81 relations: Airborne disease, Antibiotic, Bacteria, Battle of Changde, Beta blocker, Biological agent, Black Death, Bleeding, Bubo, Bubonic plague, Catapult, Chinese people, Chloramphenicol, Civilian, Cochrane (organisation), Combination therapy, Crimea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Diphtheria, Dissection, Disseminated intravascular coagulation, Douglas MacArthur, Doxycycline, Drug resistance, Enterobacteriaceae, Enzootic, Europe, Extracellular fluid, Feodosia, Fever, Flea, Fluorescent tag, Gentamicin, Golden Horde, Han dynasty, Headache, History of China, Huns, Huo Qubing, Imperial Japanese Army, Incubation period, Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Jani Beg, Khabarovsk War Crime Trials, Lung, Lymph node, Lymphadenopathy, Lymphatic system, ..., Lymphatic vessel, Madagascar, Manchuria, Middle Ages, Mongols, Necrosis, Oriental rat flea, Outbreak, Peru, Phagocytosis, Plague vaccine, Pneumonia, Pneumonic plague, Prisoner of war, Quinolone antibiotic, Republic of Genoa, Sepsis, Septicemic plague, Shirō Ishii, Sputum, Streptomycin, Tetracycline, Therapy, Toxin, Turkic peoples, Unit 731, United States, Vaccine, World War II, Xiongnu, Yersinia pestis. Expand index (31 more) » « Shrink index
An airborne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens that can be transmitted through the air.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The Battle of Changde (Battle of Changteh) was a major engagement in the Second Sino-Japanese War in and around the Chinese city of Changde (Changteh) in the province of Hunan.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
A bubo (Greek βουβών, boubôn, "groin") (plural form: boubônes) is the swelling of the lymph nodes.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
A catapult is a ballistic device used to launch a projectile a great distance without the aid of explosive devices—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines.
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
A civilian is "a person who is not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force".
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone).
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization) is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels.
Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.
Doxycycline is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of a number of types of infections caused by bacteria and protozoa.
Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.
The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of Gram-negative bacteria.
Enzootic is the non-human equivalent of endemic and means, in a broad sense, "belonging to" or "native to", "characteristic of", or "prevalent in" a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; native to an area or scope.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.
In molecular biology and biotechnology, a fluorescent tag, also known as a label or probe, is a molecule that is attached chemically to aid in the labeling and detection of a biomolecule such as a protein, antibody, or amino acid.
Gentamicin, sold under brand names Garamycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
Huo Qubing (140 BC – 117 BC) was a distinguished military general of the Western Han dynasty during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han.
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.
Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trial or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, was a military trial convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for joint conspiracy to start and wage war (categorized as "Class A" crimes), conventional war crimes ("Class B") and crimes against humanity ("Class C").
Jani Beg (died 1357) also called Djanibek Khan was a khan of the Golden Horde from 1342 to 1357, succeeding his father Öz Beg Khan.
The Khabarovsk War Crime Trials were hearings held between 25–31 December 1949, in the Soviet Union's industrial city of Khabarovsk (Хаба́ровск), the largest city within the Russian Far East (Дáльний Востóк) adjacent to Japan.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Lymphadenopathy or adenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes, in which they are abnormal in size, number, or consistency.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
The lymphatic vessels (or lymph vessels or lymphatics) are thin-walled vessels structured like blood vessels, that carry lymph.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
The Oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis), also known as the tropical rat flea, is a parasite of rodents, primarily of the genus Rattus, and is a primary vector for bubonic plague and murine typhus.
In epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
Plague vaccine is a vaccine used against Yersinia pestis.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Pneumonic plague is a severe lung infection caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Septicemic plague is one of the three main forms of plague.
Surgeon General was a Japanese army medical officer, microbiologist and the director of Unit 731, a biological warfare unit of the Imperial Japanese Army involved in forced and frequently lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945).
Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi).
Streptomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative, non-motile rod-shaped coccobacillus, with no spores.