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Pioneer 11

Index Pioneer 11

Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind and cosmic rays. [1]

101 relations: Amalthea (moon), Ames Research Center, Asteroid belt, Atlas (moon), Atlas-Centaur, Atmosphere of Jupiter, Byte, Callisto (moon), Calypso (moon), Canopus, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Cassini–Huygens, Charged particle, Cherenkov detector, Commemorative plaque, Conical scanning, Convolutional code, Coordinated Universal Time, Cosmic ray, Daniel Goldin, Declination, Dione (moon), Directional antenna, Doppler effect, Electronvolt, Enceladus, Epimetheus (moon), Error detection and correction, Escape velocity, Europa (moon), Exploration of Jupiter, Exploration of Saturn, Frank B. McDonald, Ganymede (moon), Geiger tube telescope, Gravity assist, Great Red Spot, Hydrazine, Hyperion (moon), Iapetus (moon), Interplanetary medium, Io (moon), James Van Allen, Janus (moon), John Alexander Simpson, Jupiter, List of artificial objects leaving the Solar System, List of missions to the outer planets, Magnetometer, Messier 26, ..., Meteoroid, Mimas (moon), Monopropellant rocket, Moons of Jupiter, Moons of Saturn, NASA, NASA Deep Space Network, National Air and Space Museum, New Horizons, Newton (unit), Observational error, Occultation, Phoebe (moon), Photometer, Physical Review Letters, Pioneer 10, Pioneer anomaly, Pioneer H, Pioneer program, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Plasma (physics), Pluto, Polarimeter, Radiation, Radio occultation, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Radiometer, Revolutions per minute, Rhea (moon), Right ascension, Robotic spacecraft, S band, Saturn, Scutum (constellation), Solar System, Solar wind, Space probe, Space.com, Spaceport Florida Launch Complex 36, Star (rocket stage), Sun sensor, Tethys (moon), Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes, Titan (moon), Tom Gehrels, Transceiver, TRW Inc., Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Voyager program, Washington, D.C.. Expand index (51 more) »

Amalthea (moon)

Amalthea (Ἀμάλθεια) is the third moon of Jupiter in order of distance from the planet.

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Ames Research Center

Ames Research Center (ARC), also known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley.

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Asteroid belt

The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.

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Atlas (moon)

Atlas is an inner satellite of Saturn.

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The Atlas-Centaur was an American expendable launch system derived from the SM-65 Atlas D missile.

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Atmosphere of Jupiter

The atmosphere of Jupiter is the largest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System.

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The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.

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Callisto (moon)

Callisto (Jupiter IV) is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede.

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Calypso (moon)

Calypso (Καλυψώ) is a moon of Saturn.

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Canopus, also designated Alpha Carinae (α Carinae, abbreviated Alpha Car, α Car), is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Carina, and the second-brightest star in the night-time sky, after Sirius.

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Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) (known as Cape Kennedy Air Force Station from 1963 to 1973) is an installation of the United States Air Force Space Command's 45th Space Wing.

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The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.

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Charged particle

In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge.

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Cherenkov detector

A Cherenkov (Черенко́в) detector is a particle detector using the speed threshold for light production, the speed-dependent light output or the velocity-dependent light direction of Cherenkov radiation.

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Commemorative plaque

A commemorative plaque, or simply plaque, or in other places referred to as a historical marker or historic plaque, is a plate of metal, ceramic, stone, wood, or other material, typically attached to a wall, stone, or other vertical surface, and bearing text or an image in relief, or both, to commemorate one or more persons, an event, a former use of the place, or some other thing.

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Conical scanning

Conical scanning is a system used in early radar units to improve their accuracy, as well as making it easier to steer the antenna properly to point at a target.

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Convolutional code

In telecommunication, a convolutional code is a type of error-correcting code that generates parity symbols via the sliding application of a boolean polynomial function to a data stream.

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Coordinated Universal Time

No description.

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Cosmic ray

Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.

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Daniel Goldin

Daniel Saul Goldin (born July 23, 1940) served as the 9th and longest-tenured Administrator of NASA from April 1, 1992, to November 17, 2001.

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In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle.

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Dione (moon)

Dione (Διώνη) is a moon of Saturn.

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Directional antenna

A directional antenna or beam antenna is an antenna which radiates or receives greater power in specific directions allowing increased performance and reduced interference from unwanted sources.

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Doppler effect

The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.

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In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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Enceladus is the sixth-largest moon of Saturn.

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Epimetheus (moon)

Epimetheus is an inner satellite of Saturn.

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Error detection and correction

In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.

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Escape velocity

In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body.

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Europa (moon)

Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.

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Exploration of Jupiter

The exploration of Jupiter has been conducted via close observations by automated spacecraft.

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Exploration of Saturn

The exploration of Saturn has been solely performed by crewless probes.

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Frank B. McDonald

Frank Bethune McDonald (May 28, 1925 – August 31, 2012) was an American astrophysicist who helped design scientific instruments for research flights into space.

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Ganymede (moon)

Ganymede (Jupiter III) is the largest and most massive moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System.

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Geiger tube telescope

The Geiger Tube Telescope is a scientific instrument that measures the intensities, energy spectra, and angular distribution of energetic electrons and protons in interplanetary space and near Jupiter and Saturn.

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Gravity assist

In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist maneuver, or swing-by is the use of the relative movement (e.g. orbit around the Sun) and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically to save propellant and reduce expense.

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Great Red Spot

The Great Red Spot is a persistent high-pressure region in the atmosphere of Jupiter, producing an anticyclonic storm 22° south of the planet's equator.

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Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.

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Hyperion (moon)

Hyperion (Greek: Ὑπερίων), also known as Saturn VII (7), is a moon of Saturn discovered by William Cranch Bond, George Phillips Bond and William Lassell in 1848.

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Iapetus (moon)

Iapetus (Ιαπετός), or occasionally Japetus, is the third-largest natural satellite of Saturn, eleventh-largest in the Solar System, and the largest body in the Solar System known not to be in hydrostatic equilibrium.

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Interplanetary medium

The interplanetary medium is the material which fills the Solar System, and through which all the larger Solar System bodies, such as planets, dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets, move.

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Io (moon)

Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.

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James Van Allen

James Alfred Van Allen (September 7, 1914August 9, 2006) was an American space scientist at the University of Iowa.

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Janus (moon)

Janus is an inner satellite of Saturn.

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John Alexander Simpson

John Alexander Simpson (November 3, 1916 – August 31, 2000) worked as an experimental nuclear, and cosmic ray physicist who was deeply committed to educating the public and political leaders about science and its implications.

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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List of artificial objects leaving the Solar System

Below is a list of artificial objects leaving the Solar System.

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List of missions to the outer planets

A total of nine spacecraft have been launched on missions that involve visits to the outer planets; all nine missions involve encounters with Jupiter, with four spacecraft also visiting Saturn.

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A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location.

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Messier 26

Open Cluster M26 (also known as Messier Object 26 or NGC 6694) is an open cluster in the constellation Scutum.

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A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.

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Mimas (moon)

Mimas, also designated Saturn I, is a moon of Saturn which was discovered in 1789 by William Herschel.

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Monopropellant rocket

A monopropellant rocket (or "monoprop rocket") is a rocket that uses a single chemical as its propellant.

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Moons of Jupiter

There are 69 known moons of Jupiter.

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Moons of Saturn

The moons of Saturn are numerous and diverse, ranging from tiny moonlets less than 1 kilometer across to the enormous Titan, which is larger than the planet Mercury.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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NASA Deep Space Network

The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is a worldwide network of US spacecraft communication facilities, located in the United States (California), Spain (Madrid), and Australia (Canberra), that supports NASA's interplanetary spacecraft missions.

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National Air and Space Museum

The National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, also called the NASM, is a museum in Washington, D.C..

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New Horizons

New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.

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Newton (unit)

The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.

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Observational error

Observational error (or measurement error) is the difference between a measured value of a quantity and its true value.

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An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer.

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Phoebe (moon)

Phoebe (Greek: Φοίβη Phoíbē) is an irregular satellite of Saturn with a mean diameter of 213 km.

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A photometer, generally, is an instrument that measures light intensity or the optical properties of solutions or surfaces.

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Physical Review Letters

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.

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Pioneer 10

Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, launched in 1972 and weighing, that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter.

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Pioneer anomaly

The Pioneer anomaly or Pioneer effect was the observed deviation from predicted accelerations of the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft after they passed about on their trajectories out of the Solar System.

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Pioneer H

Pioneer H is an unlaunched unmanned space mission that was part of the US Pioneer program for a planned 1974 launch.

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Pioneer program

The Pioneer program is a series of United States unmanned space missions that were designed for planetary exploration.

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Pioneer Venus Orbiter

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter, also known as Pioneer Venus 1 or Pioneer 12, was a mission to Venus conducted by the United States as part of the Pioneer Venus project.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.

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A polarimeter is a scientific instrument used to measure the angle of rotation caused by passing polarized light through an optically active substance.

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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Radio occultation

Radio occultation (RO) is a remote sensing technique used for measuring the physical properties of a planetary atmosphere or ring system.

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Radioisotope thermoelectric generator

A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.

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A radiometer or roentgenometer is a device for measuring the radiant flux (power) of electromagnetic radiation.

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Revolutions per minute

Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, rev/min, r/min) is the number of turns in one minute.

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Rhea (moon)

Rhea (Ῥέᾱ) is the second-largest moon of Saturn and the ninth-largest moon in the Solar System.

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Right ascension

Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol) is the angular distance measured only eastward along the celestial equator from the Sun at the March equinox to the (hour circle of the) point above the earth in question.

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Robotic spacecraft

A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control.

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S band

The S band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for a part of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum covering frequencies from 2 to 4 gigahertz (GHz).

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Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Scutum (constellation)

Scutum is a small constellation introduced in the seventeenth century.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Solar wind

The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.

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Space probe

A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.

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Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.

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Spaceport Florida Launch Complex 36

Launch Complex 36 (LC-36)—formerly known as Space Launch Complex 36 (SLC-36) from 1997 to 2010—is a launch complex at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Brevard County, Florida.

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Star (rocket stage)

The Star is a family of American solid-fuel rocket motor used by many space propulsion and launch vehicle stages.

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Sun sensor

A sun sensor is a navigational instrument used by spacecraft to detect the position of the sun.

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Tethys (moon)

Tethys (or Saturn III) is a mid-sized moon of Saturn about across.

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Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes

This timeline of artificial satellites and space probes includes unmanned spacecraft including technology demonstrators, observatories, lunar probes, and interplanetary probes.

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Titan (moon)

Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.

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Tom Gehrels

Anton M.J. "Tom" Gehrels (February 21, 1925 – July 11, 2011) was a Dutch–American astronomer, Professor of Planetary Sciences, and Astronomer at the University of Arizona, Tucson.

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A transceiver is a device comprising both a transmitter and a receiver that are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing.

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TRW Inc.

TRW Inc. was an American corporation involved in a variety of businesses, mainly aerospace, automotive, and credit reporting.

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Voyager 1

Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.

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Voyager 2

Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.

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Voyager program

The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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1973-019A, Pioneer G, Pioneer XI.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_11

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