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Piri Reis

Index Piri Reis

Ahmed Muhiddin Piri (1465/70–1553), better known as Piri Reis (Reis or Hacı Ahmet Muhittin Pîrî Bey), was an Ottoman admiral, navigator, geographer and cartographer. [1]

140 relations: Abraham Ortelius, Admiral, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Anatolia, Anatolian beyliks, Arabian Peninsula, Asia, Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood, Assassin's Creed: Revelations, Assassins, Austrian National Library, Balearic Islands, Basra, Battista Agnese, Battle of Modon (1500), Battle of Zonchio, Bey, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Black Sea, Bodleian Library, Bomb, British Museum, Caltrop, Canary Islands, Capture of Muscat (1552), Cartography, Central America, Central Anatolia Region, Christopher Columbus, Cuba, Dardanelles, David Woodward, Destructoid, East Thrace, Egypt, Ezio Auditore da Firenze, Fairfax Media, Florida, French Riviera, Gallipoli, Gelibolu, Geography and cartography in medieval Islam, Grand Bazaar, Istanbul, Grand vizier, Greenland, Hacı, Hajj, Hajji, Hispaniola, ..., Hormuz Island, IGN, India, Indian Ocean, Ionian Sea, Islam, Istanbul, Jamaica, Jan of Stobnica, Jeuxvideo.com, John Brian Harley, Juan de la Cosa, Karaman, Karamanids, Köprülüzade Fazıl Ahmed Pasha, Kemal Reis, Kish, Iran, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Templar, Konya, Kotaku, Labrador, Leonardo da Vinci, Levant, Ligurian Sea, List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire, List of libraries in Istanbul, Malta, Manuscripts of the Austrian National Library, Map of Juan de la Cosa, Mappa mundi, Mecca, Mediterranean Sea, Mehmed the Conqueror, Moharam (family), Navigation, New World, Newfoundland (island), Niccolò Machiavelli, Nile, North Africa, North America, Ottoman Archives, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean, Ottoman Navy, Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17), Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha, Persian Gulf, Pilgrimage, Piri Reis map, Port, Portolan chart, Portugal, Privateer, Ptolemy, Ptolemy (general), Pyrotechnician, Qatar, Reis (military rank), Republic of Genoa, Republic of Venice, Sahara, Süleymaniye Mosque, Scholarly method, Selim I, Sicily, Siege of Rhodes (1522), Smoke screen, Spain, Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Strait of Gibraltar, Strait of Hormuz, Suez, Suleiman the Magnificent, The National (Abu Dhabi), The Public Domain Review, Topkapı Palace, Tripwire, Tropic of Cancer, Turkey, Turkish language, Turkish Naval Forces, Tyrrhenian Sea, University of Bologna, Vali (governor), Vasco da Gama, Walters Art Museum, Ziff Davis, 1548 capture of Aden. Expand index (90 more) »

Abraham Ortelius

Abraham Ortelius (also Ortels, Orthellius, Wortels; 14 April 1527 – 28 June 1598) was a Brabantian cartographer and geographer, conventionally recognized as the creator of the first modern atlas, the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World).

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Admiral

Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.

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Adriatic Sea

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Anatolian beyliks

Anatolian beyliks (Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Tavâif-i mülûk, Beylik), sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood

Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood is a 2010 action-adventure video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft.

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Assassin's Creed: Revelations

Assassin's Creed: Revelations is a 2011 action-adventure video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft.

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Assassins

Order of Assassins or simply Assassins (أساسين asāsīn, حشاشین Hashâshīn) is the common name used to refer to an Islamic sect formally known as the Nizari Ismailis.

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Austrian National Library

The Austrian National Library (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek) is the largest library in Austria, with more than 12 million items in its various collections.

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Balearic Islands

The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Basra

Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.

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Battista Agnese

Battista Agnese (c. 1500 – 1564) was a cartographer from the Republic of Genoa, who worked in the Venetian Republic.

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Battle of Modon (1500)

The Battle of Modon took place in August 1500 during the war of 1499–1503 between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice.

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Battle of Zonchio

The naval Battle of Zonchio (Sapienza Deniz Muharebesi, also known as the Battle of Sapienza or the First Battle of Lepanto) took place on four separate days: 12, 20, 22 and 25 August 1499.

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Bey

“Bey” (بك “Beik”, bej, beg, بيه “Beyeh”, بیگ “Beyg” or بگ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire.

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Bibliothèque nationale de France

The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Bodleian Library

The Bodleian Library is the main research library of the University of Oxford, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe.

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Bomb

A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy.

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British Museum

The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.

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Caltrop

A caltrop (also known as caltrap, galtrop, cheval trap, galthrap, galtrap, calthrop, jackrock or crow's footBattle of Alesia (Caesar's conquest of Gaul in 52 BC)), Battlefield Detectives program, (2006), rebroadcast: 2008-09-08 on History Channel International (13;00-14:00 hrs EDST); Note: No mention of name caltrop at all, but illustrated and given as battle key to defend Roman lines of circumvaliation per recent digs evidence.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.

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Capture of Muscat (1552)

The Capture of Muscat occurred in 1552, when an Ottoman fleet under Piri Reis attacked Old Muscat, in modern Oman, and plundered the town from the Portuguese.

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Cartography

Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Central America

Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.

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Central Anatolia Region

The Central Anatolia Region (İç Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.

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Cuba

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Dardanelles

The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.

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David Woodward

David Woodward (29 August 1942 – 25 August 2004) was an English-born American historian of cartography and cartographer.

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Destructoid

Destructoid is an independent website, that was founded as a video game-focused blog in March 2006 by Yanier Gonzalez.

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East Thrace

East Thrace, or Eastern Thrace (Doğu Trakya or simply Trakya; Ανατολική Θράκη, Anatoliki Thraki; Източна Тракия, Iztochna Trakiya), also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of the modern Republic of Turkey that is geographically part of Southeast Europe.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Ezio Auditore da Firenze

Ezio Auditore da Firenze is an assassin in the video game series Assassin's Creed.

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Fairfax Media

Fairfax Media Limited (formerly John Fairfax and Sons) is one of the largest media companies in Australia and New Zealand, with investments in newspaper, magazines, radio and digital properties.

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Florida

Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.

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French Riviera

The French Riviera (known in French as the Côte d'Azur,; Còsta d'Azur; literal translation "Coast of Azure") is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France.

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Gallipoli

The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.

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Gelibolu

Gelibolu, also known as Gallipoli (from Καλλίπολις, Kallipolis, "Beautiful City"), is the name of a town and a district in Çanakkale Province of the Marmara Region, located in Eastern Thrace in the European part of Turkey on the southern shore of the peninsula named after it on the Dardanelles strait, two miles away from Lapseki on the other shore.

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Geography and cartography in medieval Islam

Medieval Islamic geography was based on Hellenistic geography and reached its apex with Muhammad al-Idrisi in the 12th century.

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Grand Bazaar, Istanbul

The Grand Bazaar (Kapalıçarşı, meaning ‘Covered Market’; also Büyük Çarşı, meaning ‘Grand Market’Müller-Wiener (1977), p. 345.) in Istanbul is one of the largest and oldest covered markets in the world, with 61 covered streets and over 4,000 shopsMüller-Wiener (1977), p. 349.

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Grand vizier

In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier (Sadrazam) was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.

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Greenland

Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Hacı

Hacı is the Turkish spelling of the title and epithet Hajji.

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Hajj

The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.

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Hajji

Hajji (sometimes spelled Hadji, Haji, Alhaji, Al hage, Al hag or El-Hajj) is a title which is originally given to a Muslim person who has successfully completed the Hajj to Mecca.

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Hispaniola

Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.

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Hormuz Island

Hormuz Island (جزیره هرمز Jazireh-ye Hormoz), also spelled Hormoz, is an Iranian island in the Persian Gulf.

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IGN

IGN (formerly Imagine Games Network) is an American video game and entertainment media company operated by IGN Entertainment Inc., a subsidiary of Ziff Davis wholly owned by j2 Global.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Ionian Sea

The Ionian Sea (Ιόνιο Πέλαγος,, Mar Ionio,, Deti Jon) is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Jamaica

Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.

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Jan of Stobnica

Jan of Stobnica (ca. 1470 - 1530), was a Polish philosopher, scientist and geographer of the early 16th century.

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Jeuxvideo.com

Jeuxvideo.com is a French video gaming website founded in 1997.

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John Brian Harley

(John) Brian Harley (–) was a geographer, cartographer, and map historian at the universities of Birmingham, Liverpool, Exeter and Wisconsin–Milwaukee.

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Juan de la Cosa

Juan de la Cosa (c. 1450 – 28 February 1510) was a Spanish navigator and cartographer, known for designing the earliest European world map that incorporated the territories of the Americas that were discovered in the 15th century.

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Karaman

Karaman is a city in south central Turkey, located in Central Anatolia, north of the Taurus Mountains, about south of Konya.

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Karamanids

The Karamanids or Karamanid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Karamanoğulları, Karamanoğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Karaman and Beylik of Karaman (Karaman Beyliği), was one of the Islamic Anatolian beyliks, centered in south-central Anatolia around the present-day Karaman Province.

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Köprülüzade Fazıl Ahmed Pasha

Köprülüzade Fazıl Ahmed Pasha (كپرولى زاده فاضل احمد پاشا, Köprülü Fazıl Ahmet Paşa;; 1635 – 3 November 1676) was a member of the renowned Köprülü family originating from Albania, which produced six grand viziers of the Ottoman Empire.

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Kemal Reis

Kemal Reis (c. 1451 – 1511) was an Ottoman privateer and admiral.

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Kish, Iran

Kish (كيش, also Romanized as Kīsh) is a coastal city and capital of Kish District, in Bandar Lengeh County, Hormozgan Province, Iran.

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Knights Hospitaller

The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.

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Knights Templar

The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.

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Konya

Konya (Ikónion, Iconium) is a major city in south-western edge of the Central Anatolian Plateau and is the seventh-most-populous city in Turkey with a metropolitan population of over 2.1 million.

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Kotaku

Kotaku is a video game website and blog that was originally launched in 2004 as part of the Gawker Media network.

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Labrador

Labrador is the continental-mainland part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

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Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.

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Levant

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Ligurian Sea

The Ligurian Sea (Mar Ligure; Mer Ligurienne) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, between the Italian Riviera (Liguria) and the island of Corsica.

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List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire

These Admirals of the Ottoman Empire are senior naval officers (script or reis pasha) of the Ottoman Empire other than the Kapudan Pashas who were the Grand Admirals of the Ottoman fleet.

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List of libraries in Istanbul

This is a list of libraries within the city limits of Istanbul.

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Malta

Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Manuscripts of the Austrian National Library

The Department of Manuscripts and Rare Books of the Austrian National Library in Vienna was formed in April 2008 by merging the departments of "Manuscripts, Autographs, and Closed Collections" and of "Incunabula, Old and Valuable Books".

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Map of Juan de la Cosa

The map or chart of Juan de la Cosa is a mappa mundi painted on parchment, 93 cm high and 183 cm wide.

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Mappa mundi

A mappa mundi (Latin; plural.

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Mecca

Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.

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Moharam (family)

Moharam of Judham of Murrah of Sheba of Kahlan of Qahtanite origin (also Moharram, Muharram, Aal Moharam, Aal Maharema) (Arabic: مُحَرَّم or المحارمة) is a family lineage from Egypt with ancestors from Yemen.

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Navigation

Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.

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New World

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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Newfoundland (island)

Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

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Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.

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Nile

The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Ottoman Archives

The Ottoman Archives are a collection of historical sources related to the Ottoman Empire and a total of 39 nations whose territories one time or the other were part of this Empire, including 19 nations in the Middle East, 11 in the EU and Balkans, three in the Caucasus, two in Central Asia, Cyprus, as well as Palestine and the Republic of Turkey.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean

The Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean (Hint seferleri or Hint Deniz seferleri, "Indian Ocean campaigns") were a series of Ottoman amphibious operations in the Indian Ocean in the 16th century.

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Ottoman Navy

The Ottoman Navy (Osmanlı Donanması or Donanma-yı Humâyûn), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing Karamürsel, the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy.

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Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17)

The Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517 was the second major conflict between the Egypt-based Mamluk Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire, which led to the fall of the Mamluk Sultanate and the incorporation of the Levant, Egypt and the Hejaz as provinces of the Ottoman Empire.

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Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha

Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha ("Ibrahim Pasha of Parga"; c. 1495 – 15 March 1536), also known as Frenk Ibrahim Pasha ("the Westerner"), Makbul Ibrahim Pasha ("the Favorite"), which later changed to Maktul Ibrahim Pasha ("the Executed") after his execution in the Topkapı Palace, was the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire appointed by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Pilgrimage

A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.

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Piri Reis map

The Piri Reis map is a world map compiled in 1513 from military intelligence by the Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis.

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Port

A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.

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Portolan chart

Portolan or portulan charts are navigational maps based on compass directions and estimated distances observed by the pilots at sea.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Privateer

A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.

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Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Ptolemy (general)

Ptolemy, Ptolemaios or Polemaios (Πολεμαῖος); died 309 BC) was a nephew and general of Antigonus I Monophthalmus, one of the Successors of Alexander the Great. He is first mentioned as being present with his uncle at the siege of Nora in 320 BC, when he was given up to Eumenes as a hostage for the safety of the latter during a conference with Antigonus. At a later period we find him entrusted by his uncle with commands of importance. Thus in 315 BC, when Antigonus was preparing to oppose the formidable coalition organized against him, he placed Ptolemy at the head of the army which was destined to carry on operations in Anatolia against the generals of Cassander. The young general successfully carried out his mission, thereby relieving Amisus, which was besieged by Asclepiodorus, and recovered the whole satrapy of Cappadocia; after which he advanced into Bithynia, compelling king Zipoites to join his alliance. Upon his approach and occupation of Ionia, Seleucus withdrew from that territory. In the latter part of that year, Ptolemy next threatened Caria, which was defended for a time by Myrmidon, the Egyptian general; but in the following year (314 BC) Ptolemy was able to strike a decisive blow in that quarter against Eupolemus, the general of Cassander, whom he surprised and totally defeated. In the summer of (313 BC), the arrival of Antigonus himself gave a decided preponderance to his arms in Anatolia, and Ptolemy, after rendering active assistance in the sieges of Kaunos and Iasus, was sent with a considerable army to Greece to carry on the war there against Cassander. His successes were at first rapid: he drove out the garrisons of his adversary from Chalcis and Oropus, invaded Attica, where he compelled Athens' tyrant Demetrius Phalereus to make overtures of submission, and then carried his arms triumphantly through Boeotia, Phocis, and Locris. Wherever he went, he expelled the Macedonian garrisons, and proclaimed the liberty and independence of the cities. He then directed his armies to the Peloponnese, where the authority of Antigonus had been endangered by the recent defection of his general Telesphorus. Here he appears to have remained till the peace of 311 suspended hostilities in that region. He is thought to have considered that his services had not met with their due reward from Antigonus; and therefore, when in 310 BC the kings of Macedonia and Egypt were preparing to renew the war, Ptolemy suddenly abandoned the cause of his uncle and concluded a treaty with Cassander and Ptolemy I Soter. His ambition may have been to establish himself in the chief command in the Peloponnese: but the reconciliation of Polyperchon with Cassander must have frustrated this: and on the arrival of the Egyptian king with a fleet at Cos, Ptolemy repaired from Chalcis to join him. He was received at first with the utmost favour, but soon gave offence to his new patron by his intrigues and ambitious demonstrations, and was in consequence thrown into prison and compelled to put an end to his life by poison, 309 BC.

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Pyrotechnician

A pyrotechnician is a person who is responsible for the safe storage, handling, and functioning of pyrotechnics and pyrotechnic devices.

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Qatar

Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Reis (military rank)

Reis (sometimes spelled rais) was a Turkish military rank, akin to that of a naval captain, that was commonly added to the officer's name as an epithet during the Ottoman Empire.

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Republic of Genoa

The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

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Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.

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Sahara

The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.

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Süleymaniye Mosque

The Süleymaniye Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) is an Ottoman imperial mosque located on the Third Hill of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Scholarly method

The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public.

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Selim I

Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.

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Sicily

Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Siege of Rhodes (1522)

The Siege of Rhodes of 1522 was the second and ultimately successful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to expel the Knights of Rhodes from their island stronghold and thereby secure Ottoman control of the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Smoke screen

A smoke screen is smoke released to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks, aircraft or ships.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire

The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, or the Spanish–Aztec War (1519–21), was the conquest of the Aztec Empire by the Spanish Empire within the context of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

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Strait of Gibraltar

The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.

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Strait of Hormuz

The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز Tangeye Hormoz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

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Suez

Suez (السويس; Egyptian Arabic) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate.

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Suleiman the Magnificent

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The National (Abu Dhabi)

The National is a private English-language daily newspaper published in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

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The Public Domain Review

The Public Domain Review is an online journal, a project of the Open Knowledge Foundation, showcasing works which have entered the public domain.

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Topkapı Palace

The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in طوپقپو سرايى, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı), or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Tripwire

A tripwire is a passive triggering mechanism.

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Tropic of Cancer

The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Turkish Naval Forces

The Turkish Naval Forces (Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Navy (Türk Donanması) is the naval warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.

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Tyrrhenian Sea

The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mar Tirreno, Mer Tyrrhénienne, Mare Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.

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University of Bologna

The University of Bologna (Università di Bologna, UNIBO), founded in 1088, is the oldest university in continuous operation, as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe.

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Vali (governor)

Wāli or vali (from Arabic والي Wāli) is an administrative title that was used during the Caliphate and Ottoman Empire to designate governors of administrative divisions.

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Vasco da Gama

Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.

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Walters Art Museum

The Walters Art Museum, located in Mount Vernon-Belvedere, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, is a public art museum founded and opened in 1934.

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Ziff Davis

Ziff Davis, LLC is an American publisher and Internet company.

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1548 capture of Aden

The Capture of Aden of 1548 was accomplished when Ottomans under Piri Reis managed to take the harbour of Aden in Yemen from the Portuguese on 26 February 1548.

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Redirects here:

Hacı Ahmed Muhiddin Piri, Kitab-ı Bahriye, Pîrî Reis.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piri_Reis

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