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Physics (Aristotle)

Index Physics (Aristotle)

The Physics (Greek: Φυσικὴ ἀκρόασις Phusike akroasis; Latin: Physica, or Naturalis Auscultationes, possibly meaning "lectures on nature") is a named text, written in ancient Greek, collated from a collection of surviving manuscripts known as the Corpus Aristotelicum because attributed to the 4th-century BC philosopher, teacher, and mentor of Macedonian rulers, Aristotle. [1]

203 relations: Acropolis of Athens, Action at a distance, Actual infinity, Adriatic Sea, Aetolia, Age of Enlightenment, Agora, Aigosthena, Alexander the Great, Aliartos, Alkyonides Gulf, Analogy, Ancient Agora of Athens, Ancient Greek, Andronicus of Rhodes, Apellicon of Teos, Arcathias, Archelaus (general), Archon, Aristotelian theology, Aristotle, Asclepeion, Asiatic Vespers, Asset forfeiture, Athenaeus, Athenian democracy, Atomism, Attalid dynasty, Attica, Aureus, Austrian National Library, Bekker numbering, Bertrand Russell, Biblioteca Marciana, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Bithynia and Pontus, Black Sea, Boeotia, Brennus (3rd century BC), Brindisi, Byzantine Empire, Cassander, Castra, Causality, Classical planet, Commentaries on Aristotle, Commentary (philology), Comparative method, Constantinople, Constitution of the Athenians (Aristotle), ..., Consul, Cornelia (gens), Corpus Aristotelicum, Cosmological argument, Crusades, Cyclades, Cyprus, Deipnosophistae, Delos, Delphi, Demetrius of Phalerum, Democritus, Denarius, Diadochi, Diodorus Siculus, Diogenes Laërtius, Discrete mathematics, Domingo de Soto, Eduard Zeller, Eleusis, Epicureanism, Epidaurus, Epirus, Episteme, Eresos, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Eumenes II, Exonym and endonym, First Mithridatic War, Four causes, Freedman, Gaius Marius, Galileo Galilei, Genitive case, Genus–differentia definition, Giles of Rome, Gnaeus Octavius (consul 87 BC), Gulf of Corinth, Hellenistic-era warships, History of Philosophy Quarterly, Horror vacui (physics), Hyle, Hylomorphism, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Isaac Casaubon, Isthmus of Corinth, Jacques Maritain, Joaquín Albareda y Ramoneda, Johannes Gutenberg, John Philoponus, Koinonia, Kurt Riezler, Latin, Laws (dialogue), Legatus, List of Roman civil wars and revolts, List of Roman consuls, Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, Long Walls, Lucius Cornelius Cinna, Lucullus, Lyceum (Classical), Marian reforms, Martin Heidegger, Matter, Mechanism (philosophy), Megaris, Metic, Mithridates VI of Pontus, Movable type, Munichia, Natural philosophy, Neleus of Scepsis, New Latin, Nicomedes IV of Bithynia, Nola, Nominative case, Note (typography), Numa Pompilius, Oligarchy, Olympiad, On Generation and Corruption, On the Heavens, Optimates, Orobius, Ottoman Turks, Oxyrhynchus, Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Palaeography, Patrician (ancient Rome), Pausanias (geographer), Pergamon, Petrus Ramus, Phaedo, Phaedrus (dialogue), Philoi, Piraeus, Plato, Plebs, Pliny the Elder, Populares, Posidonius, Potentiality and actuality, Praetor, Printing press, Proconsul, Prussian Academy of Sciences, Ptolemy IX Lathyros, Publius Sulpicius Rufus, Quaestor, Quintus Pompeius Rufus (consul 88 BC), Recension, Rhodes, Roman cursive, Roman legion, Roman Republic, Saracen, Satrap, Scholarch, Screw press, Scriptorium, Siege of Athens and Piraeus (87–86 BC), Simplicius of Cilicia, Social War (91–88 BC), Sortition, Stagira, Stoa of Attalos, Strabo, Strato of Lampsacus, Substance theory, Sulla, Teleological argument, Teleology, Telos, Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Teos, The Void (philosophy), Thebes, Greece, Themistius, Theophrastus, Thessaly, Tree of life (biology), Tribune, Tyrant, Unmoved mover, Vatican Library, Venus (mythology), Villa of the Papyri, Vindolanda, Vindolanda tablets, Wilhelm Windelband, Zeno of Elea, Zeno's paradoxes. Expand index (153 more) »

Acropolis of Athens

The Acropolis of Athens is an ancient citadel located on a rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon.

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Action at a distance

In physics, action at a distance is the concept that an object can be moved, changed, or otherwise affected without being physically touched (as in mechanical contact) by another object.

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Actual infinity

In the philosophy of mathematics, the abstraction of actual infinity involves the acceptance (if the axiom of infinity is included) of infinite entities, such as the set of all natural numbers or an infinite sequence of rational numbers, as given, actual, completed objects.

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Adriatic Sea

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.

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Aetolia (Αἰτωλία, Aἰtōlía) is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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The agora (ἀγορά agorá) was a central public space in ancient Greek city-states.

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Aigosthena (Αἰγόσθενα) was an ancient Greek fortified port city of Megaris, northwest of the ancient city of Megara to which it belonged.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Aliartos (Αλίαρτος) is a small town and municipality in the Boeotia regional unit, Greece, at 109 kilometres from Athens.

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Alkyonides Gulf

The Alkyonides Gulf (Κόλπος Αλκυονίδων - Kolpos Alkyonidon) is a bay that connects with the Gulf of Corinth to the west.

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Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.

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Ancient Agora of Athens

The Ancient Agora of Classical Athens is the best-known example of an ancient Greek agora, located to the northwest of the Acropolis and bounded on the south by the hill of the Areopagus and on the west by the hill known as the Agoraios Kolonos, also called Market Hill.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Andronicus of Rhodes

Andronicus of Rhodes (Ἀνδρόνικος ὁ Ῥόδιος, Andrónikos ho Rhódios; Andronicus Rhodius; BC) was a Greek philosopher from Rhodes who was also the scholarch (head) of the Peripatetic school.

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Apellicon of Teos

Apellicon (Ἀπελλικῶν, gen.: Ἀπελλικῶνος; died c. 84 BC), a wealthy man from Teos, afterwards an Athenian citizen, was a famous book collector of the 1st century BC.

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Arcathias (Ἀρκαθίας) was a prince of Persian and Greek Macedonian ancestry, and figure in the First Mithridatic War.

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Archelaus (general)

Archelaus (Ἀρχέλαος; fl. during the latter half of the second century BC and first half of first century BC, died by 63 BC) was the greatest general that served under King Mithridates VI of Pontus in northern Anatoliahttp://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/0271.html and was also his favorite general.

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Archon (ἄρχων, árchon, plural: ἄρχοντες, árchontes) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office.

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Aristotelian theology

Aristotelian theology and the scholastic view of God have been influential in Western intellectual history.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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In ancient Greece and Rome, an asclepeion (Ἀσκληπιεῖον Asklepieion; Ἀσκλαπιεῖον in Doric dialect; Latin aesculapīum) was a healing temple, sacred to the god Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine.

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Asiatic Vespers

The Asiatic Vespers (also known as the Asian Vespers, Ephesian Vespers, or the Vespers of 88 BC) refers to an infamous episode during the First Mithridatic War.

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Asset forfeiture

Asset forfeiture or asset seizure is a form of confiscation of assets by the state.

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Athenaeus of Naucratis (Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD.

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Athenian democracy

Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.

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Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.

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Attalid dynasty

The Attalid dynasty (Δυναστεία των Ατταλιδών Dynasteía ton Attalidón) was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great.

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Attica (Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or; or), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece.

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The aureus (aurei — "golden") was a gold coin of ancient Rome originally valued at 25 pure silver denarii.

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Austrian National Library

The Austrian National Library (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek) is the largest library in Austria, with more than 12 million items in its various collections.

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Bekker numbering

Bekker numbering or Bekker pagination is the standard form of citation to the works of Aristotle.

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Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.

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Biblioteca Marciana

The Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana (English: National Library of St Mark's) is a library and Renaissance building in Venice, northern Italy; it is one of the earliest surviving public manuscript depositories in the country, holding one of the greatest classical texts collections in the world.

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Bibliothèque nationale de France

The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.

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Bithynia and Pontus

Bithynia and Pontus (Provincia Bithynia et Pontus) was the name of a province of the Roman Empire on the Black Sea coast of Anatolia (Turkey).

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.

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Brennus (3rd century BC)

Brennus (or Brennos) (died 279 BC at Delphi, Ancient Greece) was one of the Gaul leaders of the army of the Gallic invasion of the Balkans.

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Brindisi (Brindisino: Brìnnisi; Brundisium; translit; Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Cassander (Greek: Κάσσανδρος Ἀντιπάτρου, Kassandros Antipatrou; "son of Antipatros": c. 350 BC – 297 BC), was king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from 305 BC until 297 BC, and de facto ruler of much of Greece from 317 BC until his death.

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In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum (plural castra) was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp.

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Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.

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Classical planet

In classical antiquity, the seven classical planets are the seven non-fixed astronomical objects in the sky visible to the naked eye: Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Mercury, the Sun, and the Moon.

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Commentaries on Aristotle

Commentaries on Aristotle refers to the great mass of literature produced, especially in the ancient and medieval world, to explain and clarify the works of Aristotle.

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Commentary (philology)

In philology, a commentary is a line-by-line or even word-by-word explication usually attached to an edition of a text in the same or an accompanying volume.

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Comparative method

In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.

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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Constitution of the Athenians (Aristotle)

The Constitution of the Athenians or the Athenian Constitution (Greek: Ἀθηναίων πολιτεία, Athenaion Politeia; Latin: Atheniensium Respublica) is a work by Aristotle or one of his students.

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Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire.

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Cornelia (gens)

The gens Cornelia was one of the greatest patrician houses at Rome.

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Corpus Aristotelicum

The Corpus Aristotelicum is the collection of Aristotle's works that have survived from antiquity through medieval manuscript transmission.

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Cosmological argument

In natural theology and philosophy, a cosmological argument is an argument in which the existence of a unique being, generally seen as some kind of god, is deduced or inferred from facts or alleged facts concerning causation, change, motion, contingency, or finitude in respect of the universe as a whole or processes within it.

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The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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The Cyclades (Κυκλάδες) are an island group in the Aegean Sea, southeast of mainland Greece and a former administrative prefecture of Greece.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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The Deipnosophistae is an early 3rd-century AD Greek work (Δειπνοσοφισταί, Deipnosophistaí, lit. "The Dinner Sophists/Philosophers/Experts") by the Greco-Egyptian author Athenaeus of Naucratis.

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The island of Delos (Δήλος; Attic: Δῆλος, Doric: Δᾶλος), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece.

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Delphi is famous as the ancient sanctuary that grew rich as the seat of Pythia, the oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world.

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Demetrius of Phalerum

Demetrius of Phalerum (also Demetrius of Phaleron or Demetrius Phalereus; Δημήτριος ὁ Φαληρεύς; c. 350 – c. 280 BC) was an Athenian orator originally from Phalerum, a student of Theophrastus, and perhaps of Aristotle, himself, and one of the first Peripatetics.

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Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.

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The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.

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The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.

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Diodorus Siculus

Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.

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Diogenes Laërtius

Diogenes Laërtius (Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers.

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Discrete mathematics

Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous.

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Domingo de Soto

Domingo de Soto (1494 – November 15, 1560) was a Dominican priest and Scholastic theologian born in Segovia, Spain, and died in Salamanca at the age of 66.

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Eduard Zeller

Eduard Gottlob Zeller (22 January 1814, Kleinbottwar – 19 March 1908, Stuttgart), was a German philosopher and Protestant theologian of the Tübingen School of theology.

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Eleusis (Ελευσίνα Elefsina, Ancient Greek: Ἐλευσίς Eleusis) is a town and municipality in West Attica, Greece.

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Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.

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Epidaurus (Ἐπίδαυρος, Epidauros) was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece, on the Argolid Peninsula at the Saronic Gulf.

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Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.

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"Episteme" is a philosophical term derived from the Ancient Greek word ἐπιστήμη epistēmē, which can refer to knowledge, science or understanding, and which comes from the verb ἐπίστασθαι, meaning "to know, to understand, or to be acquainted with".

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Eresos (Ερεσός) and its twin beach village Skala Eresou are located in the southwest part of the Greek island of Lesbos.

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Eudoxus of Cnidus

Eudoxus of Cnidus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος, Eúdoxos ho Knídios) was an ancient Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar, and student of Archytas and Plato.

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Eumenes II

Eumenes II (Εὐμένης Βʹ; ruled 197–159 BC) surnamed Soter meaning "Savior" was a ruler of Pergamon, and a son of Attalus I Soter and queen Apollonis and a member of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon.

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Exonym and endonym

An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.

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First Mithridatic War

The First Mithridatic War (89–85 BC) was a war challenging Rome's expanding Empire and rule over the Greek world.

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Four causes

The "four causes" are elements of an influential principle in Aristotelian thought whereby explanations of change or movement are classified into four fundamental types of answer to the question "why?".

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A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.

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Gaius Marius

Gaius MariusC·MARIVS·C·F·C·N is how Marius was termed in official state inscriptions in Latin: "Gaius Marius, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius" (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Genus–differentia definition

A genus–differentia definition is a type of intensional definition, and it is composed of two parts.

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Giles of Rome

Giles of Rome (Latin: Aegidius Romanus; Italian: Egidio Colonna; c. 1243 – 22 December 1316), was an archbishop of Bourges who was famed for his logician commentary on the Organon by Aristotle.

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Gnaeus Octavius (consul 87 BC)

Gnaeus Octavius (died 87 BC) was a Roman senator who was elected consul of the Roman Republic in 87 BC alongside Lucius Cornelius Cinna.

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Gulf of Corinth

The Gulf of Corinth or the Corinthian Gulf (Κορινθιακός Kόλπος, Korinthiakόs Kόlpos) is a deep inlet of the Ionian Sea separating the Peloponnese from western mainland Greece.

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Hellenistic-era warships

From the 4th century BC on, new types of oared warships appeared in the Mediterranean Sea, superseding the trireme and transforming naval warfare.

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History of Philosophy Quarterly

The History of Philosophy Quarterly (HPQ) is a peer-reviewed academic journal dedicated to the history of philosophy.

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Horror vacui (physics)

In physics, horror vacui, or plenism, is commonly stated as "Nature abhors a vacuum".

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In philosophy, hyle (from ὕλη) refers to matter or stuff.

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Hylomorphism (or hylemorphism) is a philosophical theory developed by Aristotle, which conceives being (ousia) as a compound of matter and form.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.

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Isaac Casaubon

Isaac Casaubon (18 February 1559 – 1 July 1614) was a classical scholar and philologist, first in France and then later in England, regarded by many of his time as the most learned man in Europe.

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Isthmus of Corinth

The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow land bridge which connects the Peloponnese peninsula with the rest of the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth.

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Jacques Maritain

Jacques Maritain (18 November 1882 – 28 April 1973) was a French Catholic philosopher.

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Joaquín Albareda y Ramoneda

Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda y Ramoneda, OSB (February 16, 1892 – July 19, 1966) was a Spanish Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Prefect of the Vatican Library from 1936 to 1962, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1962.

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Johannes Gutenberg

Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (– February 3, 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with the printing press.

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John Philoponus

John Philoponus (Ἰωάννης ὁ Φιλόπονος; c. 490 – c. 570), also known as John the Grammarian or John of Alexandria, was an Alexandrian philologist, Aristotelian commentator and Christian theologian, author of a considerable number of philosophical treatises and theological works.

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Koinonia is a transliterated form of the Greek word, κοινωνία, which means communion, joint participation; the share which one has in anything, participation, a gift jointly contributed, a collection, a contribution, etc.

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Kurt Riezler

Kurt Riezler (February 11, 1882 – September 5, 1955) was a German philosopher and diplomat.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Laws (dialogue)

The Laws (Greek: Νόμοι, Nómoi; Latin: De Legibus) is Plato's last and longest dialogue.

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A legatus (anglicized as legate) was a high ranking Roman military officer in the Roman Army, equivalent to a modern high ranking general officer.

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List of Roman civil wars and revolts

This is a list of civil wars and organized civil unrest in ancient Rome (753 BC – AD 476).

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List of Roman consuls

This is a list of consuls known to have held office, from the beginning of the Roman Republic to the latest use of the title in Imperial times, together with those magistrates of the Republic who were appointed in place of consuls, or who superseded consular authority for a limited period.

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Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers

Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers (Βίοι καὶ γνῶμαι τῶν ἐν φιλοσοφίᾳ εὐδοκιμησάντων) is a biography of the Greek philosophers by Diogenes Laërtius, written in Greek, perhaps in the first half of the third century AD.

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Long Walls

Although long walls were built at several locations in ancient Greece, notably Corinth and Megara, the term Long Walls (Μακρὰ Τείχη) generally refers to the walls that connected Athens to its ports at Piraeus and Phalerum.

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Lucius Cornelius Cinna

Lucius Cornelius Cinna (died 84 BC) was a four-time consul of the Roman Republic, serving four consecutive terms from 87 to 84 BC, and a member of the ancient Roman Cinna family of the Cornelii gens.

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Lucius Licinius Lucullus (118 – 57/56 BC) was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla.

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Lyceum (Classical)

The Lyceum (Ancient Greek: Λύκειον, Lykeion) or Lycaeum was a temple dedicated to Apollo Lyceus ("Apollo the wolf-god").

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Marian reforms

The Marian reforms of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman Republic.

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Martin Heidegger

Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".

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In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

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Mechanism (philosophy)

Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are like complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other.

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Megaris (Μεγαρίς) was a small but populous state of ancient Greece, west of Attica and north of Corinthia, whose inhabitants were adventurous seafarers, credited with deceitful propensities.

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In ancient Greece, a metic (Ancient Greek: μέτοικος, métoikos: from μετά, metá, indicating change, and οἶκος, oîkos "dwelling") was a foreign resident of Athens, one who did not have citizen rights in their Greek city-state (polis) of residence.

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Mithridates VI of Pontus

Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI (Μιθραδάτης, Μιθριδάτης), from Old Persian Miθradāta, "gift of Mithra"; 135–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey) from about 120–63 BC.

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Movable type

Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper.

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Munichia or Munychia (Μουνιχία or Μουνυχία) is the ancient Greek name for a steep hill (high) in Piraeus, Greece, known today as Kastella (Καστέλλα).

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Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

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Neleus of Scepsis

Neleus of Scepsis (Νηλεύς), was the son of Coriscus of Scepsis.

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New Latin

New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.

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Nicomedes IV of Bithynia

Nicomedes IV Philopator (Νικομήδης) was the king of Bithynia from c. 94 BC to 74 BC.

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Nola is a town and a modern municipality in the Metropolitan City of Naples in Italy.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Note (typography)

A note is a string of text placed at the bottom of a page in a book or document or at the end of a chapter, volume or the whole text.

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Numa Pompilius

Numa Pompilius (753–673 BC; reigned 715–673 BC) was the legendary second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus.

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Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.

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An Olympiad (Ὀλυμπιάς, Olympiás) is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games of the Ancient Greeks.

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On Generation and Corruption

On Generation and Corruption (Περὶ γενέσεως καὶ φθορᾶς; De Generatione et Corruptione), also known as On Coming to Be and Passing Away) is a treatise by Aristotle. Like many of his texts, it is both scientific, part of Aristotle's biology, and philosophic. The philosophy is essentially empirical; as in all of Aristotle's works, the deductions made about the unexperienced and unobservable are based on observations and real experiences. The question raised at the beginning of the text builds on an idea from Aristotle's earlier work The Physics. Namely, whether things come into being through causes, through some prime material, or whether everything is generated purely through "alteration." Alteration concerned itself with the ability for elements to change based on common and uncommon qualities. From this important work Aristotle gives us two of his most remembered contributions. First, the Four Causes and also the Four Elements (earth, wind, fire and water). He uses these four elements to provide an explanation for the theories of other Greeks concerning atoms, an idea Aristotle considered absurd.

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On the Heavens

On the Heavens (Greek: Περὶ οὐρανοῦ, Latin: De Caelo or De Caelo et Mundo) is Aristotle's chief cosmological treatise: written in 350 BC it contains his astronomical theory and his ideas on the concrete workings of the terrestrial world.

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The Optimates (optimates, "best ones", singular; also known as boni, "good men") were the traditionalist Senatorial majority of the late Roman Republic.

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Orobius (identified as Lucius Orbius) was a Roman general, who defeated the supporters of Mithridates at Delos.

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Ottoman Turks

The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.

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Oxyrhynchus (Ὀξύρρυγχος Oxýrrhynkhos; "sharp-nosed"; ancient Egyptian Pr-Medjed; Coptic Pemdje; modern Egyptian Arabic El Bahnasa) is a city in Middle Egypt, located about 160 km south-southwest of Cairo, in the governorate of Al Minya.

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Oxyrhynchus Papyri

The Oxyrhynchus Papyri are a group of manuscripts discovered during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by papyrologists Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt at an ancient rubbish dump near Oxyrhynchus in Egypt (modern el-Bahnasa).

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Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).

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Patrician (ancient Rome)

The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.

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Pausanias (geographer)

Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.

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Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.

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Petrus Ramus

Petrus Ramus (Pierre de la Ramée; Anglicized to Peter Ramus; 1515 – 26 August 1572) was an influential French humanist, logician, and educational reformer.

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Phædo or Phaedo (Φαίδων, Phaidōn), also known to ancient readers as On The Soul, is one of the best-known dialogues of Plato's middle period, along with the Republic and the Symposium. The philosophical subject of the dialogue is the immortality of the soul.

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Phaedrus (dialogue)

The Phaedrus (Phaidros), written by Plato, is a dialogue between Plato's protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues.

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Philoi (φίλοι; plural of φίλος philos "friend") was a title to the royal friends, advisors of the king (basileus) in ancient Macedonia.

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Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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The plebs were, in ancient Rome, the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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The Populares (populares, "favouring the people", singular popularis) were a grouping in the late Roman Republic which favoured the cause of the plebeians (the commoners).

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Posidonius (Ποσειδώνιος, Poseidonios, meaning "of Poseidon") "of Apameia" (ὁ Ἀπαμεύς) or "of Rhodes" (ὁ Ῥόδιος) (c. 135 BCE – c. 51 BCE), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian and teacher native to Apamea, Syria.

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Potentiality and actuality

In philosophy, potentiality and actuality are principles of a dichotomy which Aristotle used to analyze motion, causality, ethics, and physiology in his Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics and De Anima, which is about the human psyche.

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Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).

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Printing press

A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.

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A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.

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Prussian Academy of Sciences

The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (Königlich-Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften) was an academy established in Berlin, Germany on 11 July 1700, four years after the Akademie der Künste, or "Arts Academy," to which "Berlin Academy" may also refer.

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Ptolemy IX Lathyros

Ptolemy IX Soter IIAll male Ptolemaic rulers were titled Ptolemy in honor of their great Macedonian ancestor, Ptolemy I Soter, with Ptolemy IX also taking the same title Soter as the original Ptolemy.

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Publius Sulpicius Rufus

Publius Sulpicius Rufus (c. 121 BC – 88 BC) was an orator and statesman of the Roman Republic, most famous as tribune of the plebs in 88 BC.

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A quaestor (investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome.

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Quintus Pompeius Rufus (consul 88 BC)

Quintus Pompeius Rufus (died 88 BC) was a consul of the Roman Republic in 88 BC.

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Recension is the practice of editing or revising a text based on critical analysis.

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Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.

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Roman cursive

Roman cursive (or Latin cursive) is a form of handwriting (or a script) used in ancient Rome and to some extent into the Middle Ages.

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Roman legion

A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.

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Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.

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A scholarch (σχολάρχης, scholarchēs) was the head of a school in ancient Greece.

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Screw press

A screw press is a type of machine press in which the ram is driven up and down by a screw.

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Scriptorium, literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts by monastic scribes.

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Siege of Athens and Piraeus (87–86 BC)

The Siege of Athens and Piraeus was a siege of the First Mithridatic War that took place from Autumn of 87 BC to the Spring and Summer of 86 BC.

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Simplicius of Cilicia

Simplicius of Cilicia (Σιμπλίκιος ὁ Κίλιξ; c. 490 – c. 560) was a disciple of Ammonius Hermiae and Damascius, and was one of the last of the Neoplatonists.

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Social War (91–88 BC)

The Social War (from socii ("allies"), thus Bellum Sociale; also called the Italian War, the War of the Allies or the Marsic War) was a war waged from 91 to 88 BC between the Roman Republic and several of the other cities in Italy, which prior to the war had been Roman allies for centuries.

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In governance, sortition (also known as allotment or demarchy) is the selection of political officials as a random sample from a larger pool of candidates.

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Stagira (Στάγειρα or Στάγιρα, also fem. Στάγιρος or Στάγειρος) is a Greek village lying on a picturesque plateau on the Chalcidice peninsula, and standing at the foot of the Argirolofos hill.

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Stoa of Attalos

The Stoa of Attalos (also spelled Attalus) was a stoa (covered walkway or portico) in the Agora of Athens, Greece.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Strato of Lampsacus

Strato of Lampsacus (Στράτων ὁ Λαμψακηνός, Straton ho Lampsakenos, c. 335 – c. 269 BC) was a Peripatetic philosopher, and the third director (scholarch) of the Lyceum after the death of Theophrastus.

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Substance theory

Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.

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Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.

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Teleological argument

The teleological or physico-theological argument, also known as the argument from design, or intelligent design argument is an argument for the existence of God or, more generally, for an intelligent creator based on perceived evidence of deliberate design in the natural world.

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Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.

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A telos (from the Greek τέλος for "end", "purpose", or "goal") is an end or purpose, in a fairly constrained sense used by philosophers such as Aristotle.

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Temple of Zeus, Olympia

The Temple of Zeus at Olympia was an ancient Greek temple in Olympia, Greece, dedicated to the god Zeus.

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Teos (Τέως) or Teo was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, on a peninsula between Chytrium and Myonnesus.

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The Void (philosophy)

The Void is the philosophical concept of nothingness manifested.

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Thebes, Greece

Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.

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Themistius (Θεμίστιος, Themistios; 317, Paphlagonia – c. 390 AD, Constantinople), named εὐφραδής (eloquent), was a statesman, rhetorician, and philosopher.

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Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.

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Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.

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Tree of life (biology)

The tree of life or universal tree of life is a metaphor, model and research tool used to explore the evolution of life and describe the relationships between organisms, both living and extinct, as described in a famous passage in Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859).

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Tribune was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome.

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A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.

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Unmoved mover

The unmoved mover (that which moves without being moved) or prime mover (primum movens) is a concept advanced by Aristotle as a primary cause or "mover" of all the motion in the universe.

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Vatican Library

The Vatican Apostolic Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library or simply the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City.

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Venus (mythology)

Venus (Classical Latin) is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory.

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Villa of the Papyri

The Villa of the Papyri (Villa dei Papiri, also known as Villa dei Pisoni) is named after its unique library of papyri (or scrolls), but is also one of the most luxurious houses in all of Herculaneum and in the Roman world.

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VindolandaBritish windo- 'fair, white, blessed', landa 'enclosure/meadow/prairie/grassy plain' (the modern Welsh word would be something like gwynlan, and the modern Gaelic word fionnlann). was a Roman auxiliary fort (castrum) just south of Hadrian's Wall in northern England.

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Vindolanda tablets

The Vindolanda tablets were, at the time of their discovery, the oldest surviving handwritten documents in Britain (they have now been antedated by the Bloomberg tablets).

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Wilhelm Windelband

Wilhelm Windelband (11 May 1848 – 22 October 1915) was a German philosopher of the Baden School.

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Zeno of Elea

Zeno of Elea (Ζήνων ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of Magna Graecia and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides.

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Zeno's paradoxes

Zeno's paradoxes are a set of philosophical problems generally thought to have been devised by Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea (c. 490–430 BC) to support Parmenides' doctrine that contrary to the evidence of one's senses, the belief in plurality and change is mistaken, and in particular that motion is nothing but an illusion.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physics_(Aristotle)

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