Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Faster access than browser!

Pineal gland

Index Pineal gland

The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. [1]

151 relations: Aaron B. Lerner, Ajna, Alzheimer's disease, Ammonium phosphate, Amniote, Antidepressant, Banshee Chapter, Basophilic, Beta-Carboline, Bird, Blood–brain barrier, Brain, Branchiostoma lanceolatum, Calcification, Calcite, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Calcium phosphate, Carbohydrate metabolism, Cell (biology), Central nervous system, Cerebral aqueduct, Cerebral hemisphere, Cerebrospinal fluid, Chronobiology, Circadian rhythm, Cocaine, Common descent, Connective tissue, Consensus reality, Corpora arenacea, Corpora quadrigemina, Crocodilia, Dementia, Devonian, Diencephalon, Dysgerminoma, Ectoderm, Embryo, Endocrine gland, Endothelin, Epithalamus, Evolution, Eye, Fluoxetine, Follicle-stimulating hormone, From Beyond (film), From Beyond (short story), Georges Bataille, Germ cell, ..., Germinoma, Habenular commissure, Hagfish, Headache, Helena Blavatsky, Histology, Hormone, Human, Hydrocephalus, Interstitial cell, Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, Lamprey, Lancelet, Lateral ventricles, List of foramina of the human body, Lizard, Luteinizing hormone, Magnesium phosphate, Mammal, Marsupial, Melanopsin, Melatonin, Metaphysics, Microdialysis, Midbrain, Mole (unit), Mysticism, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Neoplasm, Neurodegeneration, Neuroectoderm, Neuron, Neuropeptide, Neuropsychopharmacology (journal), NeuroReport, Occult, Otic ganglion, Pangolin, Parasympathetic nervous system, Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, Parenchyma, Parietal eye, Parinaud's syndrome, Peptide, Pericyte, Phagocyte, Phosphorus, Photoreceptor cell, Phylogenetics, Pia mater, Pigment, Pine nut, Pineal gland cyst, Pinealectomy, Pinealocyte, Pinealoma, Pineocytoma, Pinoline, Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, Pituitary gland, Posterior cerebral artery, Precocious puberty, Pretectal area, Pseudoscience, Psychiatry, Pterygopalatine ganglion, Receptor (biochemistry), Recreational drug use, René Descartes, Reptile, Retinohypothalamic tract, Rick Strassman, Seminoma, Serotonin, Simple eye in invertebrates, Sirenia, Skull, Sleep, Spinal cord, Structural biology, Superior cervical ganglion, Superior cistern, Superior colliculus, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Sympathetic nervous system, Tetrapod, Thalamus, The FASEB Journal, Theosophy (Blavatskian), Third eye, Third ventricle, Trigeminal ganglion, Tuatara, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Vertebrate, Vestigiality, Visual phototransduction, X-ray, Xenarthra, Yale University, Zebrafish. Expand index (101 more) »

Aaron B. Lerner

Aaron Bunsen Lerner (September 21, 1920 – February 3, 2007) was an American physician, researcher and professor.

New!!: Pineal gland and Aaron B. Lerner · See more »


Ajna (आज्ञा, IAST), or third-eye chakra, is the sixth primary chakra in the body according to Hindu tradition.

New!!: Pineal gland and Ajna · See more »

Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

New!!: Pineal gland and Alzheimer's disease · See more »

Ammonium phosphate

Ammonium phosphate is the salt of ammonium and phosphate.

New!!: Pineal gland and Ammonium phosphate · See more »


Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.

New!!: Pineal gland and Amniote · See more »


Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.

New!!: Pineal gland and Antidepressant · See more »

Banshee Chapter

Banshee Chapter (sometimes referred to as The Banshee Chapter) is a 2013 American horror film and the directorial debut of Blair Erickson.

New!!: Pineal gland and Banshee Chapter · See more »


Basophilic is a technical term used by histologists.

New!!: Pineal gland and Basophilic · See more »


β-Carboline (9H-pyridoindole), also known as norharmane, is a nitrogen containing heterocycle.

New!!: Pineal gland and Beta-Carboline · See more »


Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

New!!: Pineal gland and Bird · See more »

Blood–brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).

New!!: Pineal gland and Blood–brain barrier · See more »


The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

New!!: Pineal gland and Brain · See more »

Branchiostoma lanceolatum

Branchiostoma lanceolatum (European lancelet) is a lancelet in the subphylum Cephalochordata.

New!!: Pineal gland and Branchiostoma lanceolatum · See more »


Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.

New!!: Pineal gland and Calcification · See more »


Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

New!!: Pineal gland and Calcite · See more »


Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

New!!: Pineal gland and Calcium · See more »

Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

New!!: Pineal gland and Calcium carbonate · See more »

Calcium phosphate

Calcium phosphate is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with inorganic phosphate anions.

New!!: Pineal gland and Calcium phosphate · See more »

Carbohydrate metabolism

Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.

New!!: Pineal gland and Carbohydrate metabolism · See more »

Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

New!!: Pineal gland and Cell (biology) · See more »

Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

New!!: Pineal gland and Central nervous system · See more »

Cerebral aqueduct

The cerebral aqueduct, also known as the aqueductus mesencephali, mesencephalic duct, sylvian aqueduct or the aqueduct of Sylvius is within the mesencephalon (or midbrain), contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and connects the third ventricle in the diencephalon to the fourth ventricle within the region of the mesencephalon and metencephalon, located dorsal to the pons and ventral to the cerebellum.

New!!: Pineal gland and Cerebral aqueduct · See more »

Cerebral hemisphere

The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure.

New!!: Pineal gland and Cerebral hemisphere · See more »

Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.

New!!: Pineal gland and Cerebrospinal fluid · See more »


Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms.

New!!: Pineal gland and Chronobiology · See more »

Circadian rhythm

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.

New!!: Pineal gland and Circadian rhythm · See more »


Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

New!!: Pineal gland and Cocaine · See more »

Common descent

Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.

New!!: Pineal gland and Common descent · See more »

Connective tissue

Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.

New!!: Pineal gland and Connective tissue · See more »

Consensus reality

Consensus reality is that which is generally agreed to be reality, based on a consensus view.

New!!: Pineal gland and Consensus reality · See more »

Corpora arenacea

Corpora arenacea (or brain sand or acervuli or corpus arenaceum) are calcified structures in the pineal gland and other areas of the brain such as the choroid plexus.

New!!: Pineal gland and Corpora arenacea · See more »

Corpora quadrigemina

In the brain, the corpora quadrigemina (Latin for "quadruplet bodies") are the four colliculi—two inferior, two superior—located on the tectum of the dorsal aspect of the midbrain.

New!!: Pineal gland and Corpora quadrigemina · See more »


Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic archosaurian reptiles, known as crocodilians.

New!!: Pineal gland and Crocodilia · See more »


Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

New!!: Pineal gland and Dementia · See more »


The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.

New!!: Pineal gland and Devonian · See more »


The diencephalon is a division of the forebrain (embryonic prosencephalon), and is situated between the telencephalon and the midbrain (embryonic mesencephalon).

New!!: Pineal gland and Diencephalon · See more »


A dysgerminoma is a type of germ cell tumor; it usually is malignant and usually occurs in the ovary.

New!!: Pineal gland and Dysgerminoma · See more »


Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

New!!: Pineal gland and Ectoderm · See more »


An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

New!!: Pineal gland and Embryo · See more »

Endocrine gland

Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct.

New!!: Pineal gland and Endocrine gland · See more »


Endothelins are peptides with receptors and effects in many body organs.

New!!: Pineal gland and Endothelin · See more »


The epithalamus is a (dorsal) posterior segment of the diencephalon.

New!!: Pineal gland and Epithalamus · See more »


Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

New!!: Pineal gland and Evolution · See more »


Eyes are organs of the visual system.

New!!: Pineal gland and Eye · See more »


Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

New!!: Pineal gland and Fluoxetine · See more »

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.

New!!: Pineal gland and Follicle-stimulating hormone · See more »

From Beyond (film)

From Beyond is a 1986 American science-fiction body horror film directed by Stuart Gordon, loosely based on the short story of the same name by H. P. Lovecraft.

New!!: Pineal gland and From Beyond (film) · See more »

From Beyond (short story)

"From Beyond" is a horror short story by American writer H. P. Lovecraft.

New!!: Pineal gland and From Beyond (short story) · See more »

Georges Bataille

Georges Albert Maurice Victor Bataille (10 September 1897 – 9 July 1962) was a French intellectual and literary figure working in literature, philosophy, anthropology, economics, sociology and history of art.

New!!: Pineal gland and Georges Bataille · See more »

Germ cell

A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.

New!!: Pineal gland and Germ cell · See more »


A germinoma is a type of germ cell tumor, which is not differentiated upon examination.

New!!: Pineal gland and Germinoma · See more »

Habenular commissure

The habenular commissure, is a brain commissure (a band of nerve fibers) situated in front of the pineal gland that connects the habenular nuclei on both sides of the diencephalon.

New!!: Pineal gland and Habenular commissure · See more »


Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).

New!!: Pineal gland and Hagfish · See more »


Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.

New!!: Pineal gland and Headache · See more »

Helena Blavatsky

Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (Еле́на Петро́вна Блава́тская, Yelena Petrovna Blavatskaya; 8 May 1891) was a Russian occultist, philosopher, and author who co-founded the Theosophical Society in 1875.

New!!: Pineal gland and Helena Blavatsky · See more »


Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

New!!: Pineal gland and Histology · See more »


A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

New!!: Pineal gland and Hormone · See more »


Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

New!!: Pineal gland and Human · See more »


Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain.

New!!: Pineal gland and Hydrocephalus · See more »

Interstitial cell

Interstitial cell refers to any cell that lies between other cells.

New!!: Pineal gland and Interstitial cell · See more »

Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye.

New!!: Pineal gland and Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells · See more »


Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.

New!!: Pineal gland and Lamprey · See more »


The lancelets — also known as amphioxi (singular, amphioxus) consist of about 32 species of fish-like marine chordates in the order Amphioxiformes.

New!!: Pineal gland and Lancelet · See more »

Lateral ventricles

The lateral ventricles are the two largest cavities of the ventricular system of the human brain and contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

New!!: Pineal gland and Lateral ventricles · See more »

List of foramina of the human body

This page lists foramina that occur in the human body.

New!!: Pineal gland and List of foramina of the human body · See more »


Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.

New!!: Pineal gland and Lizard · See more »

Luteinizing hormone

Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.

New!!: Pineal gland and Luteinizing hormone · See more »

Magnesium phosphate

Magnesium phosphate is a general term for salts of magnesium and phosphate appearing in several forms.

New!!: Pineal gland and Magnesium phosphate · See more »


Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

New!!: Pineal gland and Mammal · See more »


Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.

New!!: Pineal gland and Marsupial · See more »


Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.

New!!: Pineal gland and Melanopsin · See more »


Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.

New!!: Pineal gland and Melatonin · See more »


Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

New!!: Pineal gland and Metaphysics · See more »


Microdialysis is a minimally-invasive sampling technique that is used for continuous measurement of free, unbound analyte concentrations in the extracellular fluid of virtually any tissue.

New!!: Pineal gland and Microdialysis · See more »


The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.

New!!: Pineal gland and Midbrain · See more »

Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

New!!: Pineal gland and Mole (unit) · See more »


Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.

New!!: Pineal gland and Mysticism · See more »


N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.

New!!: Pineal gland and N,N-Dimethyltryptamine · See more »


Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

New!!: Pineal gland and Neoplasm · See more »


Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.

New!!: Pineal gland and Neurodegeneration · See more »


Neuroectoderm (or neural ectoderm or neural tube epithelium) is ectoderm which receives bone morphogenetic protein-inhibiting signals from proteins such as noggin, which leads to the development of the nervous system from this tissue.

New!!: Pineal gland and Neuroectoderm · See more »


A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

New!!: Pineal gland and Neuron · See more »


Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.

New!!: Pineal gland and Neuropeptide · See more »

Neuropsychopharmacology (journal)

Neuropsychopharmacology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.

New!!: Pineal gland and Neuropsychopharmacology (journal) · See more »


NeuroReport is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of neuroscience.

New!!: Pineal gland and NeuroReport · See more »


The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".

New!!: Pineal gland and Occult · See more »

Otic ganglion

The otic ganglion is a small parasympathetic ganglion located immediately below the foramen ovale in the infratemporal fossa and on the medial surface of the mandibular nerve.

New!!: Pineal gland and Otic ganglion · See more »


Pangolins or scaly anteaters are mammals of the order Pholidota (from the Greek word φολῐ́ς, "horny scale").

New!!: Pineal gland and Pangolin · See more »

Parasympathetic nervous system

The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.

New!!: Pineal gland and Parasympathetic nervous system · See more »

Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus

The paraventricular nucleus (PVN, PVA, or PVH) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus.

New!!: Pineal gland and Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus · See more »


Parenchyma is the bulk of a substance.

New!!: Pineal gland and Parenchyma · See more »

Parietal eye

A parietal eye, also known as a third eye or pineal eye, is a part of the epithalamus present in some animal species.

New!!: Pineal gland and Parietal eye · See more »

Parinaud's syndrome

Parinaud's syndrome, also known as dorsal midbrain syndrome, vertical gaze palsy, and sunset sign, is an inability to move the eyes up and down.

New!!: Pineal gland and Parinaud's syndrome · See more »


Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

New!!: Pineal gland and Peptide · See more »


Pericytes are contractile cells that wrap around the endothelial cells that line the capillaries and venules throughout the body.

New!!: Pineal gland and Pericyte · See more »


Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.

New!!: Pineal gland and Phagocyte · See more »


Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

New!!: Pineal gland and Phosphorus · See more »

Photoreceptor cell

A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.

New!!: Pineal gland and Photoreceptor cell · See more »


In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

New!!: Pineal gland and Phylogenetics · See more »

Pia mater

Pia mater (or in, retrieved 2012-07-28.), often referred to as simply the pia, is the delicate innermost layer of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

New!!: Pineal gland and Pia mater · See more »


A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.

New!!: Pineal gland and Pigment · See more »

Pine nut

Pine nuts (also called piñon or pignoli /pinˈyōlē/) are the edible seeds of pines (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus).

New!!: Pineal gland and Pine nut · See more »

Pineal gland cyst

A pineal gland cyst is a usually benign (non-malignant) cyst in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland in the brain.

New!!: Pineal gland and Pineal gland cyst · See more »


Pinealectomy is a surgical procedure in which the pineal gland is removed.

New!!: Pineal gland and Pinealectomy · See more »


Pinealocytes are the main cells contained in the pineal gland, located behind the third ventricle and between the two hemispheres of the brain.

New!!: Pineal gland and Pinealocyte · See more »


A pinealoma is a tumor of the pineal gland, a part of the brain that produces melatonin.

New!!: Pineal gland and Pinealoma · See more »


Pineocytoma, also known as a pinealocytoma, is a benign, slowly growing tumor of the pineal gland.

New!!: Pineal gland and Pineocytoma · See more »


Pinoline is a methoxylated tryptoline (5-methoxytryptoline) long claimed to be produced in the pineal gland during the metabolism of melatonin, however its pineal occurrence remains controversial.

New!!: Pineal gland and Pinoline · See more »

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide also known as PACAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADCYAP1 gene.

New!!: Pineal gland and Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide · See more »

Pituitary gland

An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.

New!!: Pineal gland and Pituitary gland · See more »

Posterior cerebral artery

The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy.

New!!: Pineal gland and Posterior cerebral artery · See more »

Precocious puberty

In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.

New!!: Pineal gland and Precocious puberty · See more »

Pretectal area

The pretectal area, or pretectum, is a midbrain structure composed of seven nuclei and comprises part of the subcortical visual system.

New!!: Pineal gland and Pretectal area · See more »


Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.

New!!: Pineal gland and Pseudoscience · See more »


Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

New!!: Pineal gland and Psychiatry · See more »

Pterygopalatine ganglion

The pterygopalatine ganglion (Meckel's ganglion, nasal ganglion or sphenopalatine ganglion) is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the pterygopalatine fossa.

New!!: Pineal gland and Pterygopalatine ganglion · See more »

Receptor (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.

New!!: Pineal gland and Receptor (biochemistry) · See more »

Recreational drug use

Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

New!!: Pineal gland and Recreational drug use · See more »

René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

New!!: Pineal gland and René Descartes · See more »


Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

New!!: Pineal gland and Reptile · See more »

Retinohypothalamic tract

The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) is a photic neural input pathway involved in the circadian rhythms of mammals.

New!!: Pineal gland and Retinohypothalamic tract · See more »

Rick Strassman

Rick Strassman (born February 8, 1952 in Los Angeles, California) is a medical doctor specialized in psychiatry with a fellowship in clinical psychopharmacology research and holds degrees from Stanford University and Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University.

New!!: Pineal gland and Rick Strassman · See more »


Seminoma (also known as pure seminoma or classical seminoma) is a germ cell tumor of the testicle or, more rarely, the mediastinum or other extra-gonadal locations.

New!!: Pineal gland and Seminoma · See more »


Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

New!!: Pineal gland and Serotonin · See more »

Simple eye in invertebrates

A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.

New!!: Pineal gland and Simple eye in invertebrates · See more »


The Sirenia, commonly referred to as sea cows or sirenians, are an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit swamps, rivers, estuaries, marine wetlands, and coastal marine waters.

New!!: Pineal gland and Sirenia · See more »


The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.

New!!: Pineal gland and Skull · See more »


Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.

New!!: Pineal gland and Sleep · See more »

Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

New!!: Pineal gland and Spinal cord · See more »

Structural biology

Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules (especially proteins, made up of amino acids, and RNA or DNA, made up of nucleic acids), how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function.

New!!: Pineal gland and Structural biology · See more »

Superior cervical ganglion

The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is part of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) responsible for maintaining homeostasis of the body.

New!!: Pineal gland and Superior cervical ganglion · See more »

Superior cistern

The superior cistern (cistern of great cerebral vein, quadrigeminal cistern, ambient cistern) is a dilation as a subarachnoid cistern of the subarachnoid space between the splenium of the corpus callosum and the superior surface of the cerebellum; it extends between the layers of the tela choroidea of the third ventricle and contains the great cerebral vein and the pineal gland.

New!!: Pineal gland and Superior cistern · See more »

Superior colliculus

The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.

New!!: Pineal gland and Superior colliculus · See more »

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.

New!!: Pineal gland and Suprachiasmatic nucleus · See more »

Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

New!!: Pineal gland and Sympathetic nervous system · See more »


The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.

New!!: Pineal gland and Tetrapod · See more »


The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.

New!!: Pineal gland and Thalamus · See more »

The FASEB Journal

The FASEB Journal is a scientific journal related to experimental biosciences, promoting scientific progress and education.

New!!: Pineal gland and The FASEB Journal · See more »

Theosophy (Blavatskian)

Theosophy is an esoteric religious movement established in the United States during the late nineteenth century.

New!!: Pineal gland and Theosophy (Blavatskian) · See more »

Third eye

The third eye (also called the mind's eye, or inner eye) is a mystical and esoteric concept of a speculative invisible eye which provides perception beyond ordinary sight.

New!!: Pineal gland and Third eye · See more »

Third ventricle

The third ventricle is one of four connected fluid-filled cavities comprising the ventricular system within the mammalian brain.

New!!: Pineal gland and Third ventricle · See more »

Trigeminal ganglion

The trigeminal ganglion (or Gasserian ganglion, or semilunar ganglion, or Gasser's ganglion) is a sensory ganglion of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) that occupies a cavity (Meckel's cave) in the dura mater, covering the trigeminal impression near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone.

New!!: Pineal gland and Trigeminal ganglion · See more »


Tuatara are reptiles endemic to New Zealand.

New!!: Pineal gland and Tuatara · See more »

University of New Mexico School of Medicine

The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNM School of Medicine) is a division of the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (UNM HSC) located in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

New!!: Pineal gland and University of New Mexico School of Medicine · See more »


Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

New!!: Pineal gland and Vertebrate · See more »


Vestigiality is the retention during the process of evolution of genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost some or all of their ancestral function in a given species.

New!!: Pineal gland and Vestigiality · See more »

Visual phototransduction

Visual phototransduction is the sensory transduction of the visual system.

New!!: Pineal gland and Visual phototransduction · See more »


X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

New!!: Pineal gland and X-ray · See more »


The superorder Xenarthra is a group of placental mammals, extant today only in the Americas and represented by anteaters, tree sloths, and armadillos.

New!!: Pineal gland and Xenarthra · See more »

Yale University

Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

New!!: Pineal gland and Yale University · See more »


The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a freshwater fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae) of the order Cypriniformes.

New!!: Pineal gland and Zebrafish · See more »

Redirects here:

Calcification of the pineal gland, Conarium, Corpus pineale, Epiphysis Cerebri, Epiphysis cerebri, Glandula pinealis, Peneal gland, Pineal, Pineal Gland, Pineal body, Pineal chakra, Pineal foramen, Pineal glands, Pineal organ, Pineal recess, Pineal recesses, Recessus pinealis.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pineal_gland

Hey! We are on Facebook now! »