126 relations: Adjoint representation, Alpha particle, Andes, Antiparticle, Atomic nucleus, Berkeley, California, Beta decay, Boson, Bottomness, Branching fraction, C parity, C-symmetry, C. F. Powell, Carbon, César Lattes, CERN, Chacaltaya, Charm (quantum number), Chiral anomaly, Chiral perturbation theory, Chiral symmetry breaking, Chirality (physics), Cloud chamber, Compton scattering, Cosmic microwave background, Cosmic ray, Cyclotron, Dispersion relation, Down quark, Effective field theory, Electric charge, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron neutrino, Electronvolt, Elementary charge, Eta meson, Eugene Gardner, Exponential decay, Feynman diagram, Flavour (particle physics), Fundamental representation, G-parity, Gamma ray, Gelatin silver process, Gell-Mann–Nishijima formula, Generation (particle physics), Gerald E. Brown, Giuseppe Occhialini, Goldstone boson, ..., Gravity, Greek alphabet, Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin limit, Hadron, Helicity (particle physics), Hideki Yukawa, Invariant mass, Isospin, John Wiley & Sons, Kaon, Kinematics, Klein–Gordon equation, Lagrangian (field theory), Lepton, List of mesons, List of particles, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mass, Meson, Microscope, Muon, Muon neutrino, Nanosecond, New Mexico, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nuclear force, Nucleon, Parity (physics), Particle accelerator, Particle Data Group, Particle physics, Photographic emulsion, Photographic plate, Photon, Physical Review, Pi (letter), Pic du Midi de Bigorre, Pion decay constant, Pionium, Positron, Positronium, Pseudoscalar, Pyrenees, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum field theory, Quantum number, Quantum superposition, Quark, Quark model, Radioactive decay, Rho meson, Riazuddin (physicist), Richard Dalitz, Science (journal), Second, Special unitary group, Speed of light, Spin (physics), Static forces and virtual-particle exchange, Strange quark, Strangeness, Strong interaction, Subatomic particle, Supernova remnant, Total angular momentum quantum number, TRIUMF, University of Bristol, University of California, Berkeley, Up quark, Vancouver, Vector meson, Virtual particle, Wave function, Weak interaction, Yukawa interaction, Yukawa potential. Expand index (76 more) »

## Adjoint representation

In mathematics, the adjoint representation (or adjoint action) of a Lie group G is a way of representing the elements of the group as linear transformations of the group's Lie algebra, considered as a vector space.

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## Alpha particle

Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.

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## Andes

The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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## Antiparticle

In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).

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## Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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## Berkeley, California

Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California.

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## Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

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## Boson

In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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## Bottomness

In physics, bottomness (symbol B&prime) or beauty is a flavour quantum number reflecting the difference between the number of bottom antiquarks (n) and the number of bottom quarks (n) that are present in a particle: Bottom quarks have (by convention) a bottomness of −1 while bottom antiquarks have a bottomness of +1.

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## Branching fraction

In particle physics and nuclear physics, the branching fraction (or branching ratio) for a decay is the fraction of particles which decay by an individual decay mode with respect to the total number of particles which decay.

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## C parity

In physics, the C parity or charge parity is a multiplicative quantum number of some particles that describes their behavior under the symmetry operation of charge conjugation.

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## C-symmetry

Charge conjugation is a transformation that switches all particles with their corresponding antiparticles, and thus changes the sign of all charges: not only electric charge but also the charges relevant to other forces.

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## C. F. Powell

Cecil Frank Powell, FRS (5 December 1903 – 9 August 1969) was an English physicist, and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and for the resulting discovery of the pion (pi-meson), a subatomic particle.

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## Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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## César Lattes

Cesare Mansueto Giulio Lattes (11 July 1924 – 8 March 2005), also known as Cesar (or César) Lattes, was a Brazilian experimental physicist, one of the discoverers of the pion, a composite subatomic particle made of a quark and an antiquark.

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## CERN

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

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## Chacaltaya

Chacaltaya (Mollo language for "bridge of winds" or "winds meeting point", Aymara for "cold road") is a mountain in the Cordillera Real, one of the mountain ranges of the Cordillera Oriental, itself a range of the Bolivian Andes.

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## Charm (quantum number)

Charm (symbol C) is a flavour quantum number representing the difference between the number of charm quarks and charm antiquarks that are present in a particle: By convention, the sign of flavour quantum numbers agree with the sign of the electric charge carried by the quark of corresponding flavour.

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## Chiral anomaly

In physics, a chiral anomaly is the anomalous nonconservation of a chiral current.

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## Chiral perturbation theory

Chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) is an effective field theory constructed with a Lagrangian consistent with the (approximate) chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), as well as the other symmetries of parity and charge conjugation.

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## Chiral symmetry breaking

In particle physics, chiral symmetry breaking is the spontaneous symmetry breaking of a chiral symmetry – usually by a gauge theory such as quantum chromodynamics, the quantum field theory of the strong interaction.

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## Chirality (physics)

A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image (see the article on mathematical chirality).

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## Cloud chamber

A Cloud Chamber, also known as a Wilson Cloud Chamber, is a particle detector used for visualizing the passage of ionizing radiation.

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## Compton scattering

Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.

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## Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.

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## Cosmic ray

Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.

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## Cyclotron

A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.

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## Dispersion relation

In physical sciences and electrical engineering, dispersion relations describe the effect of dispersion in a medium on the properties of a wave traveling within that medium.

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## Down quark

The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

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## Effective field theory

In physics, an effective field theory is a type of approximation, or effective theory, for an underlying physical theory, such as a quantum field theory or a statistical mechanics model.

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## Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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## Electron neutrino

The electron neutrino is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has no net electric charge.

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## Electronvolt

In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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## Elementary charge

The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.

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## Eta meson

The eta and eta prime meson are isosinglet mesons made of a mixture of up, down and strange quarks and their antiquarks.

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## Eugene Gardner

Milton Eugene Gardner (February 10, 1901 – 1986) was an American physicist who worked on radar systems at the Radiation Laboratory in Massachusetts.

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## Exponential decay

A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.

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## Feynman diagram

In theoretical physics, Feynman diagrams are pictorial representations of the mathematical expressions describing the behavior of subatomic particles.

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## Flavour (particle physics)

In particle physics, flavour or flavor refers to the species of an elementary particle.

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## Fundamental representation

In representation theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras, a fundamental representation is an irreducible finite-dimensional representation of a semisimple Lie group or Lie algebra whose highest weight is a fundamental weight.

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## G-parity

In theoretical physics, G-parity is a multiplicative quantum number that results from the generalization of C-parity to multiplets of particles.

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## Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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## Gelatin silver process

The gelatin silver process is the photographic process used with currently available black-and-white films and printing papers.

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## Gell-Mann–Nishijima formula

The Gell-Mann–Nishijima formula (sometimes known as the NNG formula) relates the baryon number B, the strangeness S, the isospin I3 of quarks and hadrons to the electric charge Q. It was originally given by Kazuhiko Nishijima and Tadao Nakano in 1953, and led to the proposal of strangeness as a concept, which Nishijima originally called "eta-charge" after the eta meson.

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## Generation (particle physics)

In particle physics, a generation or family is a division of the elementary particles.

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## Gerald E. Brown

Gerald Edward "Gerry" Brown (born July 22, 1926 in Brookings, South Dakota; † May 31, 2013 in New York City) was an American theoretical physicist who worked on nuclear physics and astrophysics.

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## Giuseppe Occhialini

Giuseppe Paolo Stanislao "Beppo" Occhialini ForMemRS (5 December 1907 – 30 December 1993) was an Italian physicist, who contributed to the discovery of the pion or pi-meson decay in 1947, with César Lattes and Cecil Frank Powell (Nobel Prize for Physics).

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## Goldstone boson

In particle and condensed matter physics, Goldstone bosons or Nambu–Goldstone bosons (NGBs) are bosons that appear necessarily in models exhibiting spontaneous breakdown of continuous symmetries.

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## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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## Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.

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## Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin limit

The Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin limit (GZK limit) is a theoretical upper limit on the energy of cosmic ray protons traveling from other galaxies through the intergalactic medium to our galaxy.

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## Hadron

In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.

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## Helicity (particle physics)

In particle physics, helicity is the projection of the spin onto the direction of momentum.

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## Hideki Yukawa

, was a Japanese theoretical physicist and the first Japanese Nobel laureate.

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## Invariant mass

The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.

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## Isospin

In nuclear physics and particle physics, isospin is a quantum number related to the strong interaction.

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## John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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## Kaon

In particle physics, a kaon, also called a K meson and denoted,The positively charged kaon used to be called τ+ and θ+, as it was supposed to be two different particles until the 1960s.

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## Kinematics

Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion.

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## Klein–Gordon equation

The Klein–Gordon equation (Klein–Fock–Gordon equation or sometimes Klein–Gordon–Fock equation) is a relativistic wave equation, related to the Schrödinger equation.

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## Lagrangian (field theory)

Lagrangian field theory is a formalism in classical field theory.

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## Lepton

In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.

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## List of mesons

Mesons are unstable subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark.

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## List of particles

This article includes a list of the different types of atomic- and sub-atomic particles found or hypothesized to exist in the whole of the universe categorized by type.

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## Los Alamos National Laboratory

Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.

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## Mass

Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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## Meson

In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by strong interactions.

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## Microscope

A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

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## Muon

The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.

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## Muon neutrino

The muon neutrino is a lepton, an elementary subatomic particle which has the symbol and no net electric charge.

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## Nanosecond

A nanosecond (ns) is an SI unit of time equal to one thousand-millionth of a second (or one billionth of a second), that is, 1/1,000,000,000 of a second, or 10 seconds.

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## New Mexico

New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.

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## Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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## Nuclear force

The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.

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## Nucleon

In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.

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## Parity (physics)

In quantum mechanics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the flip in the sign of one spatial coordinate.

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## Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.

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## Particle Data Group

The Particle Data Group (or PDG) is an international collaboration of particle physicists that compiles and reanalyzes published results related to the properties of particles and fundamental interactions.

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## Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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## Photographic emulsion

Photographic emulsion is a light-sensitive colloid used in film-based photography.

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## Photographic plate

Photographic plates preceded photographic film as a capture medium in photography.

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## Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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## Physical Review

Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.

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## Pi (letter)

Pi (uppercase Π, lowercase π; πι) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, representing the sound.

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## Pic du Midi de Bigorre

The Pic du Midi de Bigorre or simply the Pic du Midi (altitude) is a mountain in the French Pyrenees famous for its Pic du Midi Observatory.

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## Pion decay constant

In particle physics, the pion decay constant is the square root of the coefficient in front of the kinetic term for the pion in the low-energy effective action.

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## Pionium

Pionium is an exotic atom consisting of one and one meson.

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## Positron

The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.

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## Positronium

Positronium (Ps) is a system consisting of an electron and its anti-particle, a positron, bound together into an exotic atom, specifically an onium.

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## Pseudoscalar

In physics, a pseudoscalar is a quantity that behaves like a scalar, except that it changes sign under a parity inversion such as improper rotations while a true scalar does not.

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## Pyrenees

The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.

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## Quantum chromodynamics

In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.

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## Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

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## Quantum number

Quantum numbers describe values of conserved quantities in the dynamics of a quantum system.

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## Quantum superposition

Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics.

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## Quark

A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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## Quark model

In particle physics, the quark model is a classification scheme for hadrons in terms of their valence quarks—the quarks and antiquarks which give rise to the quantum numbers of the hadrons.

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## Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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## Rho meson

In particle physics, a rho meson is a short-lived hadronic particle that is an isospin triplet whose three states are denoted as, and.

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## Riazuddin (physicist)

Riazuddin, also spelled as Riaz-Uddin (Urdu: رياض الدين;‎ 10 November 1930 – 9 September 2013), was a Pakistani theoretical physicist, specialising in high-energy physics and nuclear physics.

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## Richard Dalitz

Richard Henry Dalitz, FRS (28 February 1925 – 13 January 2006) was an Australian physicist known for his work in particle physics.

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## Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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## Second

The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.

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## Special unitary group

In mathematics, the special unitary group of degree, denoted, is the Lie group of unitary matrices with determinant 1.

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## Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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## Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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## Static forces and virtual-particle exchange

Static force fields are fields, such as a simple electric, magnetic or gravitational fields, that exist without excitations.

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## Strange quark

The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.

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## Strangeness

In particle physics, strangeness ("S") is a property of particles, expressed as a quantum number, for describing decay of particles in strong and electromagnetic interactions which occur in a short period of time.

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## Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

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## Subatomic particle

In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.

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## Supernova remnant

A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.

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## Total angular momentum quantum number

In quantum mechanics, the total angular momentum quantum number parameterises the total angular momentum of a given particle, by combining its orbital angular momentum and its intrinsic angular momentum (i.e., its spin).

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## TRIUMF

TRIUMF is Canada's national particle accelerator centre.

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## University of Bristol

The University of Bristol (simply referred to as Bristol University and abbreviated as Bris. in post-nominal letters, or UoB) is a red brick research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom.

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## University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.

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## Up quark

The up quark or u quark (symbol: u) is the lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

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## Vancouver

Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.

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## Vector meson

In high energy physics, a vector meson is a meson with total spin 1 and odd parity (usually noted as). Compare to a pseudovector meson, which has a total spin 1 and even parity.

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## Virtual particle

In physics, a virtual particle is a transient fluctuation that exhibits some of the characteristics of an ordinary particle, but whose existence is limited by the uncertainty principle.

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## Wave function

A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.

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## Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.

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## Yukawa interaction

In particle physics, Yukawa's interaction or Yukawa coupling, named after Hideki Yukawa, is an interaction between a scalar field ϕ and a Dirac field ψ of the type The Yukawa interaction can be used to describe the nuclear force between nucleons (which are fermions), mediated by pions (which are pseudoscalar mesons).

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## Yukawa potential

In particle and atomic physics, a Yukawa potential (also called a screened Coulomb potential) is a potential of the form where g is a magnitude scaling constant, i.e. is the amplitude of potential, m is the mass of the particle, r is the radial distance to the particle, and k is another scaling constant, so that 1/km is the range.

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## Redirects here:

Charged pion, Downonium, Neutral pion, Neutral pion decay, Pi Meson, Pi Mesons, Pi meson, Pi mesons, Pi-Mesons, Pi-meson, Pi0, Pions, Uponium, Π Meson, Π Mesons, Π⁰.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pion