219 relations: Acceleromyograph, Acoustic coupler, Acoustic emission, Acoustic location, Acoustic-electric guitar, Acousto-optic modulator, Actuator, Albany, New York, Amber, Amplified piezoelectric actuator, Annales de chimie et de physique, Antoine César Becquerel, Apatite, Atomic force microscopy, Autofocus, Axle, Bacteriophage, Barium titanate, Berlinite, Bismuth ferrite, Bismuth titanate, Bone, Bravais lattice, Bronze, Capacitor, Car, Carl Linnaeus, Cartesian tensor, Cavitation, Centrosymmetry, Ceramic, Charge amplifier, Charge density, Clock signal, Collagen, Common rail, Computer, Contact microphone, Crystal, Crystal earpiece, Crystal oscillator, Crystal structure, Crystal system, Crystallographic point group, CT scan, DARPA, Deformation (mechanics), Dentin, Diesel engine, DNA, ..., Echo, Elasticity (physics), Electret, Electric charge, Electric dipole moment, Electric displacement field, Electric field, Electric potential, Electronic component, Electronic drum, Electrostriction, Ellipse, Energy harvesting, Engine control unit, Euclidean vector, Ferroelectricity, Flexoelectricity, Fluorescent lamp, Force, France, Frankfurt, Franz Aepinus, Frequency multiplier, Frequency standard, Friction, Fuel injection, Gabriel Lippmann, Gallium phosphate, Gas stove, Germany, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Greek language, Head (company), Hertz, High-intensity focused ultrasound, Hooke's law, Huygens (spacecraft), Hydrophone, Inchworm motor, Inductor, Inkjet printing, Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Ion, Issac Koga, Jacques Curie, Japan, Lanthanum gallium silicate, Laser, Lead, Lead titanate, Lead zirconate titanate, Lighter, Liquid-crystal display, Lithium niobate, Lithium tantalate, M13 bacteriophage, Madelung constant, Magnetic resonance imaging, Magnetostriction, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Matrix (mathematics), Microbalance, Micrometre, Microphone, Microthermal analysis, Mineral, Nature (journal), Near-field scanning optical microscope, Non linear piezoelectric effects in polar semiconductors, Nondestructive testing, Oscillation, Paul Langevin, Permittivity, Perovskite (structure), Phase (waves), Phonograph, Phosphate, Photoelectric effect, Pickup (music technology), Pierre Curie, Piezo ignition, Piezoelectric motor, Piezoelectric speaker, Piezoelectric surgery, Piezoelectricity, Piezoluminescence, Piezomagnetism, Piezoresistive effect, Piezotronics, Polarization density, Polyvinylidene fluoride, Potassium niobate, Potassium sodium tartrate, Pregnancy rate, Protein, Pyroelectricity, Quartz, Quartz clock, Quartz crystal microbalance, Racket (sports equipment), Radio, Radio receiver, Refreshable braille display, René Just Haüy, Resonance, Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive, Reversible process (thermodynamics), Robert Bosch GmbH, Russia, Scanning probe microscopy, Scanning tunneling microscope, Sensor, Silk, Sine wave, Single-lens reflex camera, Sodium bismuth titanate, Sodium tungstate, Solar cell, Soldier, Solenoid valve, Sonar, Sonochemistry, Sonomicrometry, Spark gap, Sphalerite, Stepper motor, Stick-slip phenomenon, Stiffness, Strain gauge, Stress (mechanics), Submarine, Sucrose, Sugar, Sugarcane, Surface acoustic wave, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Tendon, Tensor, Tensor field, Tetragonal crystal system, Texture (crystalline), Time-domain reflectometer, Tooth enamel, Topaz, Tourmaline, Transducer, Transformer, Transmitter, Transpose, Triboluminescence, Tungsten, Ultrasonic nozzle, Ultrasound, United States, University of Pennsylvania, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Vector field, Voigt notation, Volt, Voltage, Watt, Woldemar Voigt, Wood, World War I, World War II, Wurtzite, Wurtzite crystal structure, X-ray, Zinc oxide. Expand index (169 more) » « Shrink index
An acceleromyograph is a piezoelectric myograph, used to measure the force produced by a muscle after it has undergone nerve stimulation.
In telecommunications, an acoustic coupler is an interface device for coupling electrical signals by acoustical means—usually into and out of a telephone.
Acoustic emission (AE) is the phenomenon of radiation of acoustic (elastic) waves in solids that occurs when a material undergoes irreversible changes in its internal structure, for example as a result of crack formation or plastic deformation due to aging, temperature gradients or external mechanical forces.
Acoustic location is the use of sound to determine the distance and direction of its source or reflector.
An acoustic-electric guitar (also called an electro-acoustic guitar) is an acoustic guitar fitted with a magnetic pickup, a piezoelectric pickup or a microphone.
An acousto-optic modulator (AOM), also called a Bragg cell, uses the acousto-optic effect to diffract and shift the frequency of light using sound waves (usually at radio-frequency).
An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving and controlling a mechanism or system, for example by opening a valve.
Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
Amplified piezoelectric actuators are specific actuators using piezoelectric materials as active material and have a specific design to overcome traditional limitations of classical direct piezoelectric actuators, the limited stroke.
Annales de chimie et de physique (French for Annals of Chemistry and of Physics) is a scientific journal that was founded in Paris, France, in 1789 under the title Annales de chimie.
Antoine César Becquerel (7 March 178818 January 1878) was a French scientist and a pioneer in the study of electric and luminescent phenomena.
Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, with high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.
An autofocus (or AF) optical system uses a sensor, a control system and a motor to focus on an automatically or manually selected point or area.
An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
Barium titanate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaTiO3.
Berlinite (aluminium phosphate, chemical formula AlPO4 or Al(PO4)) is a rare high-temperature hydrothermal or metasomatic phosphate mineral.
Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3, also commonly referred to as BFO in materials science) is an inorganic chemical compound with perovskite structure and one of the most promising multiferroic materials.
Bismuth titanate or bismuth titanium oxide is a solid inorganic compound of bismuth, titanium and oxygen with the chemical formula of Bi12TiO20, Bi 4Ti3O12 or Bi2Ti2O7.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
In geometry and linear algebra, a Cartesian tensor uses an orthonormal basis to represent a tensor in a Euclidean space in the form of components.
Cavitation is the formation of vapour cavities in a liquid, small liquid-free zones ("bubbles" or "voids"), that are the consequence of forces acting upon the liquid.
In crystallography, a point group which contains an inversion center as one of its symmetry elements is centrosymmetric.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
A charge amplifier is an electronic current integrator that produces a voltage output proportional to the integrated value of the input current.
In electromagnetism, charge density is a measure of the amount of electric charge per unit length, surface area, or volume.
In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state and is used like a metronome to coordinate actions of digital circuits.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Common rail direct fuel injection is a direct fuel injection system for diesel engines.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
A contact microphone, also known as a pickup or a piezo, is a form of microphone that senses audio vibrations through contact with solid objects.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
A crystal earpiece is a type of piezoelectric earphone, producing sound by using a piezoelectric crystal, a material that changes its shape when electricity is applied to it.
A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
In crystallography, the terms crystal system, crystal family and lattice system each refer to one of several classes of space groups, lattices, point groups or crystals.
In crystallography, a crystallographic point group is a set of symmetry operations, like rotations or reflections, that leave a central point fixed while moving other directions and faces of the crystal to the positions of features of the same kind.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.
Dentin (American English) or dentine (British English) (substantia eburnea) is a calcified tissue of the body and, along with enamel, cementum, and pulp, is one of the four major components of teeth.
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In audio signal processing and acoustics, Echo is a reflection of sound that arrives at the listener with a delay after the direct sound.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
Electret (formed of electr- from "electricity" and -et from "magnet") is a dielectric material that has a quasi-permanent electric charge or dipole polarisation.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
The electric dipole moment is a measure of the separation of positive and negative electrical charges within a system, that is, a measure of the system's overall polarity.
In physics, the electric displacement field, denoted by D, is a vector field that appears in Maxwell's equations.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.
An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.
An electronic drum, also known as electric drums, digital drums, or electronic percussion, is a modern electronic musical instrument, a special type of synthesizer or sampler, primarily designed to serve as an alternative to an acoustic drum kit or other percussion instruments.
Electrostriction (cf. magnetostriction) is a property of all electrical non-conductors, or dielectrics, that causes them to change their shape under the application of an electric field.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
Energy harvesting (also known as power harvesting or energy scavenging or ambient power) is the process by which energy is derived from external sources (e.g., solar power, thermal energy, wind energy, salinity gradients, and kinetic energy, also known as ambient energy), captured, and stored for small, wireless autonomous devices, like those used in wearable electronics and wireless sensor networks.
An engine control unit (ECU), also commonly called an engine control module (ECM), is a type of electronic control unit that controls a series of actuators on an internal combustion engine to ensure optimal engine performance.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
Ferroelectricity is a characteristic of certain materials that have a spontaneous electric polarization that can be reversed by the application of an external electric field.
Flexoelectricity is a property of a dielectric material whereby it exhibits a spontaneous electrical polarization induced by a strain gradient.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Franz Ulrich Theodor Aepinus (December 13, 1724August 10, 1802) was a German and Russian Empire natural philosopher.
In electronics, a frequency multiplier is an electronic circuit that generates an output signal whose output frequency is a harmonic (multiple) of its input frequency.
A frequency standard is a stable oscillator used for frequency calibration or reference.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector.
Jonas Ferdinand Gabriel Lippmann (16 August 1845 – 13 July 1921) was a Franco-Luxembourgish physicist and inventor, and Nobel laureate in physics for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference.
Gallium phosphate (GaPO4 or gallium orthophosphate) is a colorless trigonal crystal with a hardness of 5.5 on the Mohs scale.
In cooking, a gas stove is a cooker/stove which uses syngas, natural gas, propane, butane, liquefied petroleum gas or other flammable gas as a fuel source.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is an American multinational tire manufacturing company founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling and based in Akron, Ohio.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Head N.V. is a Dutch sports and clothing company, which sells alpine skiing and tennis equipment.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an early stage medical technology that is in various stages of development worldwide to treat a range of disorders.
Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance scales linearly with respect to that distance.
Huygens was an atmospheric entry probe that landed successfully on Saturn's moon Titan in 2005.
A hydrophone (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ.
The inchworm motor is a device that uses piezoelectric actuators to move a shaft with nanometer precision.
An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.
Inkjet printing is a type of computer printing that recreates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper, plastic, or other substrates.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure in which a single sperm cell is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an egg.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Issac (Issaku) Koga (December 5, 1899 in Tashiro Village (now Tosu), Saga Prefecture, Japan – September 2, 1982) the eldest of 7 children.
Paul-Jacques Curie (29 October 1855 – 19 February 1941) was a French physicist and professor of mineralogy at the University of Montpellier.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Lanthanum gallium silicate (referred to as LGS in this article), also known as langasite, has a chemical formula of the form A3BC3D2O14, where A, B, C and D indicate particular cation sites.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead(II) titanate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula PbTiO3.
Lead zirconate titanate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Pb (0≤x≤1).
A lighter is a portable device used to create a flame, and to ignite a variety of combustible materials, such as cigars, gas stoves, fireworks, candles or cigarettes.
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.
Lithium niobate is a compound of niobium, lithium, and oxygen.
Lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) is a perovskite which possesses unique optical, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties which make it valuable for nonlinear optics, passive infrared sensors such as motion detectors, terahertz generation and detection, surface acoustic wave applications, cell phones and possibly pyroelectric nuclear fusion.
M13 is a virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli.
The Madelung constant is used in determining the electrostatic potential of a single ion in a crystal by approximating the ions by point charges.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Magnetostriction (cf. electrostriction) is a property of ferromagnetic materials that causes them to change their shape or dimensions during the process of magnetization.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.
A microbalance is an instrument capable of making precise measurements of weight of objects of relatively small mass: of the order of a million parts of a gram.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.
Microthermal analysis is a materials characterization technique which combines the thermal analysis principles of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) with high spatial resolution of scanning probe microscopy.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM/SNOM) is a microscopy technique for nanostructure investigation that breaks the far field resolution limit by exploiting the properties of evanescent waves.
Non linear piezoelectric effects in polar semiconductors are the manifestation that the strain induced piezoelectric polarization depends not just on the product of the first order piezoelectric coefficients times the strain tensor components but also on the product of the second order (or higher) piezoelectric coefficients times products of the strain tensor components.
Nondestructive testing or non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage.
Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.
Paul Langevin (23 January 1872 – 19 December 1946) was a prominent French physicist who developed Langevin dynamics and the Langevin equation.
In electromagnetism, absolute permittivity, often simply called permittivity, usually denoted by the Greek letter ε (epsilon), is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium.
A perovskite is any material with the same type of crystal structure as calcium titanium oxide (CaTiO3), known as the perovskite structure, or XIIA2+VIB4+X2−3 with the oxygen in the edge centers.
Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.
The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
A pickup is a transducer that captures or senses mechanical vibrations produced by musical instruments, particularly stringed instruments such as the electric guitar, and converts these to an electrical signal that is amplified using an instrument amplifier to produce musical sounds through a loudspeaker in a speaker enclosure.
Pierre Curie (15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity.
Piezo ignition is a type of ignition that is used in portable camping stoves, gas grills and some lighters, and potato cannons.
A piezoelectric motor or piezo motor is a type of electric motor based on the change in shape of a piezoelectric material when an electric field is applied.
A piezoelectric speaker (sometimes colloquially called a "pizo", buzzer or crystal loudspeaker) is a loudspeaker that uses the piezoelectric effect for generating sound.
Piezoelectric Bone Surgery is a process that utilizes piezoelectric vibrations in the application of cutting bone tissue.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
Piezoluminescence is a form of luminescence created by pressure upon certain solids.
Piezomagnetism is a phenomenon observed in some antiferromagnetic crystals.
The piezoresistive effect is a change in the electrical resistivity of a semiconductor or metal when mechanical strain is applied.
Piezotronics effect is using the piezoelectric potential (piezopotential) created in materials with piezoelectricity as a “gate” voltage to tune/control the charge carrier transport properties for fabricating new devices.
In classical electromagnetism, polarization density (or electric polarization, or simply polarization) is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a dielectric material.
Polyvinylidene fluoride or polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) is a highly non-reactive thermoplastic fluoropolymer produced by the polymerization of vinylidene difluoride.
Potassium niobate (KNbO3) is a perovskite ferroelectric crystal.
Potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate, also known as Rochelle salt, is a double salt of tartaric acid first prepared (in about 1675) by an apothecary, Pierre Seignette, of La Rochelle, France.
Pregnancy rate is the success rate for getting pregnant.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pyroelectricity (from the Greek pyr, fire, and electricity) is the property of certain crystals which are naturally electrically polarized and as a result contain large electric fields.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
A quartz clock is a clock that uses an electronic oscillator that is regulated by a quartz crystal to keep time.
A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measures a mass variation per unit area by measuring the change in frequency of a quartz crystal resonator.
A racket or racquet is a sports implement consisting of a handled frame with an open hoop across which a network of strings or catgut is stretched tightly.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
In radio communications, a radio receiver (receiver or simply radio) is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form.
A refreshable braille display or braille terminal is an electro-mechanical device for displaying braille characters, usually by means of round-tipped pins raised through holes in a flat surface.
René Just Haüy FRS MWS FRSE (28 February 1743 – 3 June 1822) was a French priest and mineralogist, commonly styled the Abbé Haüy after he was made an honorary canon of Notre Dame.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive 2002/95/EC, (RoHS 1), short for Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union.
In thermodynamics, a reversible process is a process whose direction can be "reversed" by inducing infinitesimal changes to some property of the system via its surroundings, with no increase in entropy.
Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a German multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Scanning probe microscope (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen.
A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.
A single-lens reflex camera (SLR) is a camera that typically uses a mirror and prism system (hence "reflex" from the mirror's reflection) that permits the photographer to view through the lens and see exactly what will be captured.
Sodium bismuth titanate or bismuth sodium titanium oxide (NBT or BNT) is a solid inorganic compound of sodium, bismuth, titanium and oxygen with the chemical formula of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 or Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3.
Sodium tungstate is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2WO4.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
A soldier is one who fights as part of an army.
A solenoid valve is an electromechanical device in which the solenoid uses an electric current to generate a magnetic field and thereby operate a mechanism which regulates the opening of fluid flow in a valve.
Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
In chemistry, the study of sonochemistry is concerned with understanding the effect of ultrasound in forming acoustic cavitation in liquids, resulting in the initiation or enhancement of the chemical activity in the solution.
Sonomicrometry is a technique of measuring the distance between piezoelectric crystals based on the speed of acoustic signals through the medium they are embedded in.
A spark gap consists of an arrangement of two conducting electrodes separated by a gap usually filled with a gas such as air, designed to allow an electric spark to pass between the conductors.
Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.
A stepper motor or step motor or stepping motor is a brushless DC electric motor that divides a full rotation into a number of equal steps.
The stick-slip phenomenon, also known as the slip-stick phenomenon or simply stick-slip, is the spontaneous jerking motion that can occur while two objects are sliding over each other.
Stiffness is the rigidity of an object — the extent to which it resists deformation in response to an applied force.
A strain gauge is a device used to measure strain on an object.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
A surface acoustic wave (SAW) is an acoustic wave traveling along the surface of a material exhibiting elasticity, with an amplitude that typically decays exponentially with depth into the substrate.
The Technische Universität Darmstadt (unofficially Technical University of Darmstadt or Darmstadt University of Technology), commonly referred to as TU Darmstadt, is a research university in the city of Darmstadt, Germany.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.
In mathematics and physics, a tensor field assigns a tensor to each point of a mathematical space (typically a Euclidean space or manifold).
In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
In materials science, texture is the distribution of crystallographic orientations of a polycrystalline sample (it is also part of the geological fabric).
A time-domain reflectometer (TDR) is an electronic instrument that uses time-domain reflectometry to characterize and locate faults in metallic cables (for example, twisted pair wire or coaxial cable).
Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.
Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F, OH)2.
Tourmaline is a crystalline boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium.
A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another.
A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna.
In linear algebra, the transpose of a matrix is an operator which flips a matrix over its diagonal, that is it switches the row and column indices of the matrix by producing another matrix denoted as AT (also written A′, Atr, tA or At).
Triboluminescence is an optical phenomenon in which light is generated through the breaking of chemical bonds in a material when it is pulled apart, ripped, scratched, crushed, or rubbed (see tribology).
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Ultrasonic nozzles are a type of spray nozzle that uses high frequency vibration produced by piezoelectric transducers acting upon the nozzle tip that will create capillary waves in a liquid film.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space.
In mathematics, Voigt notation or Voigt form in multilinear algebra is a way to represent a symmetric tensor by reducing its order.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
Woldemar Voigt (2 September 1850 – 13 December 1919) was a German physicist, who taught at the Georg August University of Göttingen.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wurtzite is a zinc iron sulfide mineral ((Zn,Fe)S) a less frequently encountered mineral form of sphalerite.
General hexagonal crystal structure The wurtzite crystal structure, named after the mineral wurtzite, is a crystal structure for various binary compounds.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
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