345 relations: A.C. Pisa 1909, Acre, Israel, Adriatic Sea, Aeneid, Afro Poli, Aléria, Alessandro Fei (painter), Alessio Corti, Alexandria, Alexios I Komnenos, Alfeios, Alfonso VI of León and Castile, Almoravid dynasty, Amalfi, Ancient Rome, Ancona, Andrea Bocelli, Andrea Pisano, Angers, Annunciation, Antibes, Antioch, Antipope Anacletus II, Antonio Pacinotti, Antonio Tabucchi, Apulia, Aragon, Arena Garibaldi – Stadio Romeo Anconetani, Arno, Association football, Augustinians, Augustus, Aurelio Lomi, Aversa, École normale supérieure (Paris), Barcelona, Bartolommeo Bandinelli, Basilica, Baths of Nero (Pisa), Battle of Giglio (1241), Battle of Lepanto, Battle of Meloria (1284), Battle of Montecatini, Bell tower, Benedetto I Zaccaria, Bernard of Clairvaux, Björn Ironside, Botanical garden, Brindisi, Bruno Pontecorvo, ..., Bust (sculpture), Byzantine Empire, Caesarea, Caetani, Cagliari, Cairo, Calabria, Camila Giorgi, Camposanto Monumentale, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, Carlo Rubbia, Carolingian Empire, Carthage, Central Italy, Charlemagne, Charles VIII of France, Christian Vieri, City centre, Civitavecchia, Computer science, Constantinople, Copyright, Coral Gables, Florida, Corsica, Corumbá, Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosmatesque, Council of Pisa, Cremona, Dagobert of Pisa, Dante Alighieri, Darby Military Community, Della Gherardesca family, Desiderius, Diego Simeone, Diocese, Domenico Passignano, Donatello, Duchy of Florence, Dunga, Dynamo, El Cid, Engineering, Enrico Fermi, Enzo of Sardinia, Etruscan civilization, Excommunication, Fabrica ecclesiae, Fibonacci, First Crusade, First French Empire, Florence, Folklore, Fos-sur-Mer, Francesco di Valdambrino, Francesco Traini, Fréjus, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Gaeta, Gaetano Bardini, Galileo Galilei, Garfagnana, Gauls, Genoa, Giacomo Leopardi, Gillo Pontecorvo, Giorgio Chiellini, Giorgio Vasari, Giosuè Carducci, Giovanni Gentile, Giovanni Gronchi, Giovanni Pisano, Giudicati, Giuliano Amato, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Greece, Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, Grosseto, Guelphs and Ghibellines, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Land, Holy Roman Empire, House music, Humid subtropical climate, Hyères, Isola del Giglio, Italy, Jackass (franchise), Jacopo da Empoli, Jacopo Ligozzi, Jaffa, Jason Acuña, Jericho, Jerusalem, Jews, Köppen climate classification, Keith Haring, Kingdom of Etruria, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Sicily, Kingdom of the Lombards, Kingdom of Valencia, Knights' Square, Kolding, Languedoc, Latakia, Leaning Tower of Pisa, Leonardo Ortolani, Lerici, Levant, Ligures, Liguria, Ligurian Sea, List of Byzantine emperors, List of rulers of Tuscany, Liutprand of Cremona, Livorno, Lombards, Lorenzo de' Medici, Lucca, Mahdia, Malaria, Mallorca, Manuel I Komnenos, March of Tuscany, Marco Malvaldi, Marina di Pisa, Maritime republics, Marseille, Masaccio, Massa, Massimo Carmassi, Master of San Martino alla Palma, 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Savona, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Sergio Bertoni, Serie C, Shooting, Sicily, Silvano Arieti, Simone Martini, Sinopia, Sister city, Split, Croatia, State of Palestine, Strabo, Superior Graduate Schools in Italy, Syracuse, Sicily, Taddeo Gaddi, Tirrenia, Torre dei Gualandi, Toulouse, Trapani, Tripoli, Troy, Tunisia, Turin, Tuscany, Tuscia, Tyre, Lebanon, Tyrrhenian Sea, Ugolino della Gherardesca, Uguccione della Faggiuola, Underdrawing, United Provinces of Central Italy, University of Pisa, Unna, Venice, Ventura Salimbeni, Via Francigena, Viareggio, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Vikings, Villa di Corliano, Virgil, Visconti of Milan, Vitellozzo Vitelli, Volterra, Western Roman Empire, Western Schism, World War II, Zadar, 1113–15 Balearic Islands expedition. 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Associazione Calcio Pisa 1909 (formerly Pisa Sporting Club 1909) is an Italian association football club, based in Pisa, Tuscany.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
Afro Poli (22 December 1902 in Pisa – 22 February 1988 in Rome) was an Italian operatic baritone, particularly associated with the Italian repertory.
Aléria (Ancient Greek: Ἀλαλίη, Alaliē; Latin and Italian: Aleria, U Cateraghju) is a commune in the Haute-Corse department of France on the island of Corsica, former bishopric and present Latin Catholic titular see.
Alessandro Fei (1543–1592) was an Italian painter active in Florence, working in a Mannerist style.
Alessio Corti (born 1965) is a Professor of Mathematics at Imperial College London working in Algebraic Geometry.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Alexios I Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός., c. 1048 – 15 August 1118) was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118.
Alfeiós (Αλφειός, also romanized as Alpheus, Alpheios) is the longest river in the Peloponnese, in Greece.
Alfonso VI (1 July 1109), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was the son of King Ferdinand I of León and Queen Sancha, daughter of Alfonso V and sister of Bermudo III.
The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
Amalfi is a town and comune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Ancona ((elbow)) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997.
Andrea Bocelli, (born 22 September 1958) is an Italian singer, songwriter, and record producer.
Andrea Pisano (Pontedera 12901348 Orvieto) also known as Andrea da Pontedera, was an Italian sculptor and architect.
Angers is a city in western France, about southwest of Paris.
The Annunciation (from Latin annuntiatio), also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation.
Antibes (Provençal Occitan: Antíbol) is a Mediterranean resort in the Alpes-Maritimes department of southeastern France, on the Côte d'Azur between Cannes and Nice.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Anacletus II (died January 25, 1138), born Pietro Pierleoni, was an Antipope who ruled from 1130 to his death in opposition to Pope Innocent II.
Antonio Pacinotti (17 June 1841 – 24 March 1912) was an Italian physicist, who was Professor of Physics at the University of Pisa.
Antonio Tabucchi (24 September 1943 – 25 March 2012) was an Italian writer and academic who taught Portuguese language and literature at the University of Siena, Italy.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
Arena Garibaldi – Stadio Romeo Anconetani (usually referred to just as Arena Garibaldi) is a multi-use stadium in Pisa, Italy.
The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders, dating back to the first millennium but formally created in the 13th century, and some Anglican religious orders, created in the 19th century, though technically there is no "Order of St.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Aurelio Lomi (29 February 1556 – 1622) was an Italian painter of the late-Renaissance and early-Baroque periods, active mainly in his native town of Pisa, Tuscany.
Aversa is a city and comune in the Province of Caserta in Campania, southern Italy, about north of Naples.
The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale sup', Ulm, ENS Paris, l'École and most often just as ENS) is one of the most selective and prestigious French grandes écoles (higher education establishment outside the framework of the public university system) and a constituent college of Université PSL.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Bartolommeo (or Baccio) Bandinelli, actually Bartolommeo Brandini (17 October 1493 – shortly before 7 February 1560), was a Renaissance Italian sculptor, draughtsman and painter.
A basilica is a type of building, usually a church, that is typically rectangular with a central nave and aisles, usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at one or both ends.
The Baths of Nero (Italian - Bagni di Nerone) are an archaeological site near the Porta a Lucca in Pisa, then the Roman city of Colonia Pisana.
The naval Battle of Giglio was a military clash between a fleet of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and a fleet of the Republic of Genoa in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
The Battle of Lepanto was a naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, of which the Venetian Empire and the Spanish Empire were the main powers, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras, where Ottoman forces sailing westward from their naval station in Lepanto (the Venetian name of ancient Naupactus Ναύπακτος, Ottoman İnebahtı) met the fleet of the Holy League sailing east from Messina, Sicily.
The Battle of Meloria was fought near the islet of Meloria in the Ligurian Sea on 5 and 6 August 1284 between the fleets of the Republics of Genoa and Pisa as part of the Genoese-Pisan War.
The Battle of Montecatini was fought in the Val di Nievole on 29 August 1315 between the Republic of Pisa, and the forces of both the Kingdom of Naples and the Republic of Florence.
A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none.
Benedetto I Zaccaria (c. 1235 – 1307) was an Italian admiral of the Republic of Genoa.
Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist (Bernardus Claraevallensis; 109020 August 1153) was a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism that caused the formation of the Cistercian order.
Björn Ironside (Old Norse: Bjǫrn Járnsíða, Icelandic: Björn Járnsíða, Swedish: Björn Järnsida, Danish: Bjørn Jernside; Medieval Latin: Bier Costae ferreae) was a legendary king of Sweden who lived sometime in the 9th century.
A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms botanic and botanical and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens.
Brindisi (Brindisino: Brìnnisi; Brundisium; translit; Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea.
Bruno Pontecorvo (Бру́но Макси́мович Понтеко́рво, Bruno Maksimovich Pontecorvo; 22 August 1913 – 24 September 1993) was an Italian nuclear physicist, an early assistant of Enrico Fermi and the author of numerous studies in high energy physics, especially on neutrinos.
A bust is a sculpted or cast representation of the upper part of the human figure, depicting a person's head and neck, and a variable portion of the chest and shoulders.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Caesarea (קֵיסָרְיָה, Kaysariya or Qesarya; قيسارية, Qaysaria; Καισάρεια) is a town in north-central Israel.
Caetani, or Gaetani, is the name of an Italian noble family which played a great part in the history of Pisa and of Rome, principally via their close links to the papacy.
Cagliari (Casteddu; Caralis) is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
Camila Giorgi (born 30 December 1991) is an Italian professional tennis player.
The Campo Santo, also known as Camposanto Monumentale ("monumental cemetery") or Camposanto Vecchio ("old cemetery"), is a historical edifice at the northern edge of the Cathedral Square in Pisa, Italy.
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (9 December 1920 – 16 September 2016) was an Italian politician and banker.
Carlo Rubbia, (born 31 March 1934) is an Italian particle physicist and inventor who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Central Italy (Italia centrale or just Centro) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles VIII, called the Affable, l'Affable (30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498.
Christian "Bobo" Vieri (born 12 July 1973) is an Italian former professional footballer who played as a centre forward.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
A city centre is the commercial, cultural and often the historical, political and geographic heart of a city, especially those in the Western world.
Civitavecchia (meaning "ancient town") is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
Coral Gables, officially the City of Coral Gables, is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States, located southwest of Downtown Miami.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
Corumbá is a municipality in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul, 425 km northwest of Campo Grande, the state's capital.
Cosimo I de' Medici (12 June 1519 – 21 April 1574) was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, a title he held until his death.
Cosmatesque, or Cosmati, is a style of geometric decorative inlay stonework typical of the architecture of Medieval Italy, and especially of Rome and its surroundings, and derived from that of the Byzantine Empire.
The Council of Pisa was a controversial ecumenical council of the Catholic Church held in 1409.
Cremona is a city and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po River in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po Valley).
Dagobert (or Daibert or Daimbert) (died 1105) was the first Archbishop of Pisa and the second Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem after the city was captured in the First Crusade.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
Darby Military Community is a United States military complex in Italy between Pisa and Livorno.
The Gherardeschi or della Gherardesca were a family of the Republic of Pisa, dating back as early as the 11th century.
Desiderius (also known as Desiderio in Italian) (died c. 786) was a king of the Lombard Kingdom of northern Italy, ruling from 756 to 774.
Diego Pablo Simeone (born 28 April 1970), also known as El Cholo, is an Argentine football manager and former player, who played as a midfielder, and is currently the manager for Atletico Madrid.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
Domenico Passignano (1559 – 17 May 1638), born Cresti or Crespi, was an Italian painter of a late-Renaissance or Counter-Maniera (Counter-Mannerism) style that emerged in Florence towards the end of the 16th century.
Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (c. 1386 – 13 December 1466), better known as Donatello, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor from Florence.
The Duchy of Florence (Ducato di Firenze) was an Italian principality that was centred on the city of Florence, in Tuscany, Italy.
Carlos Caetano Bledorn Verri (born 31 October 1963 in Ijuí, Rio Grande do Sul), commonly known as Dunga, is a Brazilian football manager and former professional footballer of Italian descent, who played as a defensive midfielder.
A dynamo is an electrical generator that creates direct current using a commutator.
Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (1099) was a Castilian nobleman and military leader in medieval Spain.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
Enzo (or Enzio; – 14 March 1272) was an illegitimate son of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II, who appointed him 'King of Sardinia' in 1238.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
Fabrica ecclesiae or fabrica ecclesiæ is a Roman Catholic Latin term, meaning, etymologically, the construction of a church, but in a broader sense the funds necessary for such construction.
Fibonacci (c. 1175 – c. 1250) was an Italian mathematician from the Republic of Pisa, considered to be "the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages".
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Fos-sur-Mer is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in southern France.
Francesco di Valdambrino (circa 1375 – 1435) was an Italian sculptor in wood, active in Tuscany.
Francesco Traini was an Italian painter who was documented as working from 1321 to ca 1365 in Pisa and Bologna.
Fréjus is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Frederick I (Friedrich I, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Federico Barbarossa), was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
Gaeta (Caiēta, Ancient Greek: Καιέτα) is a city and comune in the province of Latina, in Lazio, central Italy.
Gaetano Bardini (8 October 1926 – 3 November 2017) was an Italian tenor.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
The Garfagnana is a historical and geographical region of central Italy, today part of the province of Lucca, in Tuscany.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Giacomo Taldegardo Francesco di Sales Saverio Pietro Leopardi (29 June 1798 – 14 June 1837) was an Italian philosopher, poet, essayist, and philologist.
Gillo Pontecorvo (19 November 1919 – 12 October 2006) was an Italian filmmaker.
Giorgio Chiellini (born 14 August 1984) is an Italian professional footballer who plays as a defender for Juventus and the Italy national football team.
Giorgio Vasari (30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.
Giosuè Alessandro Giuseppe Carducci (27 July 1835 – 16 February 1907) was an Italian poet and teacher.
Giovanni Gentile (30 May 1875 – 15 April 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian idealist philosopher, educator, and fascist politician.
Giovanni Gronchi, (10 September 1887 – 17 October 1978) was a Christian Democratic Italian politician who became the third President of the Italian Republic in 1955, after Luigi Einaudi.
Giovanni Pisano (c. 1250 – c. 1315) was an Italian sculptor, painter and architect, who worked in the cities of Pisa, Siena and Pistoia.
The giudicati (Italian; judicati in Latin; judicadus, logus or rennus in Sardinian), in English referred to as Sardinian Judgedoms or Judicatures, were independent states that took power in Sardinia in the Middle Ages, between the ninth and fifteenth centuries.
Giuliano Amato (born 13 May 1938) is an Italian politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Italy, first from 1992 to 1993 and again from 2000 to 2001. Later, he was Vice President of the Convention on the Future of Europe that drafted the European Constitution and headed the Amato Group. He is commonly nicknamed dottor Sottile, (which means "Doctor Subtilis", the sobriquet of the Scottish Medieval philosopher John Duns Scotus, a reference to his political subtlety). From 2006 to 2008, he was the Minister of the Interior in Romano Prodi's government. On 12 September 2013, President Giorgio Napolitano appointed him to the Constitutional Court of Italy, where he has served since then.
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.
The Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem or Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, officially Patriarch of Jerusalem, is the head bishop of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine Patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Grosseto is a city and comune in the central Italian region of Tuscany, the capital of the Province of Grosseto.
The Guelphs and Ghibellines (guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.
Henry IV (Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) became King of the Germans in 1056.
Henry VI (Heinrich VI) (November 1165 – 28 September 1197), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
House music is a genre of electronic dance music created by club DJs and music producers in Chicago in the early 1980s.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
Hyères, Provençal Occitan: Ieras in classical norm, or Iero in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. The old town lies from the sea clustered around the Castle of Saint Bernard, which is set on a hill. Between the old town and the sea lies the pine-covered hill of Costebelle, which overlooks the peninsula of Giens. Hyères is the oldest resort on the French Riviera.
Isola del Giglio (Giglio Island) is an Italian island and comune situated in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the coast of Tuscany, and is part of the Province of Grosseto.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jackass is an American extreme stunt franchise, which originally ran on MTV from 2000 to 2002 for three seasons, featuring ten stuntmen — Johnny Knoxville, Bam Margera, Chris Pontius, Dave England, Steve-O, Ryan Dunn, Brandon DiCamillo, Ehren McGhehey, Preston Lacy, and Jason Acuña, performing various dangerous, crude, self-injuring stunts and pranks.
San Lorenzo, Florence. Jacopo da Empoli (30 April 1551 – 30 September 1640) was an Italian Florentine Reformist painter.
Jacopo Ligozzi (1547–1627) was an Italian painter, illustrator, designer, and miniaturist.
Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo, or in Arabic Yaffa (יפו,; يَافَا, also called Japho or Joppa), the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an ancient port city in Israel.
Jason Shannon Acuña (born May 16, 1973), better known by his stage name Wee Man, is an American actor, stunt performer, professional skateboarder, and television personality.
Jericho (יְרִיחוֹ; أريحا) is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Keith Allen Haring (May 4, 1958 – February 16, 1990) was an American artist whose pop art and graffiti-like work grew out of the New York City street culture of the 1980s.
The Kingdom of Etruria (Regno di Etruria) was a kingdom between 1801 and 1807 which made up a large part of modern Tuscany.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
The Kingdom of the Lombards (Regnum Langobardorum) also known as the Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy (Regnum totius Italiae), was an early medieval state established by the Lombards, a Germanic people, on the Italian Peninsula in the latter part of the 6th century.
The Kingdom of Valencia (Regne de València,; Reino de Valencia; Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula, was one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon.
The Knights’ Square is a landmark in Pisa, Italy, and the second main square of the city.
Kolding is a Danish seaport located at the head of Kolding Fjord in the Region of Southern Denmark.
Languedoc (Lengadòc) is a former province of France.
Latakia, Lattakia or Latakiyah (اللَاذِقِيَّة Syrian pronunciation), is the principal port city of Syria, as well as the capital of the Latakia Governorate.
The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt.
Leonardo Ortolani (born 14 January 1967), better known as Leo, is an Italian comics author, creator of the popular comic book series Rat-Man and Venerdì 12.
Lerici is a town and comune in the province of La Spezia in Liguria (northern Italy), part of the Italian Riviera.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek: Λίγυες) were an ancient Indo-European people who appear to have originated in, and gave their name to, Liguria, a region of north-western Italy.
Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.
The Ligurian Sea (Mar Ligure; Mer Ligurienne) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, between the Italian Riviera (Liguria) and the island of Corsica.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
The rulers of Tuscany have varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.
Liutprand, also Liudprand, Liuprand, Lioutio, Liucius, Liuzo, and Lioutsios (c. 920 – 972),"LIUTPRAND OF CREMONA" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 1241.
Livorno is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lorenzo de' Medici (1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance culture in Italy.
Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Mahdia (المهدية) is a Tunisian coastal city with 62,189 inhabitants, south of Monastir and southeast of Sousse.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean.
Manuel I Komnenos (or Comnenus; Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean.
The March of Tuscany (Marca di Tuscia) was a frontier march of the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages.
Marco Malvaldi (born 27 January 1974, in Pisa) is an Italian crime writer.
Marina di Pisa is a seaside resort of Tuscany, in central Italy.
The maritime republics (repubbliche marinare) of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Masaccio (December 21, 1401 – summer 1428), born Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone, was a Florentine artist who is regarded as the first great Italian painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance.
Massa is a town and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, the administrative centre of the province of Massa and Carrara.
Massimo Carmassi (born 5 June 1943 in San Giuliano Terme near Pisa) is an Italian architect.
The Master of San Martino alla Palma (formerly called the Amico di Daddi) was a Florentine painter active during the first third of the fourteenth century.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Maurus Servius Honoratus was a late fourth-century and early fifth-century grammarian, with the contemporary reputation of being the most learned man of his generation in Italy; he was the author of a set of commentaries on the works of Virgil.
Mazara del Vallo is a town and comune in southwestern Sicily, Italy, which lies mainly on the left bank at the mouth of the Mazaro river, administratively part of the province of Trapani.
Müezzinzade Ali Pasha (Müezzinzade Ali Paşa; also known as Sofu Ali Pasha or Sufi Ali Pasha or Meyzinoğlu Ali Pasha; died 7 October 1571) was an Ottoman statesman and naval officer.
Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Messina (Sicilian: Missina; Messana, Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.
Montignoso is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Massa and Carrara in the Italian region Tuscany, located about northwest of Florence and about southeast of Massa.
Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Municipium (pl. municipia) was the Latin term for a town or city.
Mystery fiction is a genre of fiction usually involving a mysterious death or a crime to be solved.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Narbonne (Occitan: Narbona,; Narbo,; Late Latin:Narbona) is a commune in southern France in the Occitanie region.
The National Museum of San Matteo in Pisa (Museo Nazionale di San Matteo) displays works from historic ecclesiastical buildings in the city and Province of Pisa.
The Natural History Museum of the University of Pisa (Museo di storia naturale dell'Università di Pisa) is an Italian natural history museum at Pisa.
A ram was a weapon carried by varied types of ships, dating back to antiquity.
A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.
Nestor of Gerenia (Νέστωρ Γερήνιος, Nestōr Gerēnios) was the wise King of Pylos described in Homer's Odyssey.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nicola Pisano (also called Niccolò Pisano, Nicola de Apulia or Nicola Pisanus; c. 1220/1225 – c. 1284) was an Italian sculptor whose work is noted for its classical Roman sculptural style.
Niles is a village in Maine and Niles townships, Cook County, Illinois, United States, directly neighboring the City of Chicagos far northwest border.
Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Florence Nino Pisano (fl. 1349 – 1368) was an Italian sculptor, the son of Andrea Pisano.
Noli (Ligurian Nöi) is a coast comune of Liguria, Italy, in the Province of Savona, it is about southwest of Genoa by rail, about above sea-level.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Oberto D'Oria (died 1295) was an Italian politician and admiral of the Republic of Genoa.
Ocala is a city located in Marion County, Florida, which is part of the northern region of the state.
Flavius Odoacer (c. 433Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. 2, s.v. Odovacer, pp. 791–793 – 493 AD), also known as Flavius Odovacer or Odovacar (Odoacre, Odoacer, Odoacar, Odovacar, Odovacris), was a soldier who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476–493).
Orazio Lomi Gentileschi (1563–1639) was an Italian painter.
The Orto botanico di Pisa, also known as the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Pisa, is a botanical garden operated by the University of Pisa, and located at via Luca Ghini 5, Pisa, Italy.
Ostia Antica is a large archaeological site, close to the modern town of Ostia, that is the location of the harbour city of ancient Rome, 15 miles (25 kilometres) southwest of Rome.
The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae), was established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553.
Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (Otto der Große, Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973.
Otto IV (1175 – 19 May 1218) was one of two rival kings of Germany from 1198 on, sole king from 1208 on, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 until he was forced to abdicate in 1215.
Palazzo Blu is a center for temporary exhibitions and cultural activities located in 9 Lungarno Gambacorti, in the heart of the historic center of Pisa, Italy.
The Palazzo del Collegio Puteano (Palace of the Putean College) is a building in Piazza dei Cavalieri in Pisa, Italy.
Palazzo della Carovana (also Palazzo dei Cavalieri) is a palace in Knights' Square, Pisa, Italy, presently housing the main building of the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa.
The Palazzo delle Vedove (Italian for Widows' Palace) is a palace in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.
Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
The name Pelasgians (Πελασγοί, Pelasgoí, singular: Πελασγός, Pelasgós) was used by classical Greek writers to either refer to populations that were the ancestors or forerunners of the Greeks, or to signify all pre-classical indigenes of Greece.
In Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek: Πέλοψ), was king of Pisa in the Peloponnesus.
A people mover or automated people mover (APM) is a type of small scale automated guideway transit system.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
The Piazza dei Miracoli (Square of Miracles), formally known as Piazza del Duomo (Cathedral Square), is a walled 8.87-hectare area located in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, recognized as an important center of European medieval art and one of the finest architectural complexes in the world.
Pieter van Musschenbroek (14 March 1692 – 19 September 1761) was a Dutch scientist.
Pietro Moriconi (died 1119) was the Archbishop of Pisa from 1105, succeeding Dagobert.
Pisa Aeroporto railway station (Stazione di Pisa Aeroporto) was a railway station within Pisa International Airport, Italy.
The Pisa Baptistery of St.
Pisa Cathedral (Cattedrale Metropolitana Primaziale di Santa Maria Assunta; Duomo di Pisa) is a medieval Roman Catholic cathedral dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, in the Piazza dei Miracoli in Pisa, Italy.
Pisa Centrale railway station (Stazione di Pisa Centrale) is the central station of the Italian city of Pisa, the first station of the city in terms of passengers, before Pisa-San Rossore raliway station.
Pisa Charterhouse, also known as Calci Charterhouse (Certosa di Pisa, Certosa di Calci), is a former Carthusian monastery, or charterhouse, currently the home of the Museo di storia naturale e del territorio dell'Università di Pisa ("Museum of Natural History and of the Territory of the University of Pisa"), located in the comune of Calci, some 10 km outside Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.
Pisa International Airport (Aeroporto Internazionale di Pisa), also named Galileo Galilei Airport is an airport located in Pisa, Italy.
Pisa San Rossore railway station (Stazione di Pisa San Rossore) is a railway station of the Italian city of Pisa, the second station of the city in terms of passengers, after Pisa Centrale railway station.
Pisa (Πῖσα) was the name of an ancient town in the western Peloponnese, Greece.
| The Pisa–Rome railway is one of the trunk lines of the Italian railway network.
Pope Celestine III (Caelestinus III; c. 1106 – 8 January 1198), born Giacinto Bobone, reigned from 30 March or 10 April 1191 to his death in 1198.
Pope Gregory IX Gregorius IX (born Ugolino di Conti; c. 1145 or before 1170 – 22 August 1241), was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241.
Gregory VII (Gregorius VII; 1015 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana (Ildebrando da Soana), was Pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085.
Pope Innocent II (Innocentius II; died 23 September 1143), born Gregorio Papareschi, was Pope from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Pope Paschal II (Paschalis II; 1050 1055 – 21 January 1118), born Ranierius, was Pope from 13 August 1099 to his death in 1118.
Pope Urban II (Urbanus II; – 29 July 1099), born Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was Pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099.
The port of Brindisi is located in Brindisi, Italy.
Porto Venere (until 1991 Portovenere) is a town and comune (municipality) located on the Ligurian coast of Italy in the province of La Spezia.
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
The Province of Pisa (Provincia di Pisa) is a province in the Tuscany region of central Italy.
Pula or Pola (Italian and Istro-Romanian: Pola; Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea; Slovene and Chakavian: Pulj, Hungarian: Póla, Polei, Ancient Greek: Πόλαι, Polae) is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia and the eighth largest city in the country, situated at the southern tip of the Istria peninsula, with a population of 57,460 in 2011.
Pylos ((Πύλος), historically also known under its Italian name Navarino, is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pylos-Nestoras, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. Greece Ministry of Interior It was the capital of the former Pylia Province. It is the main harbour on the Bay of Navarino. Nearby villages include Gialova, Pyla, Elaiofyto, Schinolakka, and Palaionero. The town of Pylos has 2,767 inhabitants, the municipal unit of Pylos 5,287 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 143.911 km2. Pylos has a long history, having been inhabited since Neolithic times. It was a significant kingdom in Mycenaean Greece, with remains of the so-called "Palace of Nestor" excavated nearby, named after Nestor, the king of Pylos in Homer's Iliad. In Classical times, the site was uninhabited, but became the site of the Battle of Pylos in 425 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. Pylos is scarcely mentioned thereafter until the 13th century, when it became part of the Frankish Principality of Achaea. Increasingly known by its French name of Port-de-Jonc or its Italian name Navarino, in the 1280s the Franks built the Old Navarino castle on the site. Pylos came under the control of the Republic of Venice from 1417 until 1500, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans used Pylos and its bay as a naval base, and built the New Navarino fortress there. The area remained under Ottoman control, with the exception of a brief period of renewed Venetian rule in 1685–1715 and a Russian occupation in 1770–71, until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821. Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt recovered it for the Ottomans in 1825, but the defeat of the Turco-Egyptian fleet in the 1827 Battle of Navarino forced Ibrahim to withdraw from the Peloponnese and confirmed Greek independence.
Saint Rainerius (c. 1115/1117 – 1160) is the patron saint of Pisa and of travellers.
Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
Reggio di Calabria (also; Reggino: Rìggiu, Bovesia Calabrian Greek: script; translit, Rhēgium), commonly known as Reggio Calabria or simply Reggio in Southern Italy, is the largest city and the most populated comune of Calabria, Southern Italy.
The Republic of Florence, also known as the Florentine Republic (Repubblica Fiorentina), was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany.
The Republic of Pisa (Repubblica di Pisa) was a de facto independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa during the late 10th and 11th centuries.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.
Roger I (– 22 June 1101), nicknamed Roger Bosso and The Great Count, was a Norman nobleman who became the first Count of Sicily from 1071 to 1101.
Roger II (22 December 1095Houben, p. 30. – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his brother Simon.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rustichello da Pisa, also known as Rusticiano (fl. late 13th century), was an Italian romance writer.
Rutilio di Lorenzo Manetti (c. 1571 – 22 July 1639) was an Italian painter of late-Mannerism or proto-Baroque, active mainly in Siena.
Salerno (Salernitano: Salierne) is a city and comune in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of the same name.
Salting the earth, or sowing with salt, is the ritual of spreading salt on conquered cities to symbolize a curse on their re-inhabitation.
San Francesco de' Ferri is a church in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.
San Frediano is a Romanesque style, Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy.
San Giorgio ai Tedeschi is a church located in the centre of Pisa, Italy.
San Michele in Borgo is a Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy.
San Nicola is a church in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.
San Paolo a Ripa d'Arno (St. Paul on the bank of the Arno) is a Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy.
San Paolo all'Orto is a Romanesque-style, former Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy.
San Piero a Grado (Italian: Basilica di San Pietro Apostolo) is a church in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, in the eponymous frazione west of the city center.
San Pietro in Vinculis is a Romanesque-style, Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy.
San Sisto is a church in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.
San Zeno is a church and a former abbey in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.
The Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies (SSSA, Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento Sant'Anna) is a special-statute public university located in Pisa, Italy, operating in the field of applied sciences.
Santa Caterina d'Alessandria is a Gothic-style, Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy.
Santa Cristina is a Neoclassical-style, Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy.
Santa Maria della Spina is a small church in the Italian city of Pisa.
Santi di Tito (December 5, 1536; July 25, 1603) was one of the most influential and leading Italian painters of the proto-Baroque style – what is sometimes referred to as "Counter-Maniera" or Counter-Mannerism.
Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain.
The Church of the Santo Sepolcro (Italian: Chiesa del Santo Sepolcro, literally "Church of the Holy Sepulchre") is a religious edifice in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.
Santo Stefano dei Cavalieri is a church in central Pisa located on Piazza dei Cavalieri (Knight's Square).
Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.
Savona (Ligurian: Sann-a is a seaport and comune in the west part of the northern Italian region of Liguria, capital of the Province of Savona, in the Riviera di Ponente on the Mediterranean Sea. Savona used to be one of the chief seats of the Italian iron industry, having iron-works and foundries, shipbuilding, railway workshops, engineering shops, and a brass foundry. One of the most celebrated former inhabitants of Savona was the navigator Christopher Columbus, who farmed land in the area while chronicling his journeys. 'Columbus's house', a cottage situated in the Savona hills, lay between vegetable crops and fruit trees. It is one of several residences in Liguria associated with Columbus.
The Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa (SNS) is a public higher learning institution in Pisa, Italy.
Sergio Bertoni (23 September 1915 – 15 February 1995) was an Italian association football manager and player, who played as a striker.
Lega Italiana Calcio Professionistico (Lega Pro) is the governing body that runs Serie C, the third highest football division in Italy.
Shooting is the act or process of discharging a projectile from a ranged weapon (such as a gun, slingshot, crossbow, or bow. Even the acts of launching/discharging artillery, darts, grenades, rockets and guided missiles can be considered acts of shooting. When using a firearm, the act of shooting is often called firing as it involves initiating a combustion process (deflagration). Shooting can take place in a shooting range or in the field, in shooting sports, hunting or in combat. A person involved in the shooting activity is a shooter. A proficient shooter is a marksman or sharpshooter. A person's level of shooting proficiency is referred to as marksmanship.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Silvano Arieti (June 28, 1914 in Pisa, Italy – August 7, 1981 in New York City) was a psychiatrist regarded as one of the world’s foremost authorities on schizophrenia.
Simone Martini (– 1344) was an Italian painter born in Siena.
Sinopia (also known as sinoper, named after the now Turkish city Sinop) is a dark reddish-brown natural earth pigment, whose reddish colour comes from hematite, a dehydrated form of iron oxide.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Split (see other names) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in 305 CE, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
A Superior Graduate School (Italian: Scuola Superiore Universitaria) is a completely independent institution from a legal point of view, which offers advanced training and research through university-type courses or is dedicated to teaching at graduate or post-doctoral level.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
Taddeo Gaddi (c. 1290, Florence – 1366, Florence) was a medieval Italian painter and architect.
Tirrenia is a frazione (parish) of Pisa, Italy with a population of 3,112 inhabitants.
The Torre dei Gualandi (also known as the Muda Tower) is a former tower in Pisa, central Italy, now included in the Palazzo dell'Orologio.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
Trapani (Tràpani; Drepanon, Δρέπανον) is a city and comune on the west coast of Sicily in Italy.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
Tuscia is a historical region of Italy that comprised the territories under Etruscan influence and the name adopted for Etruria after the Roman conquest.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mar Tirreno, Mer Tyrrhénienne, Mare Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.
Count Ugolino della Gherardesca (March 1289), count of Donoratico, was an Italian nobleman, politician and naval commander.
Uguccione della Faggiuola (c. 1250 – 1 November 1319) was an Italian condottiero, and chief magistrate of Pisa, Lucca and Forlì (from 1297).
Underdrawing is a preparatory drawing done on a painting ground before paint is applied, for example, an imprimatura or an underpainting.
The United Provinces of Central Italy, also known as Confederation of Central Italy or Government General of Central Italy, was a short-lived military government established by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.
The University of Pisa (Università di Pisa, UniPi) is an Italian public research university located in Pisa, Italy.
Unna is a city of around 59,000 people in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, the seat of the Unna district.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Ventura di Archangelo Salimbeni (also later called Bevilacqua; 20 January 1568 – 1613) was an Italian Counter-Maniera painter and printmaker highly influenced by the vaghezza and sensual reform of Federico Barocci.
The Via Francigena is the common name of an ancient road and pilgrim route running from France to Rome, though it is usually considered to have its starting point much further away, in the English cathedral city of Canterbury.
Viareggio is a city and comune in northern Tuscany, Italy, on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
The Palazzo al Borgo di Corliano is a villa situated near coast of Tuscany, central Italy, in the valley between Lucca and Pisa, 2 kilometres from the Spa town of San Giuliano Terme.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Visconti is the family name of important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages.
Vitellozzo Vitelli (c. 1458 – December 31, 1502) was an Italian condottiero.
Volterra is a walled mountaintop town in the Tuscany region of Italy of which its history dates to before the 7th century BC and has substantial structures from the Etruscan, Roman, and Medieval periods.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which two, since 1410 even three, men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zadar (see other names) is the oldest continuously inhabited Croatian city.
In 1114, an expedition to the Balearic Islands, then a Muslim taifa, was launched in the form of a Crusade.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.