Soil classification deals with the systematic categorization of soils based on distinguishing characteristics as well as criteria that dictate choices in use.

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Soil morphology

Soil morphology is the field observable attributes of the soil within the various soil horizons and the description of the kind and arrangement of the horizons.

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Soil science

Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.

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Stadials and interstadials are phases dividing the Quaternary period, or the last 2.6 million years.

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Stefan Rahmstorf

Stefan Rahmstorf (born 22 February 1960) is a German oceanographer and climatologist.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.

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Surface runoff

Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.

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Systems theory

Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems.

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Tabula Rogeriana

The Nuzhat al-mushtāq fi'khtirāq al-āfāq (نزهة المشتاق في اختراق الآفاق, lit. "the book of pleasant journeys into faraway lands"), most often known as the Tabula Rogeriana (lit. "The Book of Roger" in Latin), is a description of the world and world map created by the Arab geographer, Muhammad al-Idrisi, in 1154.

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Tectonic uplift

Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean Earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.

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The Book of Healing

The Book of Healing (Arabic: کتاب الشفاء Kitāb al-Šifāʾ, Latin: Sufficientia) is a scientific and philosophical encyclopedia written by Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) from ancient Persia, near Bukhara in Greater Khorasan.

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The Professional Geographer

The Professional Geographer is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal publishing short articles on all aspects of geography.

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Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

The Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Royal Geographical Society.

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Tropical cyclone rainfall climatology

A tropical cyclone rainfall climatology is developed to determine rainfall characteristics of past tropical cyclones.

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Uniformitarianism, also known as the Doctrine of Uniformity,, "The assumption of spatial and temporal invariance of natural laws is by no means unique to geology since it amounts to a warrant for inductive inference which, as Bacon showed nearly four hundred years ago, is the basic mode of reasoning in empirical science.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Vasily Dokuchaev

Vasily Vasilyevich Dokuchaev (Васи́лий Васи́льевич Докуча́ев) (March 1, 1846 in Milyukovo, Smolensk Governorate – November 8, 1903 in Saint Petersburg) was a Russian geologist and geographer who is credited with laying the foundations of soil science.

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Wallace Line

The Wallace Line or Wallace's Line is a faunal boundary line drawn in 1859 by the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace and named by Thomas Henry Huxley, that separates the ecozones of Asia and Wallacea, a transitional zone between Asia and Australia.

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Walther Penck

Walther Penck (30 August 1888 – 29 September 1923) was a geologist and geomorphologist known for his theories on landscape evolution.

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Water cycle

The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.

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Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.

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Willi Dansgaard

Willi Dansgaard (August 30, 1922 – January 8, 2011) was a Danish paleoclimatologist.

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William Morris Davis

William Morris Davis (February 12, 1850 – February 5, 1934) was an American geographer, geologist, geomorphologist, and meteorologist, often called the "father of American geography".

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Wilson cycle

The Wilson cycle is a model where a continent rifts, forms an ocean basin in-between, and then begins a process of convergence that leads to the collision of the two plates and closure of the ocean.

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Wladimir Köppen

Wladimir Peter Köppen (Влади́мир Петро́вич Кёппен, Vladimir Petrovich Kyoppen; 7 October 1846 – 22 June 1940) was a Russian-German geographer, meteorologist, climatologist and botanist.

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Zoogeography is the branch of the science of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution (present and past) of animal species.

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Geosystems, Natural geography, Physical Geography, Physiogeographical, Physiogeography, Physiogeological, Physiographic, Physiography.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_geography

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