317 relations: A.C. Pisa 1909, Acre, Israel, Adriatic Sea, Aeneid, Afro Poli, Aléria, Alessandro Fei (painter), Alexandria, Alexios I Komnenos, Alfeios, Alfonso VI of León and Castile, Almoravid dynasty, Amalfi, Ancient Rome, Ancona, Andrea Bocelli, Andrea Pisano, Angers, Annunciation, Antibes, Antioch, Antipope Anacletus II, Antonio Pacinotti, Antonio Tabucchi, Apulia, Aragon, Archbishop, Arena Garibaldi – Stadio Romeo Anconetani, Arno, Association football, Augustinians, Augustus, Aurelio Lomi, Aversa, École Normale Supérieure, Barcelona, Bartolommeo Bandinelli, Basilica, Battle of Giglio (1241), Battle of Lepanto, Battle of Meloria (1284), Battle of Montecatini, Bell tower, Benedetto I Zaccaria, Bernard of Clairvaux, Björn Ironside, Botanical garden, Brindisi, Bruno Pontecorvo, Bust (sculpture), ..., Byzantine Empire, Caesarea, Caetani, Cagliari, Cairo, Calabria, Camila Giorgi, Camp Darby, Camposanto Monumentale, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, Carlo Rubbia, Carthage, Central Italy, Charlemagne, Charles VIII of France, Christian Vieri, City centre, Civitavecchia, Computer science, Constantinople, Copyright, Coral Gables, Florida, Corsica, Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosmatesque, Council of Pisa, Cremona, Dagobert of Pisa, Dante Alighieri, Della Gherardesca family, Democratic Party (Italy), Desiderius, Diego Simeone, Domenico Passignano, Donatello, Dunga, Dynamo, El Cid, Engineering, Enrico Fermi, Enzo of Sardinia, Etruscan civilization, Excommunication, Fibonacci, First Crusade, Florence, Folklore, Fos-sur-Mer, Francesco Traini, Francis of Assisi, Fréjus, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Gaeta, Gaetano Bardini, Galileo Galilei, Garfagnana, Gauls, Genoa, Giacomo Leopardi, Gillo Pontecorvo, Giorgio Vasari, Giosuè Carducci, Giovanni Gentile, Giovanni Gronchi, Giovanni Pisano, Giudicati, Giuliano Amato, Greece, Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, Grosseto, Guelphs and Ghibellines, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Land, Holy Roman Empire, House of Visconti, Hyères, Isola del Giglio, Jackass (TV series), Jacopo da Empoli, Jacopo Ligozzi, Jaffa, Jason Acuña, Jericho, Jerusalem, Köppen climate classification, Keith Haring, Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Sicily, Kingdom of Valencia, Knights' Square (Pisa), Kolding, Languedoc, Latakia, Leaning Tower of Pisa, Lega Pro, Leonardo Ortolani, Lerici, Levant, Ligures, Liguria, List of Byzantine emperors, List of rulers of Tuscany, Liutprand of Cremona, Livorno, Lombards, Lorenzo de' Medici, Lucca, Mahdia, Majorca, Malaria, Manuel I Komnenos, Marco Malvaldi, Marina di Pisa, Maritime republics, Marseille, Masaccio, Massa, Massimo Carmassi, Master of San Martino alla Palma, Mathematics, Maurus Servius Honoratus, Mazara del Vallo, Medieval commune, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean Sea, Messina, Montignoso, Montpellier, Moors, Municipium, Mystery fiction, Naples, Narbonne, National Museum of San Matteo, Pisa, Naval ram, Necropolis, Nestor (mythology), Nicola Pisano, Niles, Illinois, Nino Pisano, Noli, Normans, North Africa, Oberto Doria, Ocala, Florida, Opera (fabrica ecclesiae), Orazio Gentileschi, Orto botanico di Pisa, Ostia Antica, Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Palazzo Blu, Palazzo del Collegio Puteano, Palazzo della Carovana, Palazzo delle Vedove, Palermo, Pelasgians, Pelops, People mover, Physics, Piazza dei Miracoli, Pieter van Musschenbroek, Pietro Moriconi, Pisa Aeroporto railway station, Pisa Baptistry, Pisa Centrale railway station, Pisa Charterhouse, Pisa International Airport, Pisa, Greece, Pisa–Livorno–Rome railway, Pope Celestine III, Pope Gregory IX, Pope Gregory VII, Pope Innocent II, Pope Innocent III, Pope Paschal II, Pope Urban II, Port of Brindisi, Porto Venere, Postgraduate education, Provence, Province of Pisa, Pula, Pylos, Rainerius, Ravenna, Reggio Calabria, Republic of Florence, Republic of Venice, Rhône, Roger I of Sicily, Roger II of Sicily, Roman Empire, Romanesque architecture, Rome, Rustichello da Pisa, Rutilio di Lorenzo Manetti, Salerno, Salting the earth, San Francesco (Pisa), San Frediano, Pisa, San Giorgio ai Tedeschi, San Michele in Borgo, San Nicola, Pisa, San Paolo a Ripa d'Arno, San Paolo all'Orto, San Piero a Grado, San Pietro in Vinculis, Pisa, San Sisto, Pisa, San Zeno (Pisa), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Santa Caterina (Pisa), Santa Cristina (Pisa), Santa Maria della Spina, Santi di Tito, Santiago de Compostela, Santo Sepolcro (Pisa), Saracen, Sardinia, Savona, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Sergio Bertoni, Shooting, Sicily, Silvano Arieti, Simone Martini, Sinopia, Split, Croatia, State of Palestine, Strabo, Sufi Ali Pasha, Superior Graduate Schools in Italy, Syracuse, Sicily, Taddeo Gaddi, Tirrenia, Torre dei Gualandi, Toulouse, Trapani, Tripoli, Troy, Tunisia, Turin, Tuscany, Tuscia, Twin towns and sister cities, Tyre, Lebanon, Tyrrhenian Sea, Ugolino della Gherardesca, Uguccione della Faggiuola, Underdrawing, University of Pisa, Unna, Venice, Ventura Salimbeni, Via Francigena, Viareggio, Vikings, Villa di Corliano, Virgil, Vitellozzo Vitelli, Volterra, Western Schism, World War II, Zadar, 1113–15 Balearic Islands expedition. 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Associazione Calcio Pisa 1909 (formerly Pisa Calcio) is an Italian association football club, based in Pisa, Tuscany.
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Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAkko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the northern coastal plain region of northern Israel at the northern extremity of Haifa Bay.
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The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula and the Apennine Mountains from the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges.
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The Aeneid (Aenēis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
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Afro Poli (22 December 1902, Pisa – 22 February 1988, Rome) was an Italian operatic baritone, particularly associated with the Italian repertory.
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Aléria (Ancient Greek: Ἀλαλίη, Alaliē; Latin and French: Aleria, Corsican: U Cateraghju) is a commune in the Haute-Corse department of France on the island of Corsica.
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Alessandro Fei (1543–1592) was an Italian painter active in Florence, working in a Mannerist style.
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Alexandria (or; اسكندرية, in Egyptian Arabic) is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
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Alexios I Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός, 1048Norwich, pg. 4 or 1056 – 15 August 1118), Latinized as Alexius I Comnenus, was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118.
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Alfeiós (Αλφειός, also romanized as Alpheus, Alpheios) is the longest river in the Peloponnese, in Greece.
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Alfonso VI (before June, 1040 – June 29/July 1, 1109), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was King of León from 1065, King of Castile and de facto King of Galicia from 1072.
The Almoravids (ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ Imṛabḍen, المرابطون Al-Murābiṭūn) were a Berber dynasty of Morocco, who formed an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the western Maghreb and Al-Andalus.
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Amalfi is a town and comune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno.
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Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.
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Ancona (from) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region, in central Italy, with a population of 102,997 (2010).
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Andrea Bocelli, (born 22 September 1958) is an Italian classical tenor, recording artist and singer-songwriter.
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Andrea Pisano (Pontedera 1290 – 1348 Orvieto) also known as Andrea da Pontedera, was an Italian sculptor and architect.
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Angers is a city in western France, about southwest of Paris.
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The Annunciation (from the Vulgate Latin annuntiatio (or nuntiatio) nativitatis Christi), also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation.
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Antibes (Provençal Occitan: Antíbol) is a Mediterranean resort in the Alpes-Maritimes department of southeastern France, on the Côte d'Azur between Cannes and Nice.
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Antioch on the Orontes was an ancient Greek - Roman city on the eastern side of the Orontes River.
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Anacletus II (died January 25, 1138), born Pietro Pierleoni, was an Antipope who ruled from 1130 to his death, in a schism against the contested, hasty election of Pope Innocent II.
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Antonio Pacinotti (17 June 1841 – 24 March 1912) was an Italian physicist, who was Professor of Physics at the University of Pisa.
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Antonio Tabucchi (24 September 1943 – 25 March 2012) was an Italian writer and academic who taught Portuguese language and literature at the University of Siena, Italy.
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Apulia (Puglia)From Greek Ἀπουλία; in Puglia, (Demonym: Pugliese). is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto in the south.
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Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
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In many denominations of the Christian religion, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek ἀρχιεπίσκοπος, from ἀρχι-, "chief", and ἐπίσκοπος, "bishop") is a bishop of higher rank or office.
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Arena Garibaldi – Stadio Romeo Anconetani (usually referred to just as Arena Garibaldi) is a multi-use stadium in Pisa, Italy.
The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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The term Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two separate types of Catholic religious orders, and to some Anglican religious orders.
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Augustus (Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Augustus.
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Aurelio Lomi (29 February 1556 – 1622) was an Italian painter of the late-Renaissance and early-Baroque periods, active mainly in his native town of Pisa, Tuscany.
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Aversa is a town and comune in the Province of Caserta in Campania southern Italy, about north of Naples.
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The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale sup’, ENS Ulm, ENS Paris and most often just as ENS) is a French grande école (higher education establishment outside the framework of the public university system).
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Barcelona is the capital city of the autonomous community of Catalonia in Spain and Spain's second most populated city, with a population of 1.6 million within its administrative limits.
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Bartolommeo (or Baccio) Bandinelli, actually Bartolommeo Brandini (17 October 1493 – shortly before 7 February 1560), was a Renaissance Italian sculptor, draughtsman and painter.
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The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek βασιλικὴ στοά, Royal Stoa, the tribunal chamber of a king) has three distinct applications in modern English.
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The naval battle of Giglio was a military clash between a fleet of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and a fleet of the Republic of Genoa in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
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The Battle of Lepanto took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of European Catholic maritime states arranged by Pope Pius V, decisively defeated the fleet of the Ottoman Empire on the northern edge of the Gulf of Corinth, off western Greece.
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The Battle of Meloria was fought near the islet of Meloria in the Ligurian Sea on 5 and 6 August 1284 between the fleets of the Republics of Genoa and Pisa as part of the Genoese-Pisan War.
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The Battle of Montecatini was fought in the Val di Nievole on August 29, 1315 between the Republic of Pisa, and the forces of both Kingdom of Naples and Republic of Florence.
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A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells, even if it has none.
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Benedetto I Zaccaria (c. 1235 – 1307) was an Italian admiral of the Republic of Genoa.
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Bernard of Clairvaux (Latin: Bernardus Claraevallensis), O.Cist (1090 – August 20, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian order.
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Björn Ironside (Old Norse: Bjǫrn Járnsíða, Icelandic: Björn Járnsíða, Swedish: Björn Järnsida) was a legendary king of Sweden who lived sometime in the 9th century.
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A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms botanic and botanical and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens.
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Brindisi (in the local dialect: Brìnnisi; Brundisium) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, off the coast of the Adriatic Sea.
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Bruno Pontecorvo (Бру́но Макси́мович Понтеко́рво, Bruno Maksimovich Pontekorvo; 22 August 1913 – 24 September 1993) was an Italian nuclear physicist, an early assistant of Enrico Fermi and then the author of numerous studies in high energy physics, especially on neutrinos.
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A bust is a sculpted or cast representation of the upper part of the human figure, depicting a person's head and neck, as well as a variable portion of the chest and shoulders.
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The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
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Caesarea (קֵיסָרְיָה, Qesariya; قيسارية, Qaysaria; Καισάρεια) is a town in Israel located mid-way between Tel Aviv and Haifa (45 km), on the Israeli coastal plain near the city of Hadera.
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Caetani, or Gaetani, is the name of an Italian noble family which played a great part in the history of Pisa and of Rome, principally via their close links to the papacy.
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Cagliari (or;; Casteddu; Caralis) is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy.
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Cairo (القاهرة; Ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Middle-East and second-largest in Africa after Lagos.
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Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian, Calavría in Calabrian Greek, Καλαβρία in Greek, Kalavrì in Arbëresh), known in antiquity as Bruttium or formerly as Italia, is a region in southern Italy, forming the "toe" of the Italian Peninsula.
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Camila Giorgi (born 30 December 1991) is an Italian professional tennis player of Argentinian background.
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Camp Darby is a United States military complex located between Pisa and Livorno.
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The Campo Santo, also known as Camposanto Monumentale ("monumental cemetery") or Camposanto Vecchio ("old cemetery"), is a historical edifice at the northern edge of the Cathedral Square in Pisa, Italy.
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Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (born 9 December 1920) is an Italian politician and banker.
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Carlo Rubbia (born on 31 March 1934) is an Italian particle physicist and inventor who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.
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The city of Carthage (قرطاج) is a city in Tunisia that was once the center of the ancient Carthaginian civilization.
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Central Italy (Italia centrale or just Centro) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.
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Charlemagne (2 April 742/747/748Karl Ferdinand Werner: Das Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in: Francia 1, 1973, pp. 115–157;Matthias Becher: Neue Überlegungen zum Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in: Francia 19/1, 1992, pp. 37-60;R. McKitterick: Charlemagne. Cambridge 2008, p. 72.28 January 814), also known as Charles the Great (Carolus or Karolus Magnus) or Charles I, was King of the Franks who united most of Western Europe during the early Middle Ages and laid the foundations for modern France and Germany.
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Charles VIII, called the Affable, l'Affable (30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France, from 1483 to his death in 1498.
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Christian Vieri (born 12 July 1973) is an Italian former professional footballer who played as a centre forward.
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A city centre (or city center) is the commercial, cultural and often the historical, political and geographic heart of a city.
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Civitavecchia is a town and comune of the province of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio.
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Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations Computer science is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications.
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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis or Κωνσταντινούπολη Konstantinoúpoli; Constantinopolis; قسطنطینية, Kostantiniyye; Цариград; modern Istanbul) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1924) empires.
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Copyright is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution.
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Coral Gables, officially the City of Coral Gables, is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States, located in the southwest of Downtown Miami.
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Corsica (Corse; Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to France.
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Cosimo I de' Medici (12 June 1519 – 21 April 1574) was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Cosmatesque, or Cosmati, is a style of geometric decorative inlay stonework typical of the architecture of Medieval Italy, and especially of Rome and its surroundings, and derived from that of the Byzantine Empire.
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The Council of Pisa was an unrecognized ecumenical council of the Catholic Church held in 1409 that attempted to end the Western Schism by deposing Benedict XIII (Avignon) and Gregory XII (Rome).
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Cremona is a city and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po River in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po valley).
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Dagobert (or Daibert or Daimbert) (died 1105) was the first Archbishop of Pisa and the second Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem after the city was captured in the First Crusade.
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Durante degli Alighieri, simply called Dante (c. 1265–1321), was a major Italian poet of the late Middle Ages.
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The Gherardeschi or della Gherardesca were a family of the Republic of Pisa, dating back as early as the 11th century.
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The Democratic Party (Partito Democratico, PD) is a social-democratic political party in Italy.
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Desiderius (also known as Desiderio in Italian) (died c. 786) was the last king of the Lombard Kingdom of northern Italy, ruling from 756 to 774.
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Diego Pablo Simeone González (born 28 April 1971), also known as Cholo, is an Argentine football manager and former player.
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Domenico Passignano (1559 – 17 May 1638), born Cresti or Crespi, was an Italian painter of a late-Renaissance or Counter-Maniera (Counter-Mannerism) style that emerged in Florence towards the end of the 16th century.
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Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (c. 1386 – December 13, 1466), better known as Donatello, was the most important early Renaissance sculptor from Florence.
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Carlos Caetano Bledorn Verri (born October 31, 1963 in Ijuí, Rio Grande do Sul), commonly known as Dunga (pronounced), is a former Brazilian footballer and a World Champion for Brazil in the 1994 FIFA World Cup and the current head coach of Brazil.
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A dynamo is an electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator.
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Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (c. 1043 – 1099) was a Castilian nobleman and military leader in medieval Spain.
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Engineering is the application of mathematics, empirical evidence and scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge in order to invent, design, build, maintain, research, and improve, structures, machines, tools, systems, components, materials, and processes.
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Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian physicist, who is credited with the creation of the first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
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Enzo (or Enzio) (c. 1218–1272) was an illegitimate son of Emperor Frederick II, who appointed him King of Sardinia in 1238.
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Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio.
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Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular reception of the sacraments.
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Leonardo Bonacci (c. 1170 – c. 1250)known as Fibonacci, and also Leonardo of Pisa, Leonardo Pisano Bigollo, Leonardo Fibonacciwas an Italian mathematician, considered to be "the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages".
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The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to capture the Holy Lands, called by Pope Urban II in 1095.
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Florence (Firenze, alternative obsolete form: Fiorenza; Latin: Florentia) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence.
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Folklore can be described as traditional art, literature, knowledge, and practices that are passed on in large part through oral communication and example.
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Fos-sur-Mer is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in southern France.
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Francesco Traini was an Italian painter who was documented as working from 1321 to ca 1365 in Pisa and Bologna.
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Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francesco d'Assisi); born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, but nicknamed Francesco; 1181/1182 October 3, 1226) was an Italian Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of St. Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis for men and women not able to live the lives of itinerant preachers, followed by the early members of the Order of Friars Minor, or the monastic lives of the Poor Clares. Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history. Francis' father was Pietro di Bernardone, a prosperous silk merchant. Francis lived the high-spirited life typical of a wealthy young man, even fighting as a soldier for Assisi. While going off to war in 1204, Francis had a vision that directed him back to Assisi, where he lost his taste for his worldly life. On a pilgrimage to Rome, he joined the poor in begging at St. Peter's Basilica. The experience moved him to live in poverty. Francis returned home, began preaching on the streets, and soon gathered followers. His Order was authorized by Pope Innocent III in 1210. He then founded the Order of Poor Clares, which became an enclosed religious order for women, as well as the Order of Brothers and Sisters of Penance (commonly called the Third Order). In 1219, he went to Egypt in an attempt to convert the Sultan to put an end to the conflict of the Crusades. By this point, the Franciscan Order had grown to such an extent that its primitive organizational structure was no longer sufficient. He returned to Italy to organize the Order. Once his community was authorized by the Pope, he withdrew increasingly from external affairs. In 1223, Francis arranged for the first Christmas nativity scene. In 1224, he received the stigmata, making him the first recorded person to bear the wounds of Christ's Passion. He died during the evening hours of October 3, 1226, while listening to a reading he had requested of Psalm 142 (141). On July 16, 1228, he was proclaimed a saint by Pope Gregory IX. He is known as the patron saint of animals and the environment, and is one of the two patron saints of Italy (with Catherine of Siena). It is customary for Catholic and Anglican churches to hold ceremonies blessing animals on his feast day of October 4. He is also known for his love of the Eucharist, his sorrow during the Stations of the Cross, and for the creation of the Christmas crèche or Nativity Scene.
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Fréjus is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
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Frederick I (Friedrich; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250), was one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen.
Gaeta (Caieta, Ancient Greek: Καιέτα) is a city and comune in the province of Latina, in Lazio, central Italy.
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Gaetano Bardini (born October 8, 1929 in Riparbella) is an Italian tenor.
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Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout the whole of Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642), was an Italian astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance.
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The Garfagnana is a historical and geographical region of central Italy, today part of the province of Lucca, in Tuscany.
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The Gauls were Celtic peoples inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 3rd century AD).
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Genoa (Genova; Genoese and Ligurian Zena; Gênes; Latin and archaic English Genua) is the capital of Liguria and the sixth largest city in Italy with a population of 592,995 within its administrative limits on a land area of.
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Giacomo Taldegardo Francesco di Sales Saverio Pietro Leopardi (June 29, 1798 – June 14, 1837) was an Italian poet, philosopher, essayist and philologist.
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Gillo Pontecorvo (19 November 1919 – 12 October 2006) was an Italian filmmaker.
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Giorgio Vasari (30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, writer and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.
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Giosuè Alessandro Giuseppe Carducci (27 July 1835 – 16 February 1907) was an Italian poet and teacher.
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Giovanni Gentile (May 30, 1875 – April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian Idealist philosopher and politician, a peer of Benedetto Croce. He described himself as 'the philosopher of Fascism', and ghostwrote A Doctrine of Fascism (1932) for Benito Mussolini. He also devised his own system of philosophy, Actual Idealism.
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Giovanni Gronchi (10 September 1887 – 17 October 1978) was a Christian Democratic Italian politician who became the third President of the Italian Republic in 1955, after Luigi Einaudi.
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Giovanni Pisano (c. 1250 – c. 1315) was an Italian sculptor, painter and architect, who worked in the cities of Pisa, Siena and Pistoia.
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The Giudicati (Logu or Judicadu in Sardinian language) were autonomous state entities that took power in Sardinia between the ninth and fifteenth centuries.
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Giuliano Amato (born 13 May 1938) is an Italian politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Italy, first from 1992 to 1993 and again from 2000 to 2001.
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Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.
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The Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem is the head bishop of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine Patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Grosseto is a city and comune in the central Italian region of Tuscany, the capital of the Province of Grosseto.
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The Guelphs and Ghibellines (English pronunciation:, or; guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.
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Henry IV (Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) ascended to King of the Germans in 1056.
Henry VI (November 1165 – 28 September 1197), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקוֹדֵשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة), is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea but also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
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The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
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Visconti is the family name of two important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages.
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Hyères, Provençal Occitan: Ieras in classical norm, or Iero in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. The old town lies from the sea clustered around the Castle of Saint Bernard, which is set on a hill. Between the old town and the sea lies the pine-covered hill of Costebelle, which overlooks the peninsula of Giens. Hyères is the oldest resort on the French Riviera.
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Isola del Giglio (Giglio Island) is an Italian island and comune situated in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the coast of Tuscany, and is part of the Province of Grosseto.
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Jackass is an American reality series, originally shown on MTV from 2000 to 2002, featuring people performing various dangerous, crude, self-injuring stunts and pranks.
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San Lorenzo, Florence. Jacopo da Empoli (30 April 1551 – 30 September 1640) was an Italian Florentine Reformist painter.
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St Francis meets Pope Innocent III Jacopo Ligozzi (1547–1627) was an Italian painter, illustrator, designer, and miniaturist.
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Jaffa (יָפוֹ,; يَافَا), also called Japho, is the southern, oldest part of Tel Aviv-Jaffa (since 1950), an ancient port city in Israel.
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Jason Shannon Acuña (born May 16, 1973), better known by his stage name Wee Man, is an American actor, stunt performer professional skateboarder, and television personality.
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Jericho (أريحا; יריחו) is a city located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.
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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس), located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world.
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Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Keith Allen Haring (May 4, 1958 – February 16, 1990) was an American artist and social activist whose work responded to the New York City street culture of the 1980s by expressing concepts of birth, death, sexuality, and war.
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The Kingdom of Naples (Regno 'e Napule, Regno di Napoli), comprising the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, was the remainder of the old Kingdom of Sicily after the secession of the island of Sicily as a result of the Vespers of 1282.
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The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnu di Sicilia, Regnum Siciliae, Regne de Sicília, Spanish: Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of Italy from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
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The Kingdom of Valencia (Regne de València,; Reino de Valencia; Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula, was one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon.
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The Knights’ Square is a landmark in Pisa, Italy, and the second main square of the city.
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Kolding is a Danish seaport located at the head of Kolding Fjord in the Region of Southern Denmark.
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Languedoc (Occitan: Lengadòc) is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day ''régions'' of Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées in the south of France, and whose capital city was Toulouse, now in Midi-Pyrénées.
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Latakia; Lattakia or Latakiyah (اللَاذِقِيَّة Syrian pronunciation), is the principal port city of Syria, as well as the capital of the Latakia Governorate.
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The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt.
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The Lega Italiana Calcio Professionistico (Italian for: Italian Professional Football League), commonly known as Lega Pro (Pro League), is the governing body that runs the eponymous third highest football division in Italy.
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Leonardo Ortolani (born 14 January 1967), better known as Leo, is an Italian comics author, creator of the popular comic strip series Rat-Man and Venerdì 12.
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Lerici is a town and comune in the province of La Spezia in Liguria (northern Italy), part of the Italian Riviera.
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The Levant (Arabic: المشرق Naim, Samia, Dialects of the Levant, in Weninger, Stefan et al. (eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter (2011), p. 921) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean.
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The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek: Λίγυες) were an ancient Indo-European people who gave their name to Liguria, a region of north-western Italy.
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Liguria (Ligûria; English: Ligury or) is a coastal region of north-western Italy, with capital Genoa.
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This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
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The rulers of Tuscany have varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.
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Liutprand, also Liudprand, Liuprand, Lioutio, Liucius, Liuzo, and Lioutsios (c. 920 – 972),"LIUTPRAND OF CREMONA" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 1241.
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Livorno (English traditionally Leghorn), is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy.
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The Lombards or Langobards (Langobardī, Italian Longobardi), were a Germanic tribe who ruled Italy from 568 to 774.
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Lorenzo de' Medici (1 January 1449 – 9 April 1492) was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance.
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Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea.
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Mahdia (مهدية), is a Tunisian coastal city with 79,545 inhabitants, south of Monastir and southeast of Sousse.
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Majorca or Mallorca (or; Mallorca, Mallorca) is the largest island in the Balearic Islands archipelago, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean Sea.
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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganism) belonging to the genus Plasmodium.
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Manuel I Komnenos (or Comnenus; Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean.
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Marco Malvaldi (born 27 January 1974 in Pisa) is an Italian crime writer.
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Marina di Pisa is a seaside resort of Tuscany, in central Italy.
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The maritime republics (repubbliche marinare) were city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages.
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Marseille (locally:; Marselha), also known as Marseilles in English, is a city in France.
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Masaccio (December 21, 1401 – summer 1428), born Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone, was the first great Italian painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance.
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Massa is a town and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, the administrative centre of the province of Massa and Carrara.
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Massimo Carmassi (born 5 June 1943 in San Giuliano Terme near Pisa) is an Italian architect.
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The Master of San Martino alla Palma (formerly called the Amico di Daddi) was a Florentine painter active during the first third of the fourteenth century.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change.
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Maurus Servius Honoratus was a late fourth-century and early fifth-century grammarian, with the contemporary reputation of being the most learned man of his generation in Italy; he was the author of a set of commentaries on the works of Virgil.
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Mazara del Vallo is a town and comune in southwestern Sicily, Italy, which lies mainly on the left bank at the mouth of the Mazaro river, administratively part of the province of Trapani.
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Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.
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The term Mediterranean climate is one typical of the Mediterranean Basin and is a particular variety of subtropical climate.
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.
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Messina (Sicilian: Missina; Messana, Μεσσήνα) is the capital of the Italian province of Messina.
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Montignoso is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Massa and Carrara in the Italian region Tuscany, located about northwest of Florence and about southeast of Massa.
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Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.
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The Moors were Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
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Municipium (pl. municipia) was the Latin term for a town or city.
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Mystery fiction is a genre of fiction usually involving a mysterious death or a crime to be solved.
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Naples (Napoli, Neapolitan: nNapule; Neapolis; Νεάπολις, meaning "new city") is the capital of the Italian region Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy, after Rome and Milan.
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Narbonne (Occitan: Narbona,; Narbo) is a commune in southern France in the Languedoc-Roussillon region. It lies from Paris in the Aude department, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Once a prosperous port, and a major city in Roman times, it is now located about from the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. It is marginally the largest commune in Aude, although the prefecture is the slightly smaller commune of Carcassonne.
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The National Museum of San Matteo in Pisa (Museo Nazionale di San Matteo) displays works from historic ecclesiastical buildings in the city and Province of Pisa.
A ram was a weapon carried by varied types of ships, dating back to antiquity.
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A necropolis is a large ancient cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.
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In Greek mythology, Nestor of Gerenia (Νέστωρ Γερήνιος, Nestōr Gerēnios) was the son of Neleus and Chloris and the King of Pylos.
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Nicola Pisano (also called Niccolò Pisano, Nicola de Apulia or Nicola Pisanus; c. 1220/1225 – c. 1284) was an Italian sculptor whose work is noted for its classical Roman sculptural style.
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Niles is a village in Maine and Niles townships, Cook County, Illinois, United States.
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Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Florence Nino Pisano (fl. 1349 – 1368) was an Italian sculptor, the son of Andrea Pisano.
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Noli (Ligurian Nöi) is a coast comune of Liguria, Italy, in the Province of Savona, it is about southwest of Genoa by rail, about above sea-level.
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The Normans (Normands; Nortmanni) were the people who in the 10th and 11th centuries gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
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North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa.
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Oberto D'Oria (died 1295) was an Italian politician and admiral of the Republic of Genoa.
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Ocala is a city located in Northern Florida.
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Opera is a term commonly used in Tuscany (Italy)) to describe the Fabrica ecclesiae foundations. The general term in use in Italy is Fabbriceria, but local entities use Opera, instead, or Fabbrica or Cappella or Maramma, depending on the Region. Operas are a confessional foundation, led by a laical deputation elected in part from the bishop and in part from Ministry of the Interior. This is and old heritage of the highly diversified nature of Fabrica ecclesiae foundation all over Italy. Originally they were designated by bishops who wanted to separate their spiritual affairs from pecuniary ones but, in the centuries, people from the local administrations entered the deputations. In the past was very important to have control of a fabrica, because they managed the commerce of cereals and had possession of several palaces, it was like being a second Lord of the city. Nowadays fabricas are only intended to keep their buildings with restoration works, maintenance, sourveillance and letting conduct daily religious services without interfering. Most of fabricas are under Associazione Fabbricerie Italiane a national association founded in 2007. The following fabricas are part of the Associazione Fabbricerie Italiane.
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Orazio Lomi Gentileschi (1563–1639) was an Italian painter.
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The Orto botanico di Pisa, also known as the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Pisa, is a botanical garden operated by the University of Pisa, and located at via Luca Ghini 5, Pisa, Italy.
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Ostia Antica is a large archeological site, close to the modern suburb of Ostia, that was the location of the harbour city of ancient Rome, which is approximately to the northeast.
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Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), also known as Otto the Great, was German king from 936 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 962 until his death in 973.
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Otto IV (1175 – May 19, 1218) was one of two rival kings of Germany from 1198 on, sole king from 1208 on, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 until he was forced to abdicate in 1215.
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Palazzo Blu is a center for temporary exhibitions and cultural activities located in the Lungarno Gambacorti, in the heart of the historic center of Pisa, Italy.
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The Palazzo del Collegio Puteano (Palace of the Putean College) is a building in Piazza dei Cavalieri in Pisa, Italy.
Palazzo della Carovana (also Palazzo dei Cavalieri) is a palace in Knights' Square, Pisa, Italy, presently housing the main building of the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa.
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The Palazzo delle Vedove (Italian for Widows' Palace) is a palace in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.
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Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos, بَلَرْم, Balarm; Phoenician: זִיז, Ziz) is a city in Insular Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Province of Palermo.
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The name Pelasgians (Πελασγοί, Pelasgoí; singular: Πελασγός, Pelasgós) was used by some ancient Greek writers to refer to populations that either were the ancestors of the Greeks or preceded the Greeks in Greece, "a hold-all term for any ancient, primitive and presumably indigenous people in the Greek world".
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In Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek: Πέλοψ), was king of Pisa in the Peloponnesus.
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A people mover or automated people mover (APM) is a type of grade-separated mass transit system.
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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phúsis "nature") is the natural science that involves the study of matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization, and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
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The Piazza dei Miracoli (Square of Miracles), formally known as Piazza del Duomo (Cathedral Square), is a wide walled area located in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, recognized as an important center of European medieval art and one of the finest architectural complexes in the world.
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Pieter van Musschenbroek (14 March 1692 – 19 September 1761) was a Dutch scientist.
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Pietro Moriconi (died 1119) was the Archbishop of Pisa from 1105, succeeding Dagobert.
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Pisa Aeroporto railway station (Stazione di Pisa Aeroporto) was a railway station within Galileo Galilei Airport (Italian:Aeroporto internazionale Galileo Galilei) (IATA code: PSA) in Pisa, Italy.
The Pisa Baptistry of St.
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Pisa Centrale railway station (Stazione di Pisa Centrale) is the central station of the Italian city of Pisa, the first station of the city in terms of passengers, before Pisa-San Rossore raliway station.
Pisa Charterhouse, also known as Calci Charterhouse (Certosa di Pisa, Certosa di Calci), is a former Carthusian monastery, or charterhouse, currently the home of the Museo di storia naturale e del territorio dell'Università di Pisa ("Museum of Natural History and of the Territory of the University of Pisa"), located in the comune of Calci, some 10 km outside Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.
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Pisa International Airport (Aeroporto Internazionale di Pisa), also named Galileo Galilei Airport is an airport located in Pisa, Italy.
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Pisa (Πῖσα) was the name of an ancient town in the western Peloponnese, Greece.
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The Pisa–Rome railway is one of the trunk lines of the Italian railway network.
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Pope Celestine III (Caelestinus III; c. 1106 – 8 January 1198), born Giacinto Bobone, reigned from 30 March or 10 April 1191 to his death in 1198.
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Pope Gregory IX (Gregorius IX; 1145 – 22 August 1241), born Ugolino di Conti, was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241.
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Saint Gregory VII (Gregorius VII; 1015/1028 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana (Ildebrando da Soana), was Pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085.
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Pope Innocent II (Innocentius II; died 23 September 1143), born Gregorio Papareschi, was Pope from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143.
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Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death.
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Pope Paschal II (Paschalis II; 1050 1055 – 21 January 1118), born Ranierius, was Pope from 13 August 1099 to his death in 1118.
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Pope Urban II (Urbanus II; – 29 July 1099), born Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099.
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The port of Brindisi is located in Brindisi, Italy.
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Porto Venere (until 1991 Portovenere) is a town and comune (municipality) located on the Ligurian coast of Italy in the province of La Spezia.
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Postgraduate education (or graduate education in North America) involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.
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Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River on the west to the Italian border on the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea on the south.
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The Province of Pisa (Provincia di Pisa) is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy.
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Pula or Pola (Pola Italian and Istro-Romanian; Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea; Slovene and Chakavian: Pulj, Polei, Ancient Greek: Πόλαι, Polae) is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia, situated at the southern tip of the Istria peninsula, with a population of 57,460 (2011).
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Pylos (Πύλος), historically also known under its Italian name Navarino, is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece.
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Saint Rainerius (c. 1115/1117 – 1160) is the patron saint of Pisa and of travellers.
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Ravenna (also; Ravêna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.
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Reggio di Calabria (Sicilian-Calabrian dialect: Rìggiu, Italic-Greek of Bovesia: Righi, Ancient Greek: Ῥήγιον, Rhḗgion, Latin: Rhēgium), commonly known as Reggio Calabria or simply Reggio in Southern Italy, is the biggest city and the most populated comune of Calabria, Southern Italy.
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The Republic of Florence, or the Florentine Republic (Repubblica Fiorentina), was a state that was centered on the city of Florence, located in modern Tuscany, Italy.
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The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia; Repùblica Vèneta), or traditionally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice, was a state originating from the lagoon communities in the area of Venice, now northeastern Italy.
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The Rhône (Rhône,; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising in Switzerland, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
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Roger I (–1101 Mileto), called Roger Bosso and The Great Count, was the Norman Count of Sicily from 1071 to 1101.
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Roger II (Mileto, Calabria 22 December 1095Houben, p. 30. – Palermo, Sicily 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his brother Simon.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
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Rome (Roma, Rōma) is a city and special comune (named "Roma Capitale") in Italy.
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Rustichello da Pisa, also known as Rusticiano (fl. late 13th century), was an Italian romance writer.
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Rutilio di Lorenzo Manetti (c. 1571 – 22 July 1639) was an Italian painter of late-Mannerism or proto-Baroque, active mainly in Siena.
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Salerno is a city and comune in Campania (south-western Italy) and is the capital of the province of the same name.
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Salting the earth, or sowing with salt, is the ritual of spreading salt on conquered cities to symbolize a curse on their re-inhabitation.
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San Francesco de' Ferri is a church in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.
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San Frediano is a Romanesque style, Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy.
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San Giorgio ai Tedeschi is a church located in the centre of Pisa, Italy.
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San Michele in Borgo is a Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy.
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San Nicola is a church in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.
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San Paolo a Ripa d'Arno (St. Paul on the bank of the Arno) is a Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy.
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San Paolo all'Orto is a Romanesque-style, former Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy.
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San Piero a Grado (Italian: Basilica di San Pietro Apostolo) is a church in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, in the eponymous frazione west of the city center.
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San Pietro in Vinculis is a church in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.
San Sisto is a church in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.
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San Zeno is a church and a former abbey in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.
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The Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna di Pisa is a special-statute public university located in Pisa, Italy, operating in the field of applied sciences.
Santa Caterina d'Alessandria is a Gothic-style, Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy.
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Santa Cristina is a Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy.
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Santa Maria della Spina is a small Gothic church in the Italian city of Pisa.
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Santi di Tito (March 6, 1536 – July 23, 1603) was one of the most influential and leading Italian painters of the proto-Baroque style – what is sometimes referred to as "Counter-Maniera" or Counter-Mannerism.
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Santiago de Compostela, commonly known as Santiago, is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia in northwestern Spain.
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The Church of the Santo Sepolcro (Italian: Chiesa del Santo Sepolcro, literally "Church of the Holy Sepulchre") is a religious edifice in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy.
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Saracen was a generic term for Muslims widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the later medieval era.
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Sardinia (Sardegna, Sardìgna, Sardìnnia /, Sassarese: Sardhigna, Gallurese: Saldigna, Algherese: Saldegna, Tabarchino: Sardegna) is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and before Cyprus) and an autonomous region of Italy, which goes by the official name of Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna (Autonomous Region of Sardinia).
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Savona (Ligurian: Sann-a Savone) is a seaport and comune in the northern Italian region of Liguria, capital of the Province of Savona, in the Riviera di Ponente on the Mediterranean Sea.
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The Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa is a public higher learning institution in Pisa, Italy.
Sergio Bertoni (23 September 1915 – 15 February 1995) was an Italian football (soccer) player in striker role, and later manager.
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Shooting is the act or process of discharging firearms or other projectile weapons such as bows or crossbows.
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Sicily (Sicilia, Old Norse: Sikiley) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea; along with surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy officially referred to as Regione Sicilia.
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Silvano Arieti (June 28, 1914 in Pisa, Italy – August 7, 1981 in New York City) was a psychiatrist regarded as one of the world’s foremost authorities on schizophrenia.
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Simone Martini (– 1344) was an Italian painter born in Siena.
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Sinopia (also known as sinoper, named after the Turkish city Sinop) is a dark reddish-brown natural earth pigment, whose reddish color comes from hematite, a dehydrated form of iron oxide.
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Split (Spalato, see Name section) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia.
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The State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), also known simply as Palestine, is a partially recognized ''de jure'' state in the Middle East.
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Strabo (Στράβων Strabōn; 64/63 BC – c. AD 24), was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian.
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Müezzinzade Ali Pasha (Müezzinzade Ali Paşa; also known as Sofu Ali Pasha or Sufi Ali Pasha or Meyzinoğlu Ali Pasha; died 7 October 1571) was an Ottoman statesman and naval officer.
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A Superior Graduate School (Italian: Scuola Superiore Universitaria) is a completely independent institution from a legal point of view, which offers advanced training and research through university-type courses or is dedicated to teaching at graduate or post-doctoral level.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city in Sicily, the capital of the province of Syracuse.
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Taddeo Gaddi (c. 1290, Florence – 1366, Florence) was a medieval Italian painter and architect.
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Tirrenia is a frazione (parish) of Pisa, Italy with a population of 3,112 inhabitants.
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The Torre dei Gualandi (also known as the Muda Tower) is a former tower in Pisa, central Italy, now included in the Palazzo dell'Orologio.
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Toulouse (locally:; Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital city of the southwestern French department of Haute-Garonne, as well as of the Midi-Pyrénées region.
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Trapani (Tràpani; Drepanon, Δρέπανον) is a city and comune on the west coast of Sicily in Italy.
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Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Ṭrables) is the de jure capital city and the largest city of Libya.
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Troy (Ἴλιον, Ilion, or Ἴλιος, Ilios; and Τροία, Troia; Trōia and Īlium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusa or Truwisa; Truva) was a city situated in what is known from Classical sources as Asia Minor, now northwest Anatolia in modern Turkey, located south of the southwest end of the Dardanelles/Hellespont and northwest of Mount Ida at Hisarlık.
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Turin (Torino, pronounced; Piedmontese: Turin, pronounced;; Augusta Taurinorum) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley and surrounded by the western Alpine arch.
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Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres (8,900 sq mi) and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
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Tuscia is a historical region of Italy that comprised the territories under Etruscan influence and the name adopted for Etruria after the Roman conquest.
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Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal and social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Tyre (Arabic:,; Phoenician:,; צוֹר, Tzor; Tiberian Hebrew,; Akkadian: 𒋗𒊒; Greek:, Týros; Sur; Tyrus), Armenian Տիր, sometimes romanized as Sour, is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
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The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mari Tirrenu, Mer Tyrrhénienne, Mar Tirreno, Mar Tirreno, Mare Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu) is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.
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Count Ugolino della Gherardesca (c. 1220 – March 1289), count of Donoratico, was an Italian nobleman, politician and naval commander.
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Uguccione della Faggiuola (c. 1250 – 1 November 1319) was an Italian condottiero, and chief magistrate of Pisa, Lucca and Forlì (from 1297).
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Underdrawing is the drawing done on a painting ground before paint is applied, for example, an imprimatura or an underpainting.
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The University of Pisa (Università di Pisa, UniPi) is an Italian public research university located in Pisa, Italy.
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Unna is a town of around 67,000 people in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, the seat of the Unna district.
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Venice (Venezia; alternative obsolete form: Vinegia; Venetian: Venèxia; Venetiae; Benetke) is a city in northeastern Italy sited on a group of 118 small islands separated by canals and linked by bridges.
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Ventura di Archangelo Salimbeni (also later called Bevilacqua; 20 January 1568 – 1613) was an ItalianCounter-Maniera painter and printmaker highly influenced by the vaghezza and sensual reform of Federico Barocci.
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The Via Francigena is the common name of an ancient road and pilgrim route running from France to Rome, though it is usually considered to have its starting point much further away, in the English cathedral city of Canterbury.
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Viareggio is a city and comune in northern Tuscany, Italy, on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
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Vikings (Norwegian and Vikinger; Swedish and Vikingar; Víkingar), from Old Norse víkingr, were Germanic Norse seafarers, speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Scandinavian homelands across wide areas of northern and central Europe, as well as European Russia, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
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The Palazzo al Borgo di Corliano is a villa situated near coast of Tuscany, central Italy, in the valley between Lucca and Pisa, 2 kilometres from the Spa town of San Giuliano Terme.
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Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
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Vitellozzo Vitelli (c. 1458 – December 31, 1502) was an Italian condottiero.
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Volterra, known to the ancient Etruscans as Velathri, to the Romans as Volaterrae, is a town and comune in the Tuscany region of Italy.
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The Western Schism or Papal Schism was a split within the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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Zadar (see other names) is the 5th largest city in Croatia situated on the Adriatic Sea.
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In 1114, an expedition to the Balearic Islands, then a Muslim taifa, was launched in the form of a Crusade.