149 relations: Advanced practice registered nurse, Alternative medicine, American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Osteopathic Association, Analytical skill, Anatomy, Ancient Greek, Art, Australia, Ayurveda, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Bangladesh, Barber surgeon, Biomedicine, Bodymind, Brazil, Canada, Chiropractic, Chiropractic education, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Clinic, Commonwealth of Nations, Competence (human resources), Course (education), Craft, Critical thinking, Dentist, Deponent verb, Discipline (academia), Disease, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Nursing Practice, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Doctor's visit, Doctor–patient relationship, Ethics, European Research Council, Evidence-based medicine, Family medicine, France, General Medical Council, General practitioner, Geriatrics, Germany, Glossary of medicine, Harry S. Truman, Health, Health care, Henry VIII of England, ..., Herbalism, Hippocratic Oath, Homeopathy, Hong Kong, Hospital, Hospital medicine, India, Indonesia, Injury, Internal medicine, International medical graduate, Internship (medicine), Ireland, Italy, Japan, Job security, Knowledge, Latin, Licensure, Life expectancy, List of medical schools, List of physicians, Luke Fildes, Malpractice, Master of Science in Nursing, Materialism, Medic, Medical anthropology, Medical diagnosis, Medical education, Medical ethics, Medical jurisprudence, Medical license, Medical model, Medical school, Medicine, National Practitioner Data Bank, New Zealand, Norway, Nurse practitioner, Nursing, Nursing theory, Organ (anatomy), Pakistan, Participle, Patient, Pediatrics, Physical examination, Physician supply, Physician-scientist, Physicians in the United States, Physicist, Physiology, Pneumoconiosis, Pneumonia, Podiatrist, Portugal, Profession, Professional, Reductionism, Regius Professor of Physic (Cambridge), Republic of Ireland, Residency (medicine), Richard Grossinger, Royal Australasian College of Physicians, Royal College of Physicians, Royal College of Surgeons, Science, Secondary school, Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, Singapore, Social status, South Africa, Spain, Specialty (medicine), Sri Lanka, Suicide among doctors, Surgeon, Surgery, System, Taiwan, Tertiary education, Therapy, Traditional medicine, Undergraduate education, United Kingdom, United States, United States Medical Licensing Examination, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, University, University of Cambridge, University of Zurich, Vitalism, West African Ebola virus epidemic, Western culture, William Osler, World view, Yunani medicine, Zimbabwe. Expand index (99 more) » « Shrink index
An advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) is a nurse with post-graduate education in nursing.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
The American College of Physicians (ACP) is a national organization of internal medicineAmerican Board of Medical Specialties -. Retrieved 20 October 2014 physicians (internists)Mercy Cedar Rapids -. Retrieved 20 October 2014—specialists who apply scientific knowledge and clinical expertise to the diagnosis, treatment, and compassionate care of adults across the spectrum from health to complex illness.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
The American Osteopathic Association (AOA) is the representative member organization for the more than 129,000 osteopathic medical doctors (D.O.s) and osteopathic medical students in the United States.
Analytical skill is the ability to use critical thinking and problem-solving skills in order to find a solution or complete an exercise.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in '''Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae'''. (abbreviated in many ways, e.g. MBBS, MB ChB, MB BCh, MB BChir (Cantab), BM BCh (Oxon), BMBS), are the two first professional degrees in medicine and surgery awarded upon graduation from medical school by universities in countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The barber surgeon, one of the most common European medical practitioners of the Middle Ages, was generally charged with caring for soldiers during and after battle.
Biomedicine (i.e. medical biology) is a branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological principles to clinical practice.
Bodymind is an approach to understand the relationship between the human body and mind in which they are seen as a single integrated unit.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine mostly concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine.
Chiropractic education trains students in chiropractic, a form of alternative medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine under the belief that such a disorder affects general health via the nervous system.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Competence is the ability of an individual to do a job properly.
In higher education in Canada and the United States, a course is a unit of teaching that typically lasts one academic term, is led by one or more instructors (teachers or professors), and has a fixed roster of students.
A craft or trade is a pastime or a profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work.
Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment.
A dentist, also known as a dental surgeon, is a surgeon who specializes in dentistry, the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity.
In linguistics, a deponent verb is a verb that is active in meaning but takes its form from a different voice, most commonly the middle or passive.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.
The Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) is a terminal professional degree in nursing.
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) is a professional doctoral degree for physicians and surgeons offered by medical schools in the United States.
A doctor's visit, also known as "physician office visit" or "ward round", is a meeting between a patient with a physician to get health advice or treatment for a symptom or condition.
The doctor–patient relationship is a central part of health care and the practice of medicine.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
The European Research Council (ERC) is a public body for funding of scientific and technological research conducted within the European Union (EU).
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.
Family medicine (FM), formerly family practice (FP), is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages; the specialist is named a family physician or family doctor.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The General Medical Council (GMC) is a public body that maintains the official register of medical practitioners within the United Kingdom.
In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.
Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
This glossary of medical terms is a list of definitions about medicine, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
The Hippocratic Oath is an oath historically taken by physicians.
Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
Hospital medicine in the United States is the medical specialty concerned with the care of acutely ill hospitalized patients.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
An international medical graduate (IMG), earlier known as a foreign medical graduate (FMG), is a physician who has graduated from a medical school outside of the country where he or she intends to practice.
Medical intern is a term used in some countries to describe a physician in training who has completed medical school and has a medical degree, but does not yet have a full license to practice medicine unsupervised.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Job security is the probability that an individual will keep their job; a job with a high level of job security is such that a person with the job would have a small chance of becoming unemployed.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Licensure means a restricted practice or a restriction on the use of an occupational title, requiring a license.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Medical schools are developed, monitored and credentialed by national organizations in each country.
This is a list of famous physicians in history.
Sir Samuel Luke Fildes (3 October 1843 – 28 February 1927) was an English painter and illustrator born in Liverpool and trained at the South Kensington and Royal Academy schools.
In the law of torts, malpractice, also known as professional negligence, is an "instance of negligence or incompetence on the part of a professional".
A Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) is an advanced-level postgraduate degree for registered nurses and is considered an entry-level degree for nurse educators and managers.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
A medic is an umbrella term for a person involved in medicine.
Medical anthropology studies "human health and disease, health care systems, and biocultural adaptation".
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner; either the initial training to become a physician (i.e., medical school and internship), or additional training thereafter (e.g., residency, fellowship and continuing medical education).
Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.
Medical jurisprudence or legal medicine is the branch of science and medicine involving the study and application of scientific and medical knowledge to legal problems, such as inquests, and in the field of law.
A medical license is an occupational license that permits a person to legally practice medicine.
Medical model is the term coined by psychiatrist R. D. Laing in his The Politics of the Family and Other Essays (1971), for the "set of procedures in which all doctors are trained".
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
The National Practitioner Data Bank is a United States Government program that the collects and discloses, only to authorized users, negative information on health care practitioners, including malpractice awards, loss of license or exclusion from participation in Medicare or Medicaid.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nurse practitioners are healthcare professionals educated and trained to provide health promotion and maintenance through the diagnosis and treatment of acute illness and chronic conditions.
Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.
Nursing theory is defined as ‘a creative and rigorous structuring of ideas that project a tentative, purposeful, and systematic view of phenomena’.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
A patient is any recipient of health care services.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
Physician supply refers to the number of trained physicians working in a health care system or active in the labour market.
A physician-scientist is a holder of a degree in medicine and science who invests significant time and professional effort in scientific research and spends correspondingly less time in direct clinical practice compared to other physicians.
Physicians in the United States are doctors that practice medicine for the human body.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Pneumoconiosis is an occupational lung disease and a restrictive lung disease caused by the inhalation of dust, often in mines and from agriculture.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
A podiatrist, also known as a podiatric physician (/poʊˈdaɪətrɪst/ poh-dye-eh-trist) or "foot and ankle surgeon", is a medical doctor devoted to the study and medical treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle and lower extremity.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain.
A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity.
Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
The Regius Professorship of Physic is one of the oldest professorships at the University of Cambridge, founded by Henry VIII in 1540.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Residency is a stage of graduate medical training.
Richard Grossinger (born Richard Towers) (born 1944) is an American writer, anthropologist, and founder of North Atlantic Books in Berkeley, California.
The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) is a not-for-profit professional organisation responsible for training, educating, and representing 17,000 physicians and paediatricians and 8000 trainees in 33 medical specialties in Australia and New Zealand.
The Royal College of Physicians is a British professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, chiefly through the accreditation of physicians by examination.
A Royal College of Surgeons or Royal Surgical College is a type of organisation found in many present and former members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) is an English language dictionary published by the Oxford University Press.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Suicide among doctors refers to physicians or doctors in training dying by suicide.
In medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgical operations.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
Undergraduate education is the post-secondary education previous to the postgraduate education.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) is a three-step examination for medical licensure in the United States and is sponsored by the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME).
The Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (UQTR) (English: University of Quebec at Trois-Rivières), established in 1969 and located in Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada, is a public university within the Université du Québec network.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Zurich (UZH, Universität Zürich), located in the city of Zürich, is the largest university in Switzerland, with over 25,000 students.
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".
The West African Ebola virus epidemic (2013–2016) was the most widespread outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history—causing major loss of life and socioeconomic disruption in the region, mainly in the countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet, (July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a Canadian physician and one of the four founding professors of Johns Hopkins Hospital.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
"Yunani" or "Unani medicine" (Urdu: طب یونانی tibb yūnānī) is the term for Perso-Arabic traditional medicine as practiced in Mughal India and in Muslim culture in South Asia and modern day Central Asia.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
Doctor (medicine), Doctor behaviour, Doctress, Healthcareers, Medical Doctor, Medical Officer, Medical doctor, Medical officer, Medical practitioner, Medical profession, Physicians, Phyſician, Phyſicians, Registered Medical Practitioner, Registered medical practitioner.