151 relations: Aaron B. Lerner, Ajna, Alzheimer's disease, Ammonium phosphate, Amniote, Antidepressant, Banshee Chapter, Basophilic, Beta-Carboline, Bird, Blood–brain barrier, Brain, Branchiostoma lanceolatum, Calcification, Calcite, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Calcium phosphate, Carbohydrate metabolism, Cell (biology), Central nervous system, Cerebral aqueduct, Cerebral hemisphere, Cerebrospinal fluid, Chronobiology, Circadian rhythm, Cocaine, Common descent, Connective tissue, Consensus reality, Corpora arenacea, Corpora quadrigemina, Crocodilia, Dementia, Devonian, Diencephalon, Dysgerminoma, Ectoderm, Embryo, Endocrine gland, Endothelin, Epithalamus, Evolution, Eye, Fluoxetine, Follicle-stimulating hormone, From Beyond (film), From Beyond (short story), Georges Bataille, Germ cell, ..., Germinoma, Habenular commissure, Hagfish, Headache, Helena Blavatsky, Histology, Hormone, Human, Hydrocephalus, Interstitial cell, Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, Lamprey, Lancelet, Lateral ventricles, List of foramina of the human body, Lizard, Luteinizing hormone, Magnesium phosphate, Mammal, Marsupial, Melanopsin, Melatonin, Metaphysics, Microdialysis, Midbrain, Mole (unit), Mysticism, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Neoplasm, Neurodegeneration, Neuroectoderm, Neuron, Neuropeptide, Neuropsychopharmacology (journal), NeuroReport, Occult, Otic ganglion, Pangolin, Parasympathetic nervous system, Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, Parenchyma, Parietal eye, Parinaud's syndrome, Peptide, Pericyte, Phagocyte, Phosphorus, Photoreceptor cell, Phylogenetics, Pia mater, Pigment, Pine nut, Pineal gland cyst, Pinealectomy, Pinealocyte, Pinealoma, Pineocytoma, Pinoline, Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, Pituitary gland, Posterior cerebral artery, Precocious puberty, Pretectal area, Pseudoscience, Psychiatry, Pterygopalatine ganglion, Receptor (biochemistry), Recreational drug use, René Descartes, Reptile, Retinohypothalamic tract, Rick Strassman, Seminoma, Serotonin, Simple eye in invertebrates, Sirenia, Skull, Sleep, Spinal cord, Structural biology, Superior cervical ganglion, Superior cistern, Superior colliculus, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Sympathetic nervous system, Tetrapod, Thalamus, The FASEB Journal, Theosophy (Blavatskian), Third eye, Third ventricle, Trigeminal ganglion, Tuatara, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Vertebrate, Vestigiality, Visual phototransduction, X-ray, Xenarthra, Yale University, Zebrafish. Expand index (101 more) » « Shrink index
Aaron Bunsen Lerner (September 21, 1920 – February 3, 2007) was an American physician, researcher and professor.
Ajna (आज्ञा, IAST), or third-eye chakra, is the sixth primary chakra in the body according to Hindu tradition.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Ammonium phosphate is the salt of ammonium and phosphate.
Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Banshee Chapter (sometimes referred to as The Banshee Chapter) is a 2013 American horror film and the directorial debut of Blair Erickson.
Basophilic is a technical term used by histologists.
β-Carboline (9H-pyridoindole), also known as norharmane, is a nitrogen containing heterocycle.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Branchiostoma lanceolatum (European lancelet) is a lancelet in the subphylum Cephalochordata.
Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Calcium phosphate is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with inorganic phosphate anions.
Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebral aqueduct, also known as the aqueductus mesencephali, mesencephalic duct, sylvian aqueduct or the aqueduct of Sylvius is within the mesencephalon (or midbrain), contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and connects the third ventricle in the diencephalon to the fourth ventricle within the region of the mesencephalon and metencephalon, located dorsal to the pons and ventral to the cerebellum.
The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
Consensus reality is that which is generally agreed to be reality, based on a consensus view.
Corpora arenacea (or brain sand or acervuli or corpus arenaceum) are calcified structures in the pineal gland and other areas of the brain such as the choroid plexus.
In the brain, the corpora quadrigemina (Latin for "quadruplet bodies") are the four colliculi—two inferior, two superior—located on the tectum of the dorsal aspect of the midbrain.
Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic archosaurian reptiles, known as crocodilians.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
The diencephalon is a division of the forebrain (embryonic prosencephalon), and is situated between the telencephalon and the midbrain (embryonic mesencephalon).
A dysgerminoma is a type of germ cell tumor; it usually is malignant and usually occurs in the ovary.
Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct.
Endothelins are peptides with receptors and effects in many body organs.
The epithalamus is a (dorsal) posterior segment of the diencephalon.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
From Beyond is a 1986 American science-fiction body horror film directed by Stuart Gordon, loosely based on the short story of the same name by H. P. Lovecraft.
"From Beyond" is a horror short story by American writer H. P. Lovecraft.
Georges Albert Maurice Victor Bataille (10 September 1897 – 9 July 1962) was a French intellectual and literary figure working in literature, philosophy, anthropology, economics, sociology and history of art.
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.
A germinoma is a type of germ cell tumor, which is not differentiated upon examination.
The habenular commissure, is a brain commissure (a band of nerve fibers) situated in front of the pineal gland that connects the habenular nuclei on both sides of the diencephalon.
Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (Еле́на Петро́вна Блава́тская, Yelena Petrovna Blavatskaya; 8 May 1891) was a Russian occultist, philosopher, and author who co-founded the Theosophical Society in 1875.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain.
Interstitial cell refers to any cell that lies between other cells.
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye.
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
The lancelets — also known as amphioxi (singular, amphioxus) consist of about 32 species of fish-like marine chordates in the order Amphioxiformes.
The lateral ventricles are the two largest cavities of the ventricular system of the human brain and contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
This page lists foramina that occur in the human body.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
Magnesium phosphate is a general term for salts of magnesium and phosphate appearing in several forms.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.
Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Microdialysis is a minimally-invasive sampling technique that is used for continuous measurement of free, unbound analyte concentrations in the extracellular fluid of virtually any tissue.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
Neuroectoderm (or neural ectoderm or neural tube epithelium) is ectoderm which receives bone morphogenetic protein-inhibiting signals from proteins such as noggin, which leads to the development of the nervous system from this tissue.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.
Neuropsychopharmacology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
NeuroReport is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of neuroscience.
The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".
The otic ganglion is a small parasympathetic ganglion located immediately below the foramen ovale in the infratemporal fossa and on the medial surface of the mandibular nerve.
Pangolins or scaly anteaters are mammals of the order Pholidota (from the Greek word φολῐ́ς, "horny scale").
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN, PVA, or PVH) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus.
Parenchyma is the bulk of a substance.
A parietal eye, also known as a third eye or pineal eye, is a part of the epithalamus present in some animal species.
Parinaud's syndrome, also known as dorsal midbrain syndrome, vertical gaze palsy, and sunset sign, is an inability to move the eyes up and down.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Pericytes are contractile cells that wrap around the endothelial cells that line the capillaries and venules throughout the body.
Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
Pia mater (or in, retrieved 2012-07-28.), often referred to as simply the pia, is the delicate innermost layer of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Pine nuts (also called piñon or pignoli /pinˈyōlē/) are the edible seeds of pines (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus).
A pineal gland cyst is a usually benign (non-malignant) cyst in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland in the brain.
Pinealectomy is a surgical procedure in which the pineal gland is removed.
Pinealocytes are the main cells contained in the pineal gland, located behind the third ventricle and between the two hemispheres of the brain.
A pinealoma is a tumor of the pineal gland, a part of the brain that produces melatonin.
Pineocytoma, also known as a pinealocytoma, is a benign, slowly growing tumor of the pineal gland.
Pinoline is a methoxylated tryptoline (5-methoxytryptoline) long claimed to be produced in the pineal gland during the metabolism of melatonin, however its pineal occurrence remains controversial.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide also known as PACAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADCYAP1 gene.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy.
In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.
The pretectal area, or pretectum, is a midbrain structure composed of seven nuclei and comprises part of the subcortical visual system.
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
The pterygopalatine ganglion (Meckel's ganglion, nasal ganglion or sphenopalatine ganglion) is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the pterygopalatine fossa.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) is a photic neural input pathway involved in the circadian rhythms of mammals.
Rick Strassman (born February 8, 1952 in Los Angeles, California) is a medical doctor specialized in psychiatry with a fellowship in clinical psychopharmacology research and holds degrees from Stanford University and Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University.
Seminoma (also known as pure seminoma or classical seminoma) is a germ cell tumor of the testicle or, more rarely, the mediastinum or other extra-gonadal locations.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.
The Sirenia, commonly referred to as sea cows or sirenians, are an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit swamps, rivers, estuaries, marine wetlands, and coastal marine waters.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules (especially proteins, made up of amino acids, and RNA or DNA, made up of nucleic acids), how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function.
The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is part of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) responsible for maintaining homeostasis of the body.
The superior cistern (cistern of great cerebral vein, quadrigeminal cistern, ambient cistern) is a dilation as a subarachnoid cistern of the subarachnoid space between the splenium of the corpus callosum and the superior surface of the cerebellum; it extends between the layers of the tela choroidea of the third ventricle and contains the great cerebral vein and the pineal gland.
The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
The FASEB Journal is a scientific journal related to experimental biosciences, promoting scientific progress and education.
Theosophy is an esoteric religious movement established in the United States during the late nineteenth century.
The third eye (also called the mind's eye, or inner eye) is a mystical and esoteric concept of a speculative invisible eye which provides perception beyond ordinary sight.
The third ventricle is one of four connected fluid-filled cavities comprising the ventricular system within the mammalian brain.
The trigeminal ganglion (or Gasserian ganglion, or semilunar ganglion, or Gasser's ganglion) is a sensory ganglion of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) that occupies a cavity (Meckel's cave) in the dura mater, covering the trigeminal impression near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone.
Tuatara are reptiles endemic to New Zealand.
The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNM School of Medicine) is a division of the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (UNM HSC) located in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vestigiality is the retention during the process of evolution of genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost some or all of their ancestral function in a given species.
Visual phototransduction is the sensory transduction of the visual system.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
The superorder Xenarthra is a group of placental mammals, extant today only in the Americas and represented by anteaters, tree sloths, and armadillos.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a freshwater fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae) of the order Cypriniformes.
Calcification of the pineal gland, Conarium, Corpus pineale, Epiphysis Cerebri, Epiphysis cerebri, Glandula pinealis, Peneal gland, Pineal, Pineal Gland, Pineal body, Pineal chakra, Pineal foramen, Pineal glands, Pineal organ, Pineal recess, Pineal recesses, Recessus pinealis.