385 relations: Abdomen, Alloparenting, Alpha (ethology), Anatomical terms of location, Ancient Greek coinage, Ancient Rome, Andean civilizations, Animal Behaviour (journal), Animal communication, Animal migration, Antarctic fur seal, Aorta, Apollo, Appendix (anatomy), Aquatic feeding mechanisms, Arctic Basin, Arctocephalus, Arctocephalus forsteri, Arctophoca, Aristotle, Arrector pili muscle, Auricle (anatomy), Australian sea lion, Baikal seal, Baltic Sea, Bean bag round, Bear, Bearded seal, Bird vocalization, Bivalvia, Black Sea, Blood pressure, Blood volume, Blubber, Bomb, Bonneville Dam, Brackish water, Bronchiole, Bronchus, Brown fur seal, Brown hyena, Buccaneer, Buoy, Bycatch, Calcaneus, California, California sea lion, Canidae, Caniformia, Canine tooth, ..., Caribbean monk seal, Carnassial, Carnivora, Carnivore, Cartilage, Caspian Sea, Caspian seal, Cecum, Celts, Central American Seaway, Cephalopod, Cetacea, Christopher Columbus, Circulatory system, Circumpolar peoples, Circus, Clade, Cladogenesis, Cladogram, Clam, Clamp (tool), Climate change, Coast, Color vision, Commercial fishing, Cone cell, Contact call, Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals, Cooperative hunting, Cornea, Corneal epithelium, Cougar, Countercurrent exchange, Countershading, Courtship display, Crabeater seal, Critically endangered, Crustacean, Culling, Cusp (anatomy), Data deficient, Decompression sickness, Desmatophocidae, Diagonal, Dialect, Dolphin, Dominance (ethology), Drag (physics), Drift ice, Ear clearing, Eared seal, Earless seal, Early Miocene, Earth's magnetic field, El Niño, Elephant seal, Embryo, Embryonic diapause, Enaliarctos, Endangered species, Endotherm, Eocene, Equidistant, Estrous cycle, Estuary, Extinction, Extraocular muscles, Family (biology), Fast ice, Fasting, Fat, Filter feeder, Fin, Fishing net, Flipper (anatomy), Food chain, Frontal bone, Fur, Fur clothing, Fur seal, Galápagos fur seal, Galápagos sea lion, Gastrointestinal cancer, Gastrolith, Generalist and specialist species, Genus, Gestation, Gillnetting, Glacial period, Gong, Great white shark, Grey seal, Guadalupe fur seal, Guadalupe Island, Habitat destruction, Harbor seal, Harem (zoology), Harp seal, Harpoon, Hauling-out, Hawaiian monk seal, Hebrides, Hemoglobin, Hertz, Hip bone, Holocene, Homer, Hooded seal, Hoover (seal), Humane Society of the United States, Hydroelectricity, Identification key, Incisor, Indomalayan realm, Infrasound, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Interorbital region, Inuit, Inuit culture, Inuit religion, Iris (anatomy), Iris dilator muscle, Island, Island tameness, Isthmus of Panama, Isurus, Japanese sea lion, Jetty, Joel Asaph Allen, Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger, Johns Hopkins University Press, Juan Fernández fur seal, Jugal bone, KATU, Keratin, Killer whale, Krill, Lacrimal bone, Lactic acid, Lactose, Lake, Lake Baikal, Laminar flow, Lanugo, Large intestine, Late Miocene, Latin, Lek mating, Lens (anatomy), Leopard seal, Leptophoca, Lineage (evolution), List of semiaquatic tetrapods, Lobodontini, Mammary gland, Marine invertebrates, Marine mammal, Marine mammal park, Marine Mammal Protection Act, Marine pollution, Mastoid part of the temporal bone, Match-to-sample task, Mating system, Maxilla, Mediterranean monk seal, Mermaid, Military animal, Moche culture, Modern history, Molar (tooth), Molecular phylogenetics, Mollusca, Monk seal, Monogamy, Monograph, Monophyly, Monotherium, Morphology (biology), Mortise and tenon, Most recent common ancestor, Moulting, Mucus, Mudflat, Muscle fascicle, Mustelidae, Musteloidea, Myoglobin, Nasal bone, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Naval mine, Near-sightedness, Neontology, Nerve, New Zealand sea lion, Nictitating membrane, Nitrogen narcosis, Northern elephant seal, Northern fur seal, Nunavut, Ocean current, Odobenidae, Oil platform, Oligocene, Oncorhynchus, Orbit (anatomy), Order (biology), Oregon, Orkney, Otter, Overexploitation, Oxygen toxicity, Pachyostosis, Pagophily, Panniculus adiposus, Paratethys, Parrot, Pebble, Pelagic zone, Penguin, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, Persian Gulf, Persistent organic pollutant, Phoca, Photokeratitis, Pier, Pleistocene, Pliny the Elder, Polar bear, Polygyny in animals, Polyphyly, Popular culture, Population bottleneck, Poseidon, Potamotherium, Precocial, Predation, Proboscis, Pteronarctos, Pterygoid bone, Puijila, Pulmonary alveolus, Pupillary response, Pusa, Raccoon, Range (biology), Rebun Island, Red panda, Refraction, Reniculate kidney, Reproductive success, Rete mirabile, Retina, Ribbon seal, Ringed seal, River, Rocky shore, Rod cell, Rodent, Ross seal, Rubber bullet, Sagittal plane, Saimaa, Salmon run, Sclera, Sea cave, Sea lion, Sea turtle, Seabird, Seal hunting, Secondary sex characteristic, Sedna (mythology), Seine fishing, Selkie, Semantics, Semantoridae, Sexual dimorphism, Shark, Shearing (physics), Shoal, Sign language, Sinus (anatomy), Sister group, Skunk, Small intestine, Smooth muscle tissue, Snout, Somatosensory system, South American fur seal, South American sea lion, Southern elephant seal, Southern Ocean, Spotted seal, Steller sea lion, Stone Age, Subantarctic fur seal, Substrate (biology), Supraorbital foramen, Supraspinatous fossa, Syntax, Talus bone, Tapetum lucidum, Taxonomy (biology), Territory (animal), The Bahamas, Thermoregulation, Thoracic cavity, Tide pool, Tiger shark, Trachea, Transverse plane, Turtling (hunting), Tusk, Ultrasound, Ultraviolet, Unihemispheric slow-wave sleep, United States House Committee on Natural Resources, United States Navy Marine Mammal Program, USA Today, Uterus, Valenictus, Vocal resonation, Vulnerable species, Walrus, Weasel, Weddell seal, Whale, Whale vocalization, Whaling, Whiskers, World Animal Protection, Year, Yucatán Peninsula, Zalophus, Zooplankton, Zygomatic bone. 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The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
Alloparenting (also referred to as alloparental care) is a term used to classify any form of parental care provided by an individual towards a non-descendent young.
In studies of social animals, the highest ranking individual is sometimes designated as the alpha.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
The history of ancient Greek coinage can be divided (along with most other Greek art forms) into four periods, the Archaic, the Classical, the Hellenistic and the Roman.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Andean civilizations were a patchwork of different cultures and peoples that developed from the Andes of Colombia southward down the Andes to northern Argentina and Chile, plus the coastal deserts of Peru and northern Chile.
Animal Behaviour is a double-blind peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1953 as The British Journal of Animal Behaviour, before obtaining its current title in 1958.
Animal communication is the transfer of information from one or a group of animals (sender or senders) to one or more other animals (receiver or receivers) that affects the current or future behavior of the receivers.
Animal migration is the relatively long-distance movement of individual animals, usually on a seasonal basis.
The Antarctic fur seal, sometimes called the Kerguelen fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella), is one of eight seals in the genus Arctocephalus, and one of nine fur seals in the subfamily Arctocephalinae.
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
The appendix (or vermiform appendix; also cecal appendix; vermix; or vermiform process) is a blind-ended tube connected to the cecum, from which it develops in the embryo.
Aquatic feeding mechanisms face a special difficulty as compared to feeding on land, because the density of water is about the same as that of the prey, so the prey tends to be pushed away when the mouth is closed.
The Arctic Basin (also North Polar Basin) is an oceanic basin in the Arctic Ocean, consisting of two main parts separated by the Lomonosov Ridge, a mid-ocean ridge running between north Greenland and the New Siberian Islands.
The genus Arctocephalus consists of fur seals.
Arctocephalus forsteri, the Australasian fur seal, South Australian fur seal, New Zealand fur seal, Antipodean fur seal, or long-nosed fur seal, is a species of fur seal found mainly around the South and Western coasts and offshore islands of Australia, and the North Island and South Island of New Zealand.
The genus Arctophoca is a proposed genus of pinnipeds, containing most species of fur seal.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The arrector pili muscles are small muscles attached to hair follicles in mammals.
The auricle or auricula is the visible part of the ear that resides outside the head.
The Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) also known as the Australian sea-lion or Australian sealion, is a species of sea lion that is the only endemic pinniped in Australia.
The Baikal seal, Lake Baikal seal or nerpa (Pusa sibirica), is a species of earless seal endemic to Lake Baikal in Siberia, Russia.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
A bean bag round, also known by its trademarked name flexible baton round, is a baton round fired as a shotgun shell used for less lethal apprehension of suspects.
Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.
The bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), also called the square flipper seal, is a medium-sized pinniped that is found in and near to the Arctic Ocean.
Bird vocalization includes both bird calls and bird songs.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Blood volume is the volume of blood (both red blood cells and plasma) in the circulatory system of any individual.
Blubber is a thick layer of vascularized adipose tissue under the skin of all cetaceans, pinnipeds and sirenians.
A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy.
Bonneville Lock and Dam consists of several run-of-the-river dam structures that together complete a span of the Columbia River between the U.S. states of Oregon and Washington at River Mile 146.1.
Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.
The bronchioles or bronchioli are the passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs, in which branches no longer contain cartilage or glands in their submucosa.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
The brown fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus), also known as the Cape fur seal, South African fur seal and the Australian fur seal is a species of fur seal.
The brown hyena (Hyaena brunnea, formerly Parahyaena brunnea), also called strandwolf, is a species of hyena found in Namibia, Botswana, western and southern Zimbabwe, southern Mozambique and South Africa.
Buccaneers were a kind of privateer or free sailor peculiar to the Caribbean Sea during the 17th and 18th centuries.
A buoy is a floating device that can have many purposes.
Bycatch, in the fishing industry, is a fish or other marine species that is caught unintentionally while catching certain target species and target sizes of fish, crabs etc.
In humans, the calcaneus (from the Latin calcaneus or calcaneum, meaning heel) or heel bone is a bone of the tarsus of the foot which constitutes the heel.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is a coastal eared seal native to western North America.
The biological family Canidae (from Latin, canis, “dog”) is a lineage of carnivorans that includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, dingoes, and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals.
Caniformia, or Canoidea (literally "dog-like"), is a suborder within the order Carnivora.
In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dog teeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth.
The Caribbean monk seal, West Indian seal or sea wolf (as early explorers referred to it), Neomonachus tropicalis, was a species of seal native to the Caribbean and is now believed to be extinct.
Carnassials are paired upper and lower teeth (either molars or premolars and molars) modified in such a way as to allow enlarged and often self-sharpening edges to pass by each other in a shearing manner.
Carnivora (from Latin carō (stem carn-) "flesh" and vorāre "to devour") is a diverse scrotiferan order that includes over 280 species of placental mammals.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) is one of the smallest members of the earless seal family and unique in that it is found exclusively in the brackish Caspian Sea.
The cecum or caecum (plural ceca; from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is an intraperitoneal pouch that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The Central American Seaway, also known as the Panamanic Inter-American and Proto-Caribbean Seaway, was a body of water that once separated North America from South America.
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Circumpolar peoples and Arctic peoples are umbrella terms for the various indigenous peoples of the Arctic.
A circus is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that include clowns, acrobats, trained animals, trapeze acts, musicians, dancers, hoopers, tightrope walkers, jugglers, magicians, unicyclists, as well as other object manipulation and stunt-oriented artists.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Cladogenesis is an evolutionary splitting event where a parent species splits into two distinct species, forming a clade.
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.
Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.
A clamp is a fastening device used to hold or secure objects tightly together to prevent movement or separation through the application of inward pressure.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
Commercial fishing is the activity of catching fish and other seafood for commercial profit, mostly from wild fisheries.
Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
Contact calls are seemingly haphazard sounds made by many social animals (such as a chicken's cluck).
The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals is part of the Antarctic Treaty System.
Cooperative hunting is when meat-eating animals hunt together in groups that contain both division of labor and role specialization.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
The corneal epithelium (epithelium corneæ anterior layer) is made up of epithelial tissue and covers the front of the cornea.
The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.
Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature and mimicked in industry and engineering, in which there is a crossover of some property, usually heat or some component, between two flowing bodies flowing in opposite directions to each other.
Countershading, or Thayer's law, is a method of camouflage in which an animal's coloration is darker on the upper side and lighter on the underside of the body.
A courtship display is a set of display behaviors in which an animal attempts to attract a mate and exhibit their desire to copulate.
The crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophaga) is a true seal with a circumpolar distribution around the coast of Antarctica.
A critically endangered (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
In biology, culling is the process of segregating organisms from a group according to desired or undesired characteristics.
A cusp is a pointed, projecting, or elevated feature.
A data deficient (DD) species is one which has been categorised by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as offering insufficient information for a proper assessment of conservation status to be made.
Decompression sickness (DCS; also known as divers' disease, the bends, aerobullosis, or caisson disease) describes a condition arising from dissolved gases coming out of solution into bubbles inside the body on depressurisation.
Desmatophocidae is an extinct family of pinnipeds closely related to true seals.
In geometry, a diagonal is a line segment joining two vertices of a polygon or polyhedron, when those vertices are not on the same edge.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
Dominance in ethology is an "individual's preferential access to resources over another." Dominance in the context of biology and anthropology is the state of having high social status relative to one or more other individuals, who react submissively to dominant individuals.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
Drift ice is any sea ice other than fast ice, the latter being attached ("fastened") to the shoreline or other fixed objects (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).Leppäranta, M. 2011.
Ear clearing or clearing the ears or equalization is any of various maneuvers to equalize the pressure in the middle ear with the outside pressure, by letting air enter along the Eustachian tubes, as this does not always happen automatically when the pressure in the middle ear is lower than the outside pressure.
An eared seal or otariid or otary is any member of the marine mammal family Otariidae, one of three groupings of pinnipeds.
The earless seals, phocids or true seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal lineage, Pinnipedia.
The Early Miocene (also known as Lower Miocene) is a sub-epoch of the Miocene Epoch made up of two stages: the Aquitanian and Burdigalian stages.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.
Elephant seals are large, oceangoing earless seals in the genus Mirounga.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Delayed implantation or embryonic diapause is a reproductive strategy used by approximately 100 different mammals in seven or eight different orders.
Enaliarctos is an extinct genus of pinniped.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
An endotherm (from Greek ἔνδον endon "within" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
A point is said to be equidistant from a set of objects if the distances between that point and each object in the set are equal.
The estrous cycle or oestrus cycle (derived from Latin oestrus 'frenzy', originally from Greek οἶστρος oîstros 'gadfly') is the recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control movement of the eye and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation (levator palpebrae).
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Fast ice (also called land-fast ice, landfast ice, and shore-fast ice) is sea ice that is "fastened" to the coastline, to the sea floor along shoals or to grounded icebergs.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.
A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure.
A fishing net is a net used for fishing.
A flipper is a typically flat forelimb evolved for movement through water.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
The frontal bone is a bone in the human skull.
Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.
Fur clothing is clothing made of furry animal hides.
Fur seals are any of nine species of pinnipeds belonging to the subfamily Arctocephalinae in the family Otariidae.
The Galápagos fur seal (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) breeds on the Galápagos Islands in the eastern Pacific, west of mainland Ecuador.
The Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) is a species of sea lion that exclusively breeds on the Galápagos Islands and – in smaller numbers – on Isla de la Plata (Ecuador).
Gastrointestinal cancer refers to malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and accessory organs of digestion, including the esophagus, stomach, biliary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.
A gastrolith, also called a stomach stone or gizzard stones, is a rock held inside a gastrointestinal tract.
A generalist species is able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources (for example, a heterotroph with a varied diet).
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.
Gillnetting is a common fishing method used by commercial and artisanal fishermen of all the oceans and in some freshwater and estuary areas.
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.
A gong (from Malay: gong;; ra; គង - Kong; ฆ้อง Khong; cồng chiêng) is an East and Southeast Asian musical percussion instrument that takes the form of a flat, circular metal disc which is hit with a mallet.
The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), commonly known as the great white or the white shark, is a species of large mackerel shark which can be found in the coastal surface waters of all the major oceans.
The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus, meaning "hooked-nosed sea pig") is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean.
The Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi) is one of six members of the fur seal genus Arctocephalus.
Guadalupe Island or Isla Guadalupe is a volcanic island located off the west coast of Mexico's Baja California Peninsula and some southwest of the city of Ensenada in the state of Baja California, in the Pacific Ocean.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
The harbor (or harbour) seal (Phoca vitulina), also known as the common seal, is a true seal found along temperate and Arctic marine coastlines of the Northern Hemisphere.
A harem is an animal group consisting of one or two males, a number of females, and their offspring.
The harp seal or saddleback seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus is a species of earless seal, or true seal, native to the northernmost Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Ocean.
A harpoon is a long spear-like instrument used in fishing, whaling, sealing, and other marine hunting to catch large fish or marine mammals such as whales.
Hauling-out is a behaviour associated with pinnipeds (true seals, sea lions, fur seals and walruses) temporarily leaving the water.
The Hawaiian monk seal, Neomonachus schauinslandi (formerly Monachus schauinslandi), is an endangered species of earless seal in the family Phocidae that is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.
The Hebrides (Innse Gall,; Suðreyjar) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
The hip bone (os coxa, innominate bone, pelvic bone or coxal bone) is a large flat bone, constricted in the center and expanded above and below.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
The hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) is a large phocid found only in the central and western North Atlantic, ranging from Svalbard in the east to the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the west.
Hoover (– July 25, 1985) was a harbor seal who was able to imitate basic human speech.
The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), based in Washington, D.C., is an American nonprofit organization founded by journalist Fred Myers and Helen Jones, Larry Andrews, and Marcia Glaser in 1954, to address what they saw as animal-related cruelties of national scope, and to resolve animal welfare problems by applying strategies beyond the resources or abilities of local organizations.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
In biology, an identification key is a printed or computer-aided device that aids the identification of biological entities, such as plants, animals, fossils, microorganisms, and pollen grains.
Incisors (from Latin incidere, "to cut") are the front teeth present in most mammals.
The Indomalayan realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms.
Infrasound, sometimes referred to as low-frequency sound, is sound that is lower in frequency than 20 Hz or cycles per second, the "normal" limit of human hearing.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
The interorbital region of the skull is located between the eyes, anterior to the braincase.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Inuit describes the various groups of indigenous peoples who live throughout Inuit Nunangat, that is the Inuvialuit Settlement Region of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut of Northern Canada, Nunavik in Quebec and Nunatsiavut in Labrador, as well as in Greenland.
Inuit religion is the shared spiritual beliefs and practices of Inuit, an indigenous people from Alaska, Canada, and Greenland.
In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.
The iris dilator muscle (pupil dilator muscle, pupillary dilator, radial muscle of iris, radiating fibers), is a smooth muscle of the eye, running radially in the iris and therefore fit as a dilator.
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.
Island tameness is the tendency of many populations and species of animals living on isolated islands to lose their wariness of potential predators, particularly of large animals.
The Isthmus of Panama (Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (Istmo de Darién), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.
Isurus is a genus of mackerel sharks in the family Lamnidae, commonly known as the mako sharks.
The was an aquatic mammal thought to have become extinct in the 1970s.
A jetty is a structure that projects from the land out into water.
Joel Asaph Allen (July 19, 1838 – August 29, 1921) was an American zoologist, mammalogist and ornithologist.
Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger (19 November 1775 – 10 May 1813) was a German entomologist and zoologist.
The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
The Juan Fernández fur seal is the second smallest of the fur seals, second only to the Galápagos fur seal.
The jugal is a skull bone found in most reptiles, amphibians and birds.
KATU, virtual channel 2 (UHF digital channel 43), is an ABC-affiliated television station licensed to Portland, Oregon, United States.
Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.
Krill are small crustaceans of the order Euphausiacea, and are found in all the world's oceans.
The lacrimal bone is the smallest and most fragile bone of the skull and face; it is roughly the size of the little fingernail.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.
In fluid dynamics, laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers.
Lanugo (from Latin lana "wool") is very thin, soft, usually unpigmented, downy hair that is sometimes found on the body of a fetal or new-born human.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
The Late Miocene (also known as Upper Miocene) is a sub-epoch of the Miocene Epoch made up of two stages.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A lek, from the Swedish word for "play", is an aggregation of male animals gathered to engage in competitive displays, lekking, to entice visiting females which are surveying prospective partners for copulation.
The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.
The leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), also referred to as the sea leopard, is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the southern elephant seal).
Leptophoca is an extinct genus of earless seals from the North Atlantic realm.
An evolutionary lineage is a temporal series of organisms, populations, cells, or genes connected by a continuous line of descent from ancestor to descendent.
This is a list of tetrapods that are semiaquatic; that is, while being at least partly terrestrial, they spend part of their life cycle or a significant fraction of their time in water as part of their normal behavior, and/or obtain a significant fraction of their food from an aquatic habitat.
The true seal tribe Lobodontini, collectively known as the lobodontine seals, consist of four species of seals in four genera: the crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophaga), the leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddelli), and the Ross seal (Ommatophoca rossii).
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats.
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
A marine mammal park (also known as marine animal park and sometimes oceanarium) is a commercial theme park or aquarium where marine mammals such as dolphins, beluga whales and sea lions are kept within water tanks and displayed to the public in special shows.
The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) was the first act of the United States Congress to call specifically for an ecosystem approach to wildlife management.
Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural, and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms.
The mastoid part of the temporal bone is the back part of the temporal bone.
Short-term memory for learned associations has been studied using the match-to-sample task (and the related delayed match-to-sample task, and non-match to sample task).
A mating system is a way in which a group is structured in relation to sexual behaviour.
The maxilla (plural: maxillae) in animals is the upper jawbone formed from the fusion of two maxillary bones.
The Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) is a monk seal belonging to the family Phocidae.
In folklore, a mermaid is an aquatic creature with the head and upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish.
Military animals are trained animals that are used in warfare and other combat related activities.
The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
The molars or molar teeth are large, flat teeth at the back of the mouth.
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monk seals are earless seals of the tribe Monachini.
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).
A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works) on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, often by a single author, and usually on a scholarly subject.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Monotherium is an extinct genus of phocid belonging to the subfamily Monachinae.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
A mortise (or mortice) and tenon joint is a type of joint that connects two pieces of wood or other material.
In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.
In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers.
A muscle fascicle is a bundle of skeletal muscle fibers surrounded by perimysium, a type of connective tissue.
The Mustelidae (from Latin mustela, weasel) are a family of carnivorous mammals, including weasels, badgers, otters, martens, mink, and wolverines, among others.
Musteloidea is a superfamily of carnivoran mammals united by shared characters of the skull and teeth.
Myoglobin (symbol Mb or MB) is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in almost all mammals.
The nasal bones are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals; they are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form, by their junction, "the bridge" of the nose.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
Near-sightedness, also known as short-sightedness and myopia, is a condition of the eye where light focuses in front of, instead of on, the retina.
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
The New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri), also known as Hooker's sea lion, and whakahao in Māori, is a species of sea lion that primarily breeds on New Zealand's subantarctic Auckland and Campbell islands and to some extent around the coast of New Zealand's South and Stewart islands.
The nictitating membrane (from Latin nictare, to blink) is a transparent or translucent third eyelid present in some animals that can be drawn across the eye from the medial canthus for protection and to moisten it while maintaining vision.
Narcosis while diving (also known as nitrogen narcosis, inert gas narcosis, raptures of the deep, Martini effect) is a reversible alteration in consciousness that occurs while diving at depth.
The northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) is one of two species of elephant seal (the other is the southern elephant seal).
The northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) is an eared seal found along the north Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, and the Sea of Okhotsk.
Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
Odobenidae is a family of pinnipeds.
An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, process petroleum and natural gas which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
Oncorhynchus is a genus of fish in the family Salmonidae; it contains the Pacific salmon and Pacific trout.
In anatomy, the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
Otters are carnivorous mammals in the subfamily Lutrinae.
Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns.
Oxygen toxicity is a condition resulting from the harmful effects of breathing molecular oxygen at increased partial pressures.
Pachyostosis is a non-pathological condition in vertebrate animals in which the bones experience a thickening, generally caused by extra layers of lamellar bone.
Pagophily or pagophilia is the preference or dependence on water ice for some or all activities and functions.
The panniculus adiposus is the fatty layer of the subcutaneous tissues, superficial to a deeper vestigial layer of muscle, the panniculus carnosus.
The Paratethys ocean, Paratethys sea or just Paratethys was a large shallow sea that stretched from the region north of the Alps over Central Europe to the Aral Sea in Central Asia.
Parrots, also known as psittacines, are birds of the roughly 393 species in 92 genera that make up the order Psittaciformes, found in most tropical and subtropical regions.
A pebble is a clast of rock with a particle size of 2 to 64 millimetres based on the Krumbein phi scale of sedimentology.
The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.
Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds.
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA; stylized PeTA) is an American animal rights organization based in Norfolk, Virginia, and led by Ingrid Newkirk, its international president.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.
Phoca is a genus of the earless seals, within the family Phocidae.
Photokeratitis or ultraviolet keratitis is a painful eye condition caused by exposure of insufficiently protected eyes to the ultraviolet (UV) rays from either natural (e.g. intense sunlight) or artificial (e.g. the electric arc during welding) sources.
Seaside pleasure pier in Brighton, England. The first seaside piers were built in England in the early 19th century. A pier is a raised structure in a body of water, typically supported by well-spaced piles or pillars.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.
Polygyny (from Neo-Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is a mating system in which one male lives and mates with multiple females, but each female only mates with a single male.
A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor.
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).
Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Potamotherium ('river beast') an extinct genus of caniform carnivoran from the Miocene epoch of France and Germany.
In biology, precocial species are those in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
A proboscis is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal, either a vertebrate or an invertebrate.
Pteronarctos is a genus of basal pinnipediform from middle Miocene marine deposits in Oregon.
The pterygoid is a paired bone forming part of the palate of many vertebrates, behind the palatine bones.
Puijila darwini is an extinct species of seal which lived during the Miocene epoch about 21 to 24 million years ago.
A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of ventilation.
Pupillary response is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil, via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerve.
Pusa is a genus of the earless seals, within the family Phocidae.
The raccoon (or, Procyon lotor), sometimes spelled racoon, also known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, or northern raccoon, is a medium-sized mammal native to North America.
In biology, the range of a species is the geographical area within which that species can be found.
is an island in the Sea of Japan off the northwestern tip of Hokkaidō, Japan.
The red panda (Ailurus fulgens), also called the lesser panda, the red bear-cat, and the red cat-bear, is a mammal native to the eastern Himalayas and southwestern China.
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
The reniculate kidney is a multilobed kidney found in marine and aquatic mammals such as pinnipeds (seals, sea lions and walruses) and cetaceans (dolphins and whales) but absent in terrestrial mammals except bears.
Reproductive success is defined as the passing of genes onto the next generation in a way that they too can pass on those genes.
A rete mirabile (Latin for "wonderful net"; plural retia mirabilia) is a complex of arteries and veins lying very close to each other, found in some vertebrates, mainly warm-blooded ones.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
The ribbon seal (Histriophoca fasciata) is a medium-sized pinniped from the true seal family (Phocidae).
The ringed seal (Pusa hispida or Phoca hispida), also known as the jar seal and as netsik or nattiq by the Inuit, is an earless seal (family: Phocidae) inhabiting the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
A rocky shore is an intertidal area of seacoasts where solid rock predominates.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
The Ross seal (Ommatophoca rossii) is a true seal (family Phocidae) with a range confined entirely to the pack ice of Antarctica.
Rubber bullets (also called rubber baton rounds) are rubber or rubber-coated projectiles that can be fired from either standard firearms or dedicated riot guns.
A sagittal plane or longitudinal plane is an anatomical plane which divides the body into right and left parts.
Saimaa is a lake in southeastern Finland.
Fishermen capture running salmon with netsbefore tagging and releasing them --> The salmon run is the time when salmon, which have migrated from the ocean, swim to the upper reaches of rivers where they spawn on gravel beds.
The sclera, also known as the white of the eye, is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the human eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber.
A sea cave, also known as a littoral cave, is a type of cave formed primarily by the wave action of the sea.
Sea lions are sea mammals characterized by external ear flaps, long foreflippers, the ability to walk on all fours, short, thick hair, and a big chest and belly.
Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.
Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are birds that are adapted to life within the marine environment.
Seal hunting, or sealing, is the personal or commercial hunting of seals.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.
Sedna (ᓴᓐᓇ, Sanna) is the goddess of the sea and marine animals in Inuit mythology, also known as the Mother of the Sea or Mistress of the Sea.
Seine fishing (or seine-haul fishing) is a method of fishing that employs a fishing net called a seine, that hangs vertically in the water with its bottom edge held down by weights and its top edge buoyed by floats.
Selkies (also spelt silkies, sylkies, selchies) or Selkie folk (selkie fowk) meaning "Seal Folk" are mythological beings capable of therianthropy, changing from seal to human form by shedding their skin.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
Semantoridae is an extinct family of stem-pinnipeds with fossils found in France, Kazakhstan, and Canada, dating back to various points in time in the Miocene epoch.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
Shearing in continuum mechanics refers to the occurrence of a shear strain, which is a deformation of a material substance in which parallel internal surfaces slide past one another.
In oceanography, geomorphology, and earth sciences, a shoal is a natural submerged ridge, bank, or bar that consists of, or is covered by, sand or other unconsolidated material, and rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
A sinus is a sac or cavity in any organ or tissue, or an abnormal cavity or passage caused by the destruction of tissue.
A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.
Skunks are North and South American mammals in the family Mephitidae.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
A snout is the protruding portion of an animal's face, consisting of its nose, mouth, and jaw.
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.
The South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) breeds on the coasts of Peru, Chile, the Falkland Islands, Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil.
The South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, formerly Otaria byronia), also called the southern sea lion and the Patagonian sea lion, is a sea lion found on the Ecuadorian, Peruvian, Chilean, Falkland Islands, Argentinean, Uruguayan, and Southern Brazilian coasts.
The southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) is one of the two species of elephant seals.
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.
The spotted seal (Phoca largha), also known as the larga seal or largha seal, is a member of the family Phocidae, and is considered a "true seal".
The Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus), also known as the northern sea lion and Steller's sea lion, is a near-threatened species of sea lions in the northern Pacific.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
The subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) is found in the southern parts of the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans.
In biology, a substrate is the surface on which an organism (such as a plant, fungus, or animal) lives.
The supraorbital foramen is a bony elongated path located above the orbit (eye socket) and under the forehead.
The supraspinatous fossa (supraspinatus fossa, supraspinous fossa) of the posterior aspect of the scapula is smaller than the infraspinatous fossa, concave, smooth, and broader at its vertebral than at its humeral end.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
The talus (Latin for ankle), talus bone, astragalus, or ankle bone is one of the group of foot bones known as the tarsus.
The tapetum lucidum (Latin: "bright tapestry; coverlet", plural tapeta lucida) is a layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrates.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species).
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
The thoracic cavity (or chest cavity) is the chamber of the body of vertebrates that is protected by the thoracic wall (rib cage and associated skin, muscle, and fascia).
Tide pools or rock pools are shallow pools of seawater that form on the rocky intertidal shore.
The tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) is a species of requiem shark and the only extant member of the genus Galeocerdo.
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
The transverse plane (also called the horizontal plane, axial plane, or transaxial plane) is an imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
Turtling is the hunting of turtles.
Tusks are elongated, continuously growing front teeth, usually but not always in pairs, that protrude well beyond the mouth of certain mammal species.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Unihemispheric slow-wave sleep (USWS) is sleep with one half of the brain while the other half remains alert.
The U.S. House Committee on Natural Resources or Natural Resources Committee (often referred to as simply Resources) is a Congressional committee of the United States House of Representatives.
The U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program (NMMP) is a program administered by the U.S. Navy which studies the military use of marine mammals - principally bottlenose dolphins and California sea lions - and trains animals to perform tasks such as ship and harbor protection, mine detection and clearance, and equipment recovery.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Valenictus is an extinct genus of Odobenidae from the Pliocene of California.
McKinney defines vocal resonance as "the process by which the basic product of phonation is enhanced in timbre and/or intensity by the air-filled cavities through which it passes on its way to the outside air." Throughout the vocal literature, various terms related to resonation are used, including: amplification, filtering, enrichment, enlargement, improvement, intensification, and prolongation.
A vulnerable species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as likely to become endangered unless the circumstances that are threatening its survival and reproduction improve.
The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere.
A weasel is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae.
The Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, is a relatively large and abundant true seal (family: Phocidae) with a circumpolar distribution surrounding Antarctica.
Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
Whale sounds are used by whales for different kinds of communication.
Whaling is the hunting of whales for scientific research and their usable products like meat, oil and blubber.
Whiskers or vibrissae (singular: vibrissa) are a type of mammalian hair that are typically characterised, anatomically, by their large length, large and well-innervated hair follicle, and by having an identifiable representation in the somatosensory cortex of the brain.
World Animal Protection (formerly The World Society for the Protection of Animals) is an international non-profit animal welfare organization that has been in operation for over 30 years.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.
Zalophus is a genus of the family Otariidae (sea lions and fur seals) of order Carnivora.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.
In the human skull, the zygomatic bone (cheekbone or malar bone) is a paired bone which articulates with the maxilla, the temporal bone, the sphenoid bone and the frontal bone.
Anatomy of pinnipeds, Baby seals, Evolution of pinnipeds, Finfooted mammal, La Foca, Mating seals, Pinnipeda, Pinnipedia, Pinnipeds, Reproductive behavior of pinnipeds, Sea calf, Sea calves, Sea-calf, Sea-calves, Seacalf, Seacalves, Seal (animal), Seal (mammal), Seal (zoology), Seal reproduction, Sexual behavior of pinnipeds.