229 relations: Agostino Casaroli, Agriculture, Albert Kesselring, Alessio Tramello, Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, Alfredo Catalani, Allies of World War II, Amedeo Guillet, Amilcare Ponchielli, Andrea Chénier, Antoninus of Piacenza (pilgrim), Apennine Mountains, Association football, Augustus III of Poland, Austria, Basilica di Santa Maria di Campagna, Piacenza, Basilica of San Savino, Piacenza, Basilica of Sant'Antonino, Piacenza, Battle of Legnano, Battle of the Trebia, Bologna, Brazilian Expeditionary Force, Brescia, Brickwork, Broletto, Camillo Procaccini, Capicola, Cardinal Secretary of State, Carthage, Castra, CERN, Chef Boyardee, Chestnut, Chief executive officer, Chief of staff, Cisalpine Gaul, City, Colli Piacentini, Colonia (Roman), Colorno, Comune, Conrad of Piacenza, Council of Piacenza, Cremona, Croatia, Croatina, Democratic Party (Italy), Denominazione di origine controllata, Diocese of Bobbio, Divination, ..., Dominican Order, Dresden, Duchy of Parma, Edoardo Amaldi, Emilia-Romagna, Emilian-Romagnol language, Erfurt, Etruscan civilization, Etruscan mythology, Ettore Gotti Tedeschi, European Space Agency, Eurovision Song Contest 2012, Expedition of the Thousand, Federico Ghizzoni, Ferrara, FIFA World Cup, Filippo Inzaghi, Finmeccanica, First Crusade, France, Francesco Mochi, Francia, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Genoa, Gerard of Potenza, Germany, Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, Giacomo Puccini, Giacomo Radini-Tedeschi, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Giorgia Bronzini, Giorgio Armani, Giovanni Battista Guadagnini, Giovanni Paolo Panini, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Giuseppe Giacosa, Giuseppe Merosi, Giuseppe Orsi, Gorgonzola, Gossolengo, Gothic Line, Gothic War (535–554), Grana Padano, Guercino, Haruspex, Hasdrubal (Barcid), Hector Boyardee, Helsinki, Holy Roman Empire, Holy See, House of Bourbon, House of Farnese, House of Habsburg, House of Sforza, House of Visconti, I-mutation, Il Pordenone, Institute for the Works of Religion, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italian Army, Italian language, Italian resistance movement, Italian unification, Italy, James Boswell, Justinian I, Köppen climate classification, Kingdom of Sardinia, La bohème, La Wally, Languages of Italy, Latin Rights, Latium, List of World War II prisoner-of-war camps in Italy, Liver of Piacenza, Livy, Lombard League, Lombards, Lombardy, Ludovico Carracci, Luigi Illica, Luthier, Madama Butterfly, Malvasia, Margaret of Parma, Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, Mario Arcelli, Medieval commune, Melchiorre Gioia, Milan, Military saint, Modena, Mostarda, Napoleon, National Institute of Statistics (Italy), Nina Zilli, Nure, Oceanic climate, Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma, Ortrugo, Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma, Palazzo Costa, Piacenza, Palazzo della Prefettura, Piacenza, Palazzo Farnese, Piacenza, Pallavicini family, Pancetta, Papal States, Parma, Partisan (military), Pasta, Pavia, Peace of Constance, Philip II of Spain, Piacenza, Piacenza Cathedral, Piacenza railway station, Piacenza-San Damiano Air Base, Pier Francesco Mazzucchelli, Pietro Giordani, Pino Dordoni, Placentinus, Plasencia, Po (river), Polenta, Polybius, Polytechnic University of Milan, Pope Gregory X, Pope John XXIII, Pope Leo X, Pope Urban II, Procopius, Province of Piacenza, Ranuccio I Farnese, Duke of Parma, Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma, Raphael, Ricotta, Risotto, Robiola, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo, Roman Catholic Diocese of Piacenza-Bobbio, Roman emperor, Romanesque architecture, Rome, Saint Antoninus of Piacenza, Salami, San Francesco, Piacenza, San Giovanni in Canale, Piacenza, San Sisto, Piacenza, Sapienza University of Rome, Sausage, Simone Inzaghi, Sistine Madonna, Spain, Taro (river), Tarquinio Provini, Theban Legion, Tortona, Tosca, Travo, Trebbia, Twin towns and sister cities, Umberto Giordano, UniCredit, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, University of Montpellier, University of Pavia, Urbino, Variety (linguistics), Veduta, Verona, Via Aemilia, Via Francigena, World War II, 1952 Summer Olympics, 2010 UCI Road World Championships, 2011 UCI Road World Championships, 50 kilometres race walk. Expand index (179 more) » « Shrink index
Agostino Casaroli (24 November 1914 – 9 June 1998) was an Italian Catholic priest and diplomat for the Holy See, who became Cardinal Secretary of State.
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Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.
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Albert Kesselring (30 November 1885 – 16 July 1960) was a German Luftwaffe Generalfeldmarschall during World War II.
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Alessio Tramello (1455–1535) was an Italian Renaissance architect who mostly designed churches and civic works.
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Alexander Farnese (Alessandro Farnese, Alejandro Farnesio) (27 August 1545 – 3 December 1592) was Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1586 to 1592, and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592.
Alfredo Catalani (19 June 1854 – 7 August 1893) was an Italian operatic composer.
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The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).
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Amedeo Guillet (February 7, 1909 – June 16, 2010) was an officer of the Italian Army.
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Amilcare Ponchielli (31 August 1834 – 16 January 1886) was an Italian composer, mainly of operas.
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Andrea Chénier is a verismo opera in four acts by the composer Umberto Giordano, set to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica.
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Antoninus of Piacenza, or the Anonymous Pilgrim of Piacenza, was a sixth-century pilgrim who described the holy places of the Holy land in the 570s.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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Augustus III (August III, Augustas III; 17 October 1696 5 October 1763) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II (Friedrich August II).
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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.5 million people in Central Europe.
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The Basilica of Santa Maria di Campagna is a Roman Catholic basilica church in the city of Piacenza in the Province of Piacenza, Italy.
The Basilica of San Savino is an ancient Roman Catholic basilica in the city of Piacenza in the Province of Piacenza, Italy.
The Basilica of Sant'Antonino is a medieval Roman Catholic basilica in the city of Piacenza in the Province of Piacenza, Italy.
The Battle of Legnano was fought on May 29, 1176, between the forces of the Holy Roman Empire, led by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and the Lombard League.
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The Battle of the Trebia (or Trebbia) was the first major battle of the Second Punic War, fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and the Roman Republic in December of 218 BC, on or around the winter solstice.
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Bologna (Emilian: Bulåggna pronounced; Bononia) is the largest city (and the capital) of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Italy.
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Brescia (Lombard: Brèsa, or; Brixia) is a city and comune in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy.
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Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar.
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In Middle Age Communes in Italy, a broletto was the place where the whole population met for democratic assemblies, and where the elected men lived and administrated justice.
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''Nativity'' by Camillo Procaccini Camillo Procaccini (1551 – August 21, 1629) was an Italian painter.
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Capocollo (in the United States, cappicola, coppa in Canada, capicollo or capicolla), is a traditional Italian pork cold cut (salume) made from the dry-cured muscle running from the neck to the 4th or 5th rib of the pork shoulder or neck.
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The Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope, commonly known as the Cardinal Secretary of State, presides over the Holy See Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia.
The city of Carthage (قرطاج) is a city in Tunisia that was once the center of the ancient Carthaginian civilization.
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In the Latin language of the ancient Roman Empire, castra (singular castrum) were buildings or plots of land reserved for or constructed for use as a military defensive position.
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The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name "Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire"; see ''History'') is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
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Chef Boyardee, formerly Chef Boy-Ar-Dee, is a brand of canned pasta products sold internationally by ConAgra Foods.
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The chestnut group is a genus (Castanea) of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the beech family Fagaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
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A chief executive officer (CEO in American English) or managing director (MD in British English) describes the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, or administrator in charge of managing a non-profit or for-profit organization.
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The title chief of staff identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.
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Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Northern Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
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A city is a large and permanent human settlement.
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The Colli Piacentini ("Hills of Piacenza") is an Italian wine region located at the western end of Emilia-Romagna.
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A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it.
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Colorno is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Parma in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about northwest of Bologna and about north of Parma.
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The comune (plural: comuni) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.
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Conrad of Piacenza, T.O.S.F. (Corrado, 1290 – 19 February 1351), was an Italian penitent and hermit of the Third Order of St. Francis, who is venerated as a saint.
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The Council of Piacenza was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Roman Catholic Church, which took place from March 1 to March 7, 1095, at Piacenza.
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Cremona is a city and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po River in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po valley).
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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a sovereign state at the crossroads of Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean.
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Croatina is a red Italian wine grape variety that is grown primarily in the Oltrepò Pavese region of Lombardy and in the Province of Piacenza within Emilia Romagna, but also in parts of Piedmont and the Veneto.
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The Democratic Party (Partito Democratico, PD) is a social-democratic political party in Italy.
Denominazione di origine controllata ("Controlled designation of origin") is a quality assurance label for Italian food products, especially wines and various cheeses (Denominazione di Origine Protetta).
The Italian Roman Catholic diocese of Bobbio was an Italian bishopric which existed from 1014 until 1986, having been created from Bobbio Abbey until 1923.
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Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
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The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, hence the abbreviation OP used by members), more commonly known after the 15th century as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is a Roman Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Saint Dominic de Guzman in France and approved by Pope Honorius III (1216–27) on 22 December 1216.
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Dresden (Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
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The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, which was conquered by the Papal States in 1512.
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Edoardo Amaldi (5 September 1908 – 5 December 1989) was an Italian physicist.
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Emilia-Romagna (Emélia-Rumâgna, Romagnol: Emélia-Rumâgna) is an administrative Region of Northern Italy, comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna.
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Emilian-Romagnol (emiliân-rumagnōl or langua emiglièna-rumagnôla), also known as Emiliano-Romagnolo, is a Gallo-Italic language.
Erfurt is the capital city of Thuringia and the main city nearest to the geographical centre of modern Germany, located south-west of Leipzig, north of Nuremberg and south east of Hanover.
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Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio.
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The Etruscans were a people with a distinct language and culture during the period of earliest European writing, in the Mediterranean Iron Age in the second half of the first millennium B.C. They ranged over the Po Valley and some of its alpine slopes, southward along the west coast of Italy, most intensely in Etruria with enclaves as far south as Campania, and inland into the Appennine mountains.
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Ettore Gotti Tedeschi (born 3 March 1945 in Pontenure) is an Italian economist and banker, and ex-President of the Institute for Works of Religion, also known as the Vatican Bank (from 2009 to 2012).
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The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, with 22 member states.
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The Eurovision Song Contest 2012 was the 57th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
The Expedition of the Thousand (Italian Spedizione dei Mille) was an event of the Italian Risorgimento that took place in 1860.
Federico Ghizzoni is the current CEO of Italian bank UniCredit, as well as the COO of Koç Financial Services.
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Ferrara is a city and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital city of the Province of Ferrara.
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The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
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Filippo "Pippo" Inzaghi, Ufficiale OMRI (born 9 August 1973) is a retired Italian professional footballer and a manager.
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Finmeccanica S.p.A. is the leading industrial group in the high-technology sector in Italy and one of the main global players in aerospace, defence and security.
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The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to capture the Holy Lands, called by Pope Urban II in 1095.
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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
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Francesco Mochi (29 July 1580 – 6 February 1654) was an Italian early-Baroque sculptor active mostly in Rome and Orvieto.
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Francia or Frankia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankish Empire, Frankish Realm or occasionally Frankland, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks, a confederation of Germanic tribes, during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.
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Frederick I (Friedrich; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250), was one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen.
Genoa (Genova; Genoese and Ligurian Zena; Gênes; Latin and archaic English Genua) is the capital of Liguria and the sixth largest city in Italy with a population of 592,995 within its administrative limits on a land area of.
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Saint Gerard of Potenza, also Gerard La Porta (Gerardo di Potenza, Gerardo La Porta) (d. 30 October 1118) was a Roman Catholic saint and a bishop of Potenza in Italy,.
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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.
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Giacomo (or Jacopo) Barozzi (or Barocchio) da Vignola (often simply called Vignola) (1 October 1507 – 7 July 1573) was one of the great Italian architects of 16th century Mannerism.
Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (22 December 1858 29 November 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas are among the important operas played as standards.
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Giacomo Maria Radini-Tedeschi (12 July 1857 - 22 August 1914) was the Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bergamo.
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Gian Galeazzo Visconti (16 October 1351 – 3 September 1402), son of Galeazzo II Visconti and Bianca of Savoy, was the first Duke of Milan (1395) and ruled the late-medieval city just before the dawn of the Renaissance.
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Giorgia Bronzini (born 3 August 1983) is an Italian professional racing cyclist.
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Giorgio Armani (born 11 July 1934) is an Italian fashion designer, particularly noted for his menswear.
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Giovanni Battista Guadagnini (or "G. B. Guadagnini"); (23 June 1711 – 18 September 1786) was an Italian luthier, regarded as one of the finest craftsmen of string instruments in history.
Giovanni Paolo Panini or Pannini (17 June 1691 – 21 October 1765) was a painter and architect, who worked in Rome and is mainly known as one of the vedutisti ("view painters").
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Giuseppe Garibaldi (4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general and politician who played a large role in the history of Italy.
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Giuseppe Giacosa (21 October 1847 – 1 September 1906) was an Italian poet, playwright and librettist.
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Giuseppe Merosi (8 December 1872 - 27 March 1956) was a famous Italian automobile engineer.
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Giuseppe Orsi (born 1945 in Piacenza) is an Italian engineer, businessman, and corporate executive.
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Gorgonzola is a veined Italian blue cheese, made from unskimmed cow's milk.
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Gossolengo (Piacentino: Uslëing) is a comune (municipality) in the province of Piacenza in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about northwest of Bologna and about southwest of Piacenza, in the valley of the Trebbia river.
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The Gothic Line (Gotenstellung; Linea Gotica) formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselring's last major line of defence in the Italian Campaign during the final stages of the Second World War along the summits of the northern part of the Apennine Mountains during the fighting retreat of the German forces in Italy against the Allied Armies in Italy commanded by General Sir Harold Alexander.
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The Gothic War between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy was fought from 535 until 554 in Italy, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica.
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Grana Padano is a hard, slow-ripened, semi-fat cheese from Italy, comparable to Parmigiano Reggiano or "parmesan" cheese.
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Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (February 8, 1591 – December 22, 1666), best known as Guercino, or Il Guercino, was an Italian Baroque painter and draftsman from the region of Emilia, and active in Rome and Bologna.
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In the religion of Ancient Rome, a haruspex (plural haruspices) was a person trained to practice a form of divination called haruspicy (haruspicina) the inspection of the entrails (exta), hence also extispicy (extispicium) of sacrificed animals, especially the livers of sacrificed sheep and poultry.
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Hasdrubal II (245–207 BC) was Hamilcar Barca's second son and a Carthaginian general in the Second Punic War.
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Hector Boyardee (born Ettore Boiardi) (October 22, 1897 – June 21, 1985) was an Italian-born chef, famous for his brand of food products, named Chef Boyardee.
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Helsinki (Helsingfors) is the capital and largest city of Finland.
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The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
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The Holy See (Sancta Sedes) is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Bishop of Rome—the Pope.
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The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
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The Farnese family was an influential family in Renaissance Italy.
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The House of Habsburg, also called House of Hapsburg, or House of Austria, was one of the most important royal houses of Europe.
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Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan.
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Visconti is the family name of two important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages.
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I-mutation (also known as umlaut, front mutation, i-umlaut, i/j-mutation or i/j-umlaut) is a type of sound change in which a back vowel is fronted, or a front vowel is raised, if the following syllable contains /i/, /ī/ or /j/ (a voiced palatal approximant, sometimes called yod, the sound of English in yes) it is a category of regressive metaphony.
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Il Pordenone, byname of Giovanni Antonio de’ Sacchis (c. 1484–1539), was an Italian painter of the Venetian school, active during the Renaissance.
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The Institute for the Works of Religion (Istituto per le Opere di Religione – IOR), commonly known as the Vatican Bank, is a privately held institute situated exclusively on the sovereign territory of the Vatican City and run by a Board of Superintendence which reports to a Supervisory Commission of Cardinals and the Pope.
The Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (National Institute for Nuclear Physics) is the coordinating institution for nuclear, particle and astroparticle physics in Italy.
The Italian Army (Italian: Esercito Italiano; EI) is the land defence force of the Italian Armed Forces of the Italian Republic.
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Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
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The Italian resistance movement (Resistenza italiana or just Resistenza) is an umbrella term for resistance groups that opposed the occupying German forces and the Italian Fascist puppet regime of the Italian Social Republic during the later years of World War II.
Italian unification (Unificazione italiana), mainly know as Risorgimento (meaning the Resurgence), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.
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James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck (29 October 1740 – 19 May 1795), was a Scottish lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh.
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Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus, Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós) (482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was a Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from 527 to 565.
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Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
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La bohème is an opera in four acts,Puccini called the divisions quadro, a tableau or "image", rather than atto (act).
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La Wally is an opera in four acts by Alfredo Catalani, composed on a libretto by Luigi Illica, and first performed at La Scala, Milan, on 20 January 1892.
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There are a variety of regional languages spoken to varying degrees in Italy, most of which belong to various branches of the Romance languages and are hence descendants of Vulgar Latin.
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Latin Rights (Latin: ius Latii, Latinitas or ius latinum) was a civic status given by the Romans, intermediate between full Roman citizenship and non-citizen status (known as peregrinus), and extended originally to the people of Latium (the Latini).
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Latium (Lătĭŭm) is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.
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There were a number of Axis prisoner-of-war camps in Italy during World War II.
The Liver of Piacenza is an Etruscan artifact found in a field on September 26, 1877, near Gossolengo, in the province of Piacenza, Italy, now kept in the Municipal Museum of Piacenza, in the Palazzo Farnese.
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Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 17)—known as Livy in English—was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people – Ab Urbe Condita Libri (Books from the Foundation of the City) – covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own time.
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The Lombard League (Lega Lombarda) was a medieval alliance formed in 1167 to counter the attempts by the Holy Roman Emperors from the House of Hohenstaufen to assert Imperial influence over Italy.
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The Lombards or Langobards (Langobardī, Italian Longobardi), were a Germanic tribe who ruled Italy from 568 to 774.
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Lombardy (Lombardia; Lombard: Lombardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy in the north-west of the country with an area of 23,844 square kilometers (9,206 sq mi).
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Ludovico (or Lodovico) Carracci (21 April 1555 – 13 November 1619) was an Italian, early-Baroque painter, etcher, and printmaker born in Bologna.
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Luigi Illica (9 May 1857 – 16 December 1919) was an Italian librettist who wrote for Giacomo Puccini (usually with Giuseppe Giacosa), Alfredo Catalani, Umberto Giordano, Baron Alberto Franchetti and other important Italian composers.
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A luthier is someone who makes or repairs string instruments generally consisting of a neck and a sound box.
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Madama Butterfly (Madame Butterfly) is an opera in three acts (originally two) by Giacomo Puccini, with an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa.
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Malvasia (also known as Malvazia) is a group of wine grape varieties grown historically in the Mediterranean region, Balearic islands, Canary Islands and the island of Madeira, but now grown in many of the winemaking regions of the world.
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Margaret of Parma (28 December 1522 – 18 January 1586) was Governor of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567 and from 1578 to 1582.
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Marie Louise (Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Franziska Therese Josepha Lucia; 12 December 1791 – 17 December 1847) was an Austrian archduchess who reigned as Duchess of Parma from 1814 until her death.
Mario Ugo Arcelli (born Milan, 21 May 1935; died Rome, 18 March 2004) was an Italian economist who at one time was Minister for the Budget in the Italian government.
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Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.
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Melchiorre Gioja (September 10, 1767 – January 2, 1829) was an Italian writer on philosophy and political economy.
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Milan (or; Milano; Milanese: Milan), the second-most populous city in Italy, serves as the capital of Lombardy.
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The military saints or warrior saints (also called soldier saints) of the Early Christian Church are prominent in the history of Christianity.
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Modena (or;; Etruscan: Mutna; Mutina; Modenese: Mòdna) is a city and comune (municipality) on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.
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Mostarda di frutta (sometime also called only mostarda) is an Italian condiment made of candied fruit and a mustard-flavoured syrup.
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Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.
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The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Italian: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica; Istat) is the main producer of official statistics in Italy.
Maria Chiara Fraschetta (born 2 February 1980), better known by her stage name Nina Zilli, is an Italian singer-songwriter.
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The Nure (Latin Nura) is a small river in northern Italy (province of Piacenza).
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An oceanic climate (also known as marine, west coast and maritime) is the climate typical of the west coasts at the middle latitudes of most continents, and generally features warm (but not hot) summers and cool (but not cold) winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range.
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Odoardo Farnese (28 April 1612 – 11 September 1646), also known as Odoardo I Farnese to distinguish him from his grandson Odoardo II Farnese, was Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1622 to 1646.
Ortrugo is a white Italian wine grape variety that is grown in the Piacenza hills of the Emilia-Romagna region of north central Italy.
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Oscar Luigi Scalfaro (9 September 1918 – 29 January 2012) was an Italian politician and magistrate, the ninth President of the Italian Republic from 1992 to 1999, and subsequently a senator for life.
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Ottavio Farnese (9 October 1524 – 18 September 1586) reigned as Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1547 and Duke of Castro from 1545 until his death.
The Palazzo Costa is a Baroque style palace located on Via Roma #80 in Piacenza, Region of Emilia Romagna, Italy.
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The Palazzo della Prefettura also called the Palazzo Scotti di Vigoleno is a Baroque architecture-style palace in central Piacenza, region of Emilia-Romagna in Italy.
The project for the façade of Palazzo Farnese, Piacenza, by Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola. The court. Palazzo Farnese is a palace in Piacenza, northern Italy.
The Pallavicini, Pallavicino, and sometimes Paravicino, Paravisini, or Paravicini, were an Italian noble family descended from Oberto I (died 1148).
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Pancetta is Italian bacon made of pork belly meat that is salt cured and spiced with black pepper and sometimes other spices.
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The Papal States were territories in the Italian Peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the pope, from the 700s until 1870.
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Parma (Pärma) is a city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its prosciutto (ham), cheese, architecture, music and surrounding countryside.
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A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity.
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Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily.
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Pavia (Lombard Pavia; Ticinum; Medieval Latin Papia) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po.
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The Peace of Constance of 1183 was signed in the city of Konstanz by the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick Barbarossa and representatives of the Italian Lombard League.
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Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 and of Portugal from 1581 (as Philip I, Filipe I).
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Piacenza (Emiliano-Romagnolo: Piasëinsa) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
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Piacenza Cathedral (Duomo di Piacenza), is a Roman Catholic church in Piacenza, Italy.
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Piacenza railway station (Stazione di Piacenza) serves the city and comune of Piacenza, in the region of Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy.
Piacenza-San Damiano Air Base is a military airport located in Piacenza, Emilia-Romagna, Italy.
Pier Francesco Mazzucchelli (commonly known as il Morazzone; 1573–1626) was an Italian painter of the early Baroque era in Milan.
Pietro Giordani (January 1, 1774 – September 2, 1848) was an Italian writer, classical literary scholar, and a close friend of, and influence on, Giacomo Leopardi.
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Giuseppe "Pino" Dordoni (June 28, 1926 – October 24, 1998) was an Italian athlete who competed mainly in the 50 kilometre race walk.
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Placentinus (died 1192) was an Italian jurist and glossator.
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Plasencia is a walled market city in the province of Cáceres, Extremadura, Western Spain.
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The Po (Padus and Eridanus; Po; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Πάδος and Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows either or – considering the length of the Maira, a right bank tributary – eastward across northern Italy, from a spring seeping from a stony hillside at Pian del Re, a flat place at the head of the Val Po under the northwest face of Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) through a delta projecting into the Adriatic Sea near Venice.
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Polenta (polente or poleinte in France) is a Central European dish made by boiling cornmeal into a thick, solidified porridge,OED 2nd ed.: a. maize flour, especially as used in Northern Italian cookery.
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Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period noted for his work, which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
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The Politecnico di Milano (Polytechnic University of Milan) is the largest technical university in Italy, with about 40,000 students.
Pope Gregory X (Gregorius X; – 10 January 1276), born Teobaldo Visconti, was Pope from 1 September 1271 to his death in 1276 and was a member of the Secular Franciscan Order.
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Pope Saint John XXIII (Ioannes XXIII; Giovanni XXIII) born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli,; 25 November 18813 June 1963) reigned from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963 and was canonized on 27 April 2014. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli was the fourth of fourteen children born to a family of sharecroppers who lived in a village in Lombardy. He was ordained to the priesthood on 10 August 1904 and served in a number of posts, including papal nuncio in France and a delegate to Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey. In a consistory on 12 January 1953 Pope Pius XII made Roncalli a cardinal as the Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prisca in addition to naming him as the Patriarch of Venice. Roncalli was elected pope on 28 October 1958 at age 76 after 11 ballots. His selection was unexpected, and Roncalli himself had come to Rome with a return train ticket to Venice. He was the first pope to take the pontifical name of "John" upon election in more than 500 years, and his choice settled the complicated question of official numbering attached to this papal name due to the antipope of this name. Pope John XXIII surprised those who expected him to be a caretaker pope by calling the historic Second Vatican Council (1962–65), the first session opening on 11 October 1962. His passionate views on equality were summed up in his famous statement, "We were all made in God's image, and thus, we are all Godly alike." John XXIII made many passionate speeches during his pontificate, one of which was on the day that he announced the Second Vatican Council in the middle of the night to the crowd gathered in St. Peter's Square: "Dear children, returning home, you will find children: give your children a caress and say: This is the caress of the Pope!" Pope John XXIII did not live to see the Vatican Council to completion. He died of stomach cancer on 3 June 1963, four and a half years after his election and two months after the completion of his final and famed encyclical, Pacem in terris. He was buried in the Vatican grottoes beneath Saint Peter's Basilica on 6 June 1963 and his cause for canonization was opened on 18 November 1965 by his successor, Pope Paul VI, who declared him a Servant of God. In addition to being named Venerable on 20 December 1999, he was beatified on 3 September 2000 by Pope John Paul II alongside Pope Pius IX and three others. Following his beatification, his body was moved on 3 June 2001 from its original place to the altar of Saint Jerome where it could be seen by the faithful. On 5 July 2013, Pope Francis – bypassing the traditionally required second miracle – declared John XXIII a saint, after unanimous agreement by a consistory, or meeting, of the College of Cardinals, based on the fact that he was considered to have lived a virtuous, model lifestyle, and because of the good for the Church which had come from his having opened the Second Vatican Council. He was canonised alongside Pope Saint John Paul II on 27 April 2014. John XXIII today is affectionately known as the "Good Pope" and in Italian, "il Papa buono". The Roman Catholic Church celebrates his feast day not on the date of his death, June 3, as is usual, nor even on the day of his papal inauguration (as is sometimes done with Popes who are Saints, such as with John Paul II) but on 11 October, the day of the first session of the Second Vatican Council. This is understandable, since he was the one who had had the idea for it and had convoked it. On Thursday, 11 September 2014, Pope Francis added his optional memorial to the worldwide General Roman Calendar of saints' feast days, in response to global requests. He is commemorated on the date of his death, 3 June, by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and on the following day, 4 June, by the Anglican Church of Canada and the Episcopal Church (United States).
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Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.
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Pope Urban II (Urbanus II; – 29 July 1099), born Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099.
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Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς, Procopius Caesarensis; c. AD 500 – c. AD 560) was a prominent late antique scholar from Palaestina Prima.
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The province of Piacenza (provincia di Piacenza) is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.
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Ranuccio I Farnese (28 March 1569 – 5 March 1622) reigned as Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1592.
Ranuccio II Farnese (17 September 1630 – 11 December 1694) was the sixth Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1646 until his death nearly 50 years later and Duke of Castro from 1646 until 1649.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (April 6 or March 28, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
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Ricotta (in Italian) is an Italian whey cheese made from sheep (or cow, goat, or Italian water buffalo) milk whey left over from the production of cheese.
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Risotto (Southern Italian) is a north Italian rice dish cooked in a broth to a creamy consistency.
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Robiola is an Italian soft-ripened cheese of the Stracchino family.
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The Archdiocese of Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo (Archidioecesis Potentina-Murana-Marsicensis) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in Basilicata, southern Italy, created in 1986.
The Italian Catholic Diocese of Piacenza-Bobbio (Dioecesis Placentina-Bobiensis) in northern Italy, has existed since 1989.
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
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Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
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Rome (Roma, Rōma) is a city and special comune (named "Roma Capitale") in Italy.
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Saint Antoninus of Piacenza, or Placentia (died 303 AD) is a patron saint of Piacenza in Italy.
Salami is a type of cured sausage consisting of fermented and air-dried meat, typically beef or pork.
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San Francesco is a medieval Roman Catholic church in Piacenza, Italy.
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San Giovanni in Canale is a medieval church in central Piacenza, formerly associated with a Dominican monastery.
San Sisto is a Renaissance style, Roman Catholic church, located in Piacenza, Region of Emilia Romagna, Italy.
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The Sapienza University of Rome, officially Sapienza – Università di Roma, also called simply Sapienza or the "University of Rome", is a collegiate research university located in Rome, Italy.
A sausage is a food usually made from ground meat, often pork, beef or veal, along with salt, spices and breadcrumbs, with a skin around it.
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Simone Inzaghi (born 5 April 1976) is an Italian football manager and former professional footballer who played as a striker.
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The Sistine Madonna, also called the Madonna di San Sisto, is an oil painting by the Italian artist Raphael Sanzio.
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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.
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The Taro (Latin Tarus) is a river in Emilia-Romagna, in northern Italy.
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Tarquinio Provini (May 29, 1933 – January 6, 2005) was an Italian world championship-winning Grand Prix motorcycle road racer.
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The Theban Legion (also known as the Martyrs of Agaunum) figures in Christian hagiography as an entire Roman legion — of "six thousand six hundred and sixty-six men" — who had converted en masse to Christianity and were martyred together, in 286, according to the hagiographies of Saint Maurice, the chief among the Legion's saints.
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Tortona is a comune of Piemonte, in the Province of Alessandria, Italy.
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Tosca is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa.
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Travo is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Piacenza in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about northwest of Bologna and about southwest of Piacenza.
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The Trebbia (stressed Trèbbia; Trebia) is a river predominantly of Liguria and Emilia Romagna in northern Italy.
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Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal and social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Umberto Menotti Maria Giordano (28 August 1867 – 12 November 1948) was an Italian composer, mainly of operas.
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UniCredit Group is an Italian global banking and financial services company.
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The Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (English: Catholic University of the Sacred Heart), known as UCSC or simply Cattolica, is an Italian private research university founded in 1921.
The University of Montpellier (Université de Montpellier) is a French public research university in Montpellier in south-east of France.
The University of Pavia (Università degli Studi di Pavia, UNIPV or Università di Pavia; Ticinensis Universitas) is a university located in Pavia, Lombardy, Italy.
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Urbino is a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance culture, especially under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino from 1444 to 1482.
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In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
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A veduta (Italian for "view"; plural vedute) is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting or, actually more often print, of a cityscape or some other vista.
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Verona (Venetian: Verona, Veròna) is a city straddling the Adige river in Veneto, northern Italy, with approximately 265,000 inhabitants and one of the seven chef-lieus of the region.
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The Via Aemilia (Via Emilia) was a trunk Roman road in the north Italian plain, running from Ariminum (Rimini), on the Adriatic coast, to Placentia (Piacenza) on the river Padus (Po).
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The Via Francigena is the common name of an ancient road and pilgrim route running from France to Rome, though it is usually considered to have its starting point much further away, in the English cathedral city of Canterbury.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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The 1952 Summer Olympics (Finnish: Kesäolympialaiset 1952) (Swedish: Olympiska sommarspelen 1952), officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Helsinki, Finland, in 1952.
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The 2010 UCI Road World Championships took place in Geelong and Melbourne, Australia, over 5 days from 29 September to 3 October 2010.
The 2011 UCI Road World Championships took place in Copenhagen, Denmark, over 19–25 September 2011.
The 50 kilometre race walk is an Olympic athletics event.
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