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Index Placebo

A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value. [1]

70 relations: Adult, Adverse effect, Amygdala, Analgesic, Annals of Internal Medicine, Anorexia (symptom), Anterior cingulate cortex, Blinded experiment, Blood pressure, Cannabinoid, Childhood, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Classical conditioning, Clinical trial, Cochrane (organisation), Consent, Corn oil, Cyclophosphamide, Declaration of Helsinki, Depressant, Depression (mood), Disease, DNA oxidation, Dopaminergic pathways, Drug withdrawal, Effect size, Efficacy, Functional imaging, Henry K. Beecher, Homeopathy, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Immunosuppression, Informed consent, Insular cortex, Insulin, Irving Kirsch, Jerome, Lactose, Lactose intolerance, Latin, List of topics characterized as pseudoscience, Malingering, Menopause, Motivation, Neural top–down control of physiology, Neuropathic pain, Nocebo, Nucleus accumbens, Olive oil, Opioid peptide, ..., Orbitofrontal cortex, Parkinson's disease, Periaqueductal gray, Placebo button, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Prefrontal cortex, Regression toward the mean, Saccharin, Saline (medicine), Scientific control, Self-fulfilling prophecy, Serum iron, Sham surgery, Sinus rhythm, Spinal cord, Stimulant, Subject-expectancy effect, Unintended consequences, Withdrawal reflex, Women's Health Initiative. Expand index (20 more) »


Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.

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Adverse effect

In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.

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The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.

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Annals of Internal Medicine

Annals of Internal Medicine is an academic medical journal published by the American College of Physicians (ACP).

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Anorexia (symptom)

Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.

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Anterior cingulate cortex

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum.

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Blinded experiment

A blind or blinded-experiment is an experiment in which information about the test is masked (kept) from the participant, to reduce or eliminate bias, until after a trial outcome is known.

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Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.

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A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.

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Childhood is the age span ranging from birth to adolescence.

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Chronic fatigue syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a medical condition characterized by long-term fatigue and other symptoms that limit a person's ability to carry out ordinary daily activities.

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Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).

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Clinical trial

Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.

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Cochrane (organisation)

Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.

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In common speech, consent occurs when one person voluntarily agrees to the proposal or desires of another.

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Corn oil

Corn oil (maize oil) is oil extracted from the germ of corn (maize).

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Cyclophosphamide (CP), also known as cytophosphane among other, is a medication used as chemotherapy and to suppress the immune system.

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Declaration of Helsinki

The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) is a set of ethical principles regarding human experimentation developed for the medical community by the World Medical Association (WMA).

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A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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DNA oxidation

DNA oxidation is the process of oxidative damage of deoxyribonucleic acid.

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Dopaminergic pathways

Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.

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Drug withdrawal

Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.

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Effect size

In statistics, an effect size is a quantitative measure of the magnitude of a phenomenon.

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Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily.

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Functional imaging

Functional imaging (or physiological imaging), is a medical imaging technique of detecting or measuring changes in metabolism, blood flow, regional chemical composition, and absorption.

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Henry K. Beecher

Henry Knowles Beecher (February 4, 1904 – July 25, 1976) was a pioneering American anesthesiologist, medical ethicist, and investigator of the placebo effect at Harvard Medical School.

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Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.

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Informed consent

Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person, or for disclosing personal information.

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Insular cortex

In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes).

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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Irving Kirsch

Irving Kirsch (born March 7, 1943) is Associate Director of the Program in Placebo Studies and a lecturer in medicine at the Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

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Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.

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Lactose is a disaccharide.

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Lactose intolerance

Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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List of topics characterized as pseudoscience

This is a list of topics that have, at one point or another in their history, been characterized as pseudoscience by academics or researchers.

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Malingering is the fabricating of symptoms of mental or physical disorders for a variety of reasons such as financial compensation (often tied to fraud); avoiding school, work or military service; obtaining drugs; or as a mitigating factor for sentencing in criminal cases.

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Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.

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Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.

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Neural top–down control of physiology

Neural top–down control of physiology concerns the direct regulation by the brain of physiological functions (in addition to smooth muscle and glandular ones).

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Neuropathic pain

Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.

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A nocebo effect is said to occur when negative expectations of the patient regarding a treatment cause the treatment to have a more negative effect than it otherwise would have.

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Nucleus accumbens

The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.

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Olive oil

Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.

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Opioid peptide

Opioid peptides are peptides that bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides.

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Orbitofrontal cortex

The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision-making.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Periaqueductal gray

The periaqueductal gray (PAG, also known as the central gray) is the primary control center for descending pain modulation.

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Placebo button

A placebo button is a push-button with apparent functionality that actually has no effect when pressed.

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Postmenopausal hormone therapy

Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Regression toward the mean

In statistics, regression toward (or to) the mean is the phenomenon that if a variable is extreme on its first measurement, it will tend to be closer to the average on its second measurement—and if it is extreme on its second measurement, it will tend to have been closer to the average on its first.

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Sodium saccharin (benzoic sulfimide) is an artificial sweetener with effectively no food energy that is about 300–400 times as sweet as sucrose but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations.

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Saline (medicine)

Saline, also known as saline solution, is a mixture of sodium chloride in water and has a number of uses in medicine.

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Scientific control

A scientific control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable.

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Self-fulfilling prophecy

A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior.

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Serum iron

Serum iron is a medical laboratory test that measures the amount of circulating iron that is bound to transferrin.

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Sham surgery

Sham surgery (placebo surgery) is a faked surgical intervention that omits the step thought to be therapeutically necessary.

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Sinus rhythm

A sinus rhythm is any cardiac rhythm where depolarization of the cardiac muscle begins at the sinus node.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

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Subject-expectancy effect

The subject-expectancy effect, is a form of reactivity that occurs in scientific experiments or medical treatments when a research subject or patient expects a given result and therefore unconsciously affects the outcome, or reports the expected result.

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Unintended consequences

In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action.

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Withdrawal reflex

The withdrawal reflex (nociceptive flexion reflex or flexor withdrawal reflex) is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli.

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Women's Health Initiative

The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1991.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placebo

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