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Index Planet

A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals. [1]

397 relations: Academic journal, Accretion (astrophysics), Accretion disk, Alan Stern, Aleksander Wolszczan, Almagest, Ammonia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Angular momentum, Anticyclonic storm, Aphrodite, Apsis, Ares, Argon, Argument of periapsis, Aristarchus of Samos, Arithmetic mean, Aryabhata, Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Astrology, Astronomer, Astronomical object, Astronomical unit, Astronomy, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Atmosphere, Atmospheric escape, Atomic number, Avempace, Avicenna, Axial tilt, Baal, Babylon, Babylonia, Babylonian astrology, Babylonian astronomy, Bṛhaspati, Binary star, Books of Samuel, Brown dwarf, Budha, Caelus, Callisto (moon), Carbon dioxide, Carbon planet, Catholic Church, Ceres (dwarf planet), Cha 110913-773444, ..., Chandra, Chemical element, CHEOPS, Christiaan Huygens, Chthonian planet, Circumstellar disc, Classical antiquity, Classical planet, Clearing the neighbourhood, Comet, Common sense, Computer simulation, Continental Germanic mythology, Cronus, Crust (geology), Cuneiform script, Dale Frail, Day, Deferent and epicycle, Definition of planet, Deity, Deuterium, Dictionary.com, Didier Queloz, Dione (moon), Double planet, Drag (physics), Drake equation, Dust storm, Dwarf planet, Dynamo theory, Earth, Earth (classical element), Earth radius, Earth's rotation, East Asian cultural sphere, Ecliptic, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electromagnetism, Electron degeneracy pressure, Ellipse, Elliptic orbit, Enuma Anu Enlil, Eris (dwarf planet), Euphemism, Europa (moon), Exoplanet, Exoplanet Data Explorer, Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia, Extraterrestrial life, Fire (classical element), Fixed stars, Fluid, Fred Lawrence Whipple, Frigg, Gaia, Gaia (spacecraft), Galilean moons, Galileo Galilei, Ganymede (moon), Gas giant, Geneva Observatory, Geocentric model, Germanic languages, Giant planet, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Gravitational microlensing, Gravity, Great Dark Spot, Great Red Spot, Greek mythology, HD 179949, HD 189733 b, Hebrew astronomy, Helaine Selin, Heliocentrism, Helios, Helium, Helium planet, Hellenistic period, Hermes, Hesperus, Hot Jupiter, House of Medici, Hydrogen, Hydrology, Hydrostatic equilibrium, Iapetus (moon), IAU definition of planet, Ice cap, Ice giant, Inanna, India, International Astronomical Union, Io (moon), Ionosphere, Iron, Ish-bosheth, James Webb Space Telescope, Jean-Luc Margot, Johannes Kepler, Julian day, Jupiter, Jupiter (mythology), K. V. Sarma, Kepler (spacecraft), Kepler-11, Kepler-20, Kepler-20e, Kepler-20f, Kepler-37b, Kepler-70b, Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics, Ketu (mythology), Korea, Kuiper belt, Library of Congress, List of exoplanets, List of hypothetical Solar System objects, List of landings on extraterrestrial bodies, List of multiplanetary systems, Lists of planets, Longitude of the ascending node, Low-pressure area, Lunar node, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, Magnetic field, Magnetic moment, Main sequence, Mangala, Mantle (geology), Maragheh observatory, Marduk, Mars, Mars (mythology), Mercury (mythology), Mercury (planet), Mesoplanet, Mesopotamia, Metal (Wu Xing), Metallic hydrogen, Metallicity, Methane, Michel Mayor, Middle Ages, Milky Way, Mini-Neptune, Minor planet, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, Moons of Jupiter, Moons of Mars, Moons of Neptune, Moons of Saturn, Moons of Uranus, MUL.APIN, Mythology, Nabu, Names of the days of the week, NASA, NASA Exoplanet Archive, Natural abundance, Natural satellite, Nature (journal), Navagraha, Nebula, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neptune, Neptune (mythology), Nergal, Nickel, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nilakantha Somayaji, Nitrogen, Nuclear fusion, Observational astronomy, Odin, Old English, Omen, Open cluster, Oph 162225-240515, Orbit, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital inclination, Orbital node, Orbital period, Orbital resonance, OTS 44, Oxygen, Parmenides, Patronage, Perihelion and aphelion, Phaenon, Phaethon, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Phosphorus (morning star), Photoevaporation, Plane of reference, Planetary core, Planetary differentiation, Planetary habitability, Planetary mass, Planetary mnemonic, Planetary science, Planetary system, Planetesimal, Planets beyond Neptune, Planets in astrology, Planets in science fiction, Pluto, Poseidon, Poynting–Robertson effect, Pressure, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European religion, Protoplanet, Protoplanetary disk, Protostar, PSR B1257+12, PSR B1257+12 A, PSR J1719-1438, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy, Pulsar, Pyroeis, Pythagoras, Pythagoreanism, Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, Radioactive decay, Rahu, Raymond Lyttleton, Religious cosmology, Retrograde and prograde motion, Rhea (moon), Ring system, Rings of Jupiter, Rings of Neptune, Rings of Saturn, Rings of Uranus, Roche limit, Rock (geology), Rogue planet, Roman calendar, Roman Empire, Roman mythology, Roman Republic, Romance languages, Rotation around a fixed axis, Rotation period, Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Royal Society, Saturn, Saturn (mythology), Scientific Revolution, Selene, Semi-major and semi-minor axes, Shani, Shukra, Silicate, Small Solar System body, Solar analog, Solar irradiance, Solar System, Solar wind, Solstice, South India, Space, Space Age, Space probe, Space telescope, Springer Science+Business Media, Star, Star cluster, Star formation, Stellar classification, Stellar population, Steven Soter, Stilbon (mythology), Stochastic process, Sub-brown dwarf, Sun, Sunspot, Super-Earth, Supernova, Supernova remnant, Surya, Tantrasamgraha, Týr, Tectonics, Telescope, Terra (mythology), Terrestrial planet, Tethys (moon), Theoretical planetology, Thermonuclear fusion, Thor, Tidal force, Tidal locking, Titan (moon), Titan (mythology), Trans-Neptunian object, Transit of Mercury, Transit of Venus, Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, Tropical cyclone, True mass, Twelve Olympians, Tycho Brahe, Tychonic system, University of Geneva, Uranus, Uranus (mythology), Venus, Venus (mythology), Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, Vietnam, Volatiles, Volcano, WASP-17b, Water, Water (classical element), Western astrology, Wood (Wu Xing), Wu Xing, X-ray pulsar, Zeus, 10 Hygiea, 11 Parthenope, 12 Victoria, 13 Egeria, 14 Irene, 15 Eunomia, 1RXS J160929.1−210524, 2 Pallas, 2M1207b, 2MASS J04414489+2301513, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 5 Astraea, 50000 Quaoar, 51 Pegasi, 6 Hebe, 7 Iris, 8 Flora, 9 Metis, 90377 Sedna. 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Academic journal

An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.

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Accretion (astrophysics)

In astrophysics, accretion is the accumulation of particles into a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter, typically gaseous matter, in an accretion disk.

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Accretion disk

An accretion disk is a structure (often a circumstellar disk) formed by diffused material in orbital motion around a massive central body.

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Alan Stern

Sol Alan Stern (born November 22, 1957) is an American engineer and planetary scientist.

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Aleksander Wolszczan

Aleksander Wolszczan (born 29 April 1946 in Szczecinek, Poland) is a Polish astronomer.

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The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.

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Anticyclonic storm

An anticyclonic storm is a weather storm where winds around the storm flow in the direction opposite to that of the flow about a region of low pressure.

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Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.

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An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.

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Ares (Ἄρης, Áres) is the Greek god of war.

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Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.

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Argument of periapsis

The argument of periapsis (also called argument of perifocus or argument of pericenter), symbolized as ω, is one of the orbital elements of an orbiting body.

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Aristarchus of Samos

Aristarchus of Samos (Ἀρίσταρχος ὁ Σάμιος, Aristarkhos ho Samios; c. 310 – c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known model that placed the Sun at the center of the known universe with the Earth revolving around it (see Solar system).

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Arithmetic mean

In mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean (stress on third syllable of "arithmetic"), or simply the mean or average when the context is clear, is the sum of a collection of numbers divided by the number of numbers in the collection.

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Aryabhata (IAST) or Aryabhata I (476–550 CE) was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy.

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Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.

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Asteroid belt

The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.

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Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.

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An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

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Astronomical object

An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.

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Astronomical unit

The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Astronomy & Astrophysics

Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.

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An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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Atmospheric escape

Atmospheric escape is the loss of planetary atmospheric gases to outer space.

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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Avempace (– 1138) is the Latinate form of Ibn Bâjja (ابن باجه), full name Abû Bakr Muḥammad Ibn Yaḥyà ibn aṣ-Ṣâ’igh at-Tûjîbî Ibn Bâjja al-Tujibi (أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصائغ), was an Arab Andalusian polymath: his writings include works regarding astronomy, physics, and music, as well as philosophy, medicine, botany, and poetry.

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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Axial tilt

In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.

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Baal,Oxford English Dictionary (1885), "" properly Baʿal, was a title and honorific meaning "lord" in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity. From its use among people, it came to be applied to gods. Scholars previously associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was particularly associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations. The Hebrew Bible, compiled and curated over a span of centuries, includes early use of the term in reference to God (known to them as Yahweh), generic use in reference to various Levantine deities, and finally pointed application towards Hadad, who was decried as a false god. That use was taken over into Christianity and Islam, sometimes under the opprobrious form Beelzebub in demonology.

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Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.

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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Babylonian astrology

In Babylon as well as in Assyria as a direct offshoot of Babylonian culture, astrology takes its place as one of the two chief means at the disposal of the priests (who were called bare or "inspectors") for ascertaining the will and intention of the gods, the other being through the inspection of the livers of sacrificial animals (see omen).

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Babylonian astronomy

The history of astronomy in Mesopotamia, and the world, begins with the Sumerians who developed the earliest writing system—known as cuneiform—around 3500–3200 BC.

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Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति, often written as Brihaspati) is an Indian name, and refers to different mythical figures depending on the age of the text.

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Binary star

A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.

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Books of Samuel

The Books of Samuel, 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel.

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Brown dwarf

Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.

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Budha graha (बुध) is a Sanskrit word that connotes the planet Mercury.

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Caelus or Coelus was a primal god of the sky in Roman myth and theology, iconography, and literature (compare caelum, the Latin word for "sky" or "the heavens", hence English "celestial").

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Callisto (moon)

Callisto (Jupiter IV) is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon planet

A carbon planet is a theoretical type of planet that contains more carbon (''Z''.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Ceres (dwarf planet)

Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.

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Cha 110913-773444

Cha 110913-773444 (sometimes abbreviated Cha 110913) is an astronomical object surrounded by what appears to be a protoplanetary disk.

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Chandra (चन्द्र, IAST: Candra, lit. "shining" or "moon")Graha Sutras By Ernst Wilhelm, Published by Kala Occult Publishers p.51 is a lunar deity and is also one of the nine planets (Navagraha) in Hinduism.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) is a planned European space telescope for the study of the formation of extrasolar planets.

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Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.

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Chthonian planet

Chthonian planets (sometimes 'cthonian') are a hypothetical class of celestial objects resulting from the stripping away of a gas giant's hydrogen and helium atmosphere and outer layers, which is called hydrodynamic escape.

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Circumstellar disc

A circumstellar disc (or circumstellar disk) is a torus, pancake or ring-shaped accumulation of matter composed of gas, dust, planetesimals, asteroids or collision fragments in orbit around a star.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical planet

In classical antiquity, the seven classical planets are the seven non-fixed astronomical objects in the sky visible to the naked eye: Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Mercury, the Sun, and the Moon.

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Clearing the neighbourhood

"Clearing the neighbourhood around its orbit" is a criterion for a celestial body to be considered a planet in the Solar System.

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A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.

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Common sense

Common sense is sound practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge that is shared by ("common to") nearly all people.

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Computer simulation

Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

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Continental Germanic mythology

Continental Germanic mythology is a subtype of Germanic paganism as practiced in parts of Central Europe during the 6th to 8th centuries, a period of Christianization.

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In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos (or from Κρόνος, Krónos), was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth.

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Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.

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Cuneiform script

Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.

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Dale Frail

Dale A. Frail is an astronomer working at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico.

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A day, a unit of time, is approximately the period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation with respect to the Sun (solar day).

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Deferent and epicycle

In the Hipparchian and Ptolemaic systems of astronomy, the epicycle (from ἐπίκυκλος, literally upon the circle, meaning circle moving on another circle) was a geometric model used to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets.

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Definition of planet

The definition of planet, since the word was coined by the ancient Greeks, has included within its scope a wide range of celestial bodies.

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A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.

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Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).

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Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995.

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Didier Queloz

Didier Queloz (born February 23, 1966) is an astronomer with a prolific record in finding extrasolar planets in the Astrophysics Group of the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, and also at the University of Geneva.

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Dione (moon)

Dione (Διώνη) is a moon of Saturn.

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Double planet

In astronomy, a double planet (also binary planet) is a binary system where both objects are of planetary mass.

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Drag (physics)

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.

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Drake equation

The Drake equation is a probabilistic argument used to estimate the number of active, communicative extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy.

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Dust storm

A dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions.

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Dwarf planet

A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.

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Dynamo theory

In physics, the dynamo theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as Earth or a star generates a magnetic field.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth (classical element)

Earth is one of the classical elements, in some systems numbering four along with air, fire, and water.

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Earth radius

Earth radius is the approximate distance from Earth's center to its surface, about.

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Earth's rotation

Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis.

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East Asian cultural sphere

The "Sinosphere", or "East Asian cultural sphere", refers to a grouping of countries and regions in East Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture.

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The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.

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Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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Electron degeneracy pressure

Electron degeneracy pressure is a particular manifestation of the more general phenomenon of quantum degeneracy pressure.

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In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.

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Elliptic orbit

In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0.

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Enuma Anu Enlil

Enuma Anu Enlil (The Assyrian Dictionary, volume 7 (I/J) – inūma, The Oriental Institute, Chicago 1960, s. 160. When the gods Anu and Enlil), abbreviated EAE, is a major series of 68 or 70 tablets (depending on the recension) dealing with Babylonian astrology.

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Eris (dwarf planet)

Eris (minor-planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most massive and second-largest (by volume) dwarf planet in the known Solar System.

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A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.

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Europa (moon)

Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.

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An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.

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Exoplanet Data Explorer

The Exoplanet Data Explorer / Exoplanet Orbit Database lists extrasolar planets up to 24 Jupiter masses.

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Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia

The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia is an astronomy website, founded in Paris, France at the Meudon Observatory by Jean Schneider in February 1995, which maintains a database of all the currently known and candidate extrasolar planets, with individual pages for each planet and a full list interactive catalog spreadsheet.

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Extraterrestrial life

Extraterrestrial life,Where "extraterrestrial" is derived from the Latin extra ("beyond", "not of") and terrestris ("of Earth", "belonging to Earth").

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Fire (classical element)

Fire has been an important part of all cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization.

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Fixed stars

The fixed stars (stellae fixae) comprise the background of astronomical objects that appear to not move relative to each other in the night sky compared to the foreground of Solar System objects that do.

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In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.

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Fred Lawrence Whipple

Fred Lawrence Whipple (November 5, 1906 – August 30, 2004) was an American astronomer, who worked at the Harvard College Observatory for over 70 years.

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In Germanic mythology, Frigg (Old Norse), Frija (Old High German), Frea (Langobardic), and Frige (Old English) is a goddess.

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In Greek mythology, Gaia (or; from Ancient Greek Γαῖα, a poetical form of Γῆ Gē, "land" or "earth"), also spelled Gaea, is the personification of the Earth and one of the Greek primordial deities.

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Gaia (spacecraft)

Gaia is a space observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed for astrometry: measuring the positions and distances of stars with unprecedented precision.

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Galilean moons

The Galilean moons are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Ganymede (moon)

Ganymede (Jupiter III) is the largest and most massive moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System.

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Gas giant

A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.

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Geneva Observatory

The Geneva Observatory (Observatoire de Genève, Observatorium von Genf) is an astronomical observatory at Sauverny (CH) in the municipality of Versoix, Canton of Geneva, in Switzerland.

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Geocentric model

In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Giant planet

A giant planet is any massive planet.

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Giovanni Domenico Cassini

Giovanni Domenico Cassini (8 June 1625 – 14 September 1712) was an Italian (naturalised French) mathematician, astronomer and engineer.

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Gravitational microlensing

Gravitational microlensing is an astronomical phenomenon due to the gravitational lens effect.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Great Dark Spot

The Great Dark Spot (also known as GDS-89) was one of a series of dark spots on Neptune similar in appearance to Jupiter's Great Red Spot.

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Great Red Spot

The Great Red Spot is a persistent high-pressure region in the atmosphere of Jupiter, producing an anticyclonic storm 22° south of the planet's equator.

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Greek mythology

Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.

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HD 179949

HD 179949 is a 6th magnitude star in the constellation of Sagittarius.

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HD 189733 b

HD 189733 b is an extrasolar planet approximately 63 light-years away from the Solar System in the constellation of Vulpecula.

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Hebrew astronomy

Hebrew astronomy refers to any astronomy written in Hebrew or by Hebrew speakers, or translated into Hebrew.

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Helaine Selin

Helaine Selin (born 1946) is an American librarian, author and the editor of several bestselling books.

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Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.

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Helios (Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) is the god and personification of the Sun in Greek mythology.

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Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Helium planet

A helium planet is a planet with a helium-dominated atmosphere.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods (Dionysus being the youngest).

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In Greek mythology, Hesperus (Ἓσπερος Hesperos) is the Evening Star, the planet Venus in the evening.

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Hot Jupiter

Hot Jupiters are a class of gas giant exoplanets that are inferred to be physically similar to Jupiter but that have very short orbital period (P The close proximity to their stars and high surface-atmosphere temperatures resulted in the moniker "hot Jupiters". Hot Jupiters are the easiest extrasolar planets to detect via the radial-velocity method, because the oscillations they induce in their parent stars' motion are relatively large and rapid compared to those of other known types of planets. One of the best-known hot Jupiters is 51 Pegasi b. Discovered in 1995, it was the first extrasolar planet found orbiting a Sun-like star. 51 Pegasi b has an orbital period of about 4 days.

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House of Medici

The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.

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Hydrostatic equilibrium

In fluid mechanics, a fluid is said to be in hydrostatic equilibrium or hydrostatic balance when it is at rest, or when the flow velocity at each point is constant over time.

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Iapetus (moon)

Iapetus (Ιαπετός), or occasionally Japetus, is the third-largest natural satellite of Saturn, eleventh-largest in the Solar System, and the largest body in the Solar System known not to be in hydrostatic equilibrium.

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IAU definition of planet

The International Astronomical Union (IAU) defined in August 2006 that, in the Solar System, a planet is a celestial body which.

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Ice cap

An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area).

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Ice giant

An ice giant is a giant planet composed mainly of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur.

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Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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International Astronomical Union

The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.

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Io (moon)

Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.

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The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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According to the Hebrew Bible, Ish-bosheth (Standard: Ishbóshet; Tiberian: ʼΚbṓšeṯ) also called Eshbaal (Standard: Eshbáʻal; Tiberian: ʼEšbáʻal), Ashbaal or Ishbaal, was one of the four sons of King Saul and was chosen as the second king over the Kingdom of Israel, which then consisted of all the Twelve Tribes of Israel, after the death of his father and three brothers at the Battle of Mount Gilboa.

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James Webb Space Telescope

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space telescope developed in collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Canadian Space Agency that will be the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope.

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Jean-Luc Margot

Jean-Luc Margot (born 1969) is a Belgian-born astronomer and a UCLA professor who specializes in planetary sciences.

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Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.

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Julian day

Julian day is the continuous count of days since the beginning of the Julian Period and is used primarily by astronomers.

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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Jupiter (mythology)

Jupiter (from Iūpiter or Iuppiter, *djous “day, sky” + *patēr “father," thus "heavenly father"), also known as Jove gen.

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K. V. Sarma


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Kepler (spacecraft)

Kepler is a space observatory launched by NASA to discover Earth-size planets orbiting other stars.

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Kepler-11 is a Sun-like star slightly larger than the Sun in the constellation Cygnus, located some 2,150 light years from Earth.

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Kepler-20 is a star 929 light-years from Earth in the constellation Lyra with a system of five known planets.

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With a semimajor axis of 0.0507 AUs, Kepler-20e's orbit has a period of 6.098 days (with an extremely small margin of error).

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No description.

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Kepler-37b is an extrasolar planet (exoplanet) orbiting Kepler-37 in the constellation Lyra.

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Kepler-70b (formerly known as its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-55.01; sometimes listed as KOI-55 b) is an exoplanet discovered orbiting the subdwarf B star (sdB) Kepler-70.

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Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics

The Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics was a school of mathematics and astronomy founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Kerala, India, which included among its members: Parameshvara, Neelakanta Somayaji, Jyeshtadeva, Achyuta Pisharati, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri and Achyuta Panikkar.

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Ketu (mythology)

Ketu (Sanskrit: केतु, IAST) is the descending (i.e 'south') lunar node in Vedic, or Hindu astrology.

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Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Kuiper belt

The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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List of exoplanets

This is a list of exoplanets.

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List of hypothetical Solar System objects

A hypothetical Solar System object is a planet, natural satellite or similar body in the Solar System whose existence is not known, but has been inferred from observational scientific evidence.

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List of landings on extraterrestrial bodies

This is a list of all spacecraft landings on other planets and bodies in the Solar System, including soft landings and both intended and unintended hard impacts.

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List of multiplanetary systems

From the total of stars known to have exoplanets (as of), there are a total of known multiplanetary systems, or stars with at least two confirmed planets, beyond the Solar System.

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Lists of planets

The following are lists of planets.

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Longitude of the ascending node

The longitude of the ascending node (☊ or Ω) is one of the orbital elements used to specify the orbit of an object in space.

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Low-pressure area

A low-pressure area, low, or depression, is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations.

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Lunar node

The lunar nodes are the orbital nodes of the Moon, that is, the two points at which the orbit of the Moon crosses the ecliptic.

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MacTutor History of Mathematics archive

The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive is a website maintained by John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson and hosted by the University of St Andrews in Scotland.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Magnetic moment

The magnetic moment is a quantity that represents the magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field.

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Main sequence

In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.

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Mangala (Sanskrit: मङ्गल, IAST) is the name for Mars, the red planet, lord of Mangal Dosha, in Hindu texts.

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Mantle (geology)

The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.

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Maragheh observatory

Maragheh observatory (رصدخانه مراغه), was an institutionalized astronomical observatory which was established in 1259 CE under the patronage of the Ilkhanid Hulagu and the directorship of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, a Persian scientist and astronomer.

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Marduk (cuneiform: dAMAR.UTU; Sumerian: amar utu.k "calf of the sun; solar calf"; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios) was a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mars (mythology)

In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars (Mārs) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.

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Mercury (mythology)

Mercury (Latin: Mercurius) is a major god in Roman religion and mythology, being one of the Dii Consentes within the ancient Roman pantheon.

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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.

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Mesoplanets are planetary bodies with sizes smaller than Mercury but larger than Ceres.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Metal (Wu Xing)

Metal, the fourth phase of the Chinese philosophy of Wu Xing, is the decline of the matter, or the matter's decline stage.

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Metallic hydrogen

Metallic hydrogen is a phase of hydrogen in which it behaves like an electrical conductor.

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In astronomy, metallicity is used to describe the abundance of elements present in an object that are heavier than hydrogen or helium.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Michel Mayor

Michel G.E. Mayor (born 12 January 1942, Lausanne) is a Swiss astrophysicist and professor emeritus at the University of Geneva's Department of Astronomy.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Milky Way

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.

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A mini-Neptune or sub-Neptune (sometimes known as a gas dwarf or transitional planet) is a planet of up to 10 Earth masses, less massive than Uranus and Neptune, which have about 14.5 and 17, respectively.

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Minor planet

A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun (or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.

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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.

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The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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Moons of Jupiter

There are 69 known moons of Jupiter.

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Moons of Mars

The two moons of Mars are Phobos and Deimos.

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Moons of Neptune

Neptune has 14 known moons, which are named for minor water deities in Greek mythology.

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Moons of Saturn

The moons of Saturn are numerous and diverse, ranging from tiny moonlets less than 1 kilometer across to the enormous Titan, which is larger than the planet Mercury.

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Moons of Uranus

Uranus is the seventh planet of the Solar System; it has 27 known moons, all of which are named after characters from the works of William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope.

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MUL.APIN is the conventional title given to a Babylonian compendium that deals with many diverse aspects of Babylonian astronomy and astrology.

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Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.

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Nabu (cuneiform: 𒀭𒀝 Nabū ܢܒܘ) is the ancient Mesopotamian patron god of literacy, the rational arts, scribes and wisdom.

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Names of the days of the week

The names of the days of the week in many languages are derived from the names of the classical planets in Hellenistic astrology, which were in turn named after contemporary deities, a system introduced by the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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NASA Exoplanet Archive

The NASA Exoplanet Archive is an online astronomical exoplanet catalog and data service that collects and serves public data that support the search for and characterization of extra-solar planets (exoplanets) and their host stars.

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Natural abundance

In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.

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Natural satellite

A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Navagraha means "nine planets" in Sanskrit and are nine astronomical bodies as well as mythical deities in Hinduism and Hindu astrology.

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A nebula (Latin for "cloud" or "fog"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.

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Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.

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Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

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Neptune (mythology)

Neptune (Neptūnus) was the god of freshwater and the sea in Roman religion.

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Nergal, Nirgal, or Nirgali (Sumerian: dGÌR-UNUG-GAL;; Aramaic ܢܹܪܓܵܐܠ; Nergel) was a deity worshipped throughout Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia) with the main seat of his worship at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim.

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Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

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Nilakantha Somayaji

Kelallur Nilakantha Somayaji (also referred to as Kelallur Comatiri; 14 June 1444 – 1544) was a major mathematician and astronomer of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics in India.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).

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Observational astronomy

Observational astronomy is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models.

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In Germanic mythology, Odin (from Óðinn /ˈoːðinː/) is a widely revered god.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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An omen (also called portent or presage) is a phenomenon that is believed to foretell the future, often signifying the advent of change.

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Open cluster

An open cluster is a group of up to a few thousand stars that were formed from the same giant molecular cloud and have roughly the same age.

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Oph 162225-240515

Oph 162225-240515, often abbreviated Oph1622, and also known as Oph 11, is a pair of brown dwarfs that have been reported as orbiting each other.

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In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.

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Orbital eccentricity

The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.

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Orbital inclination

Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.

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Orbital node

An orbital node is either of the two points where an orbit intersects a plane of reference to which it is inclined.

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Orbital period

The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.

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Orbital resonance

In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers.

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OTS 44

OTS 44 is a free-floating planetary-mass object or brown dwarf located at in the constellation Chamaeleon.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).

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Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.

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Perihelion and aphelion

The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.

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Phaenon (Greek: Φαίνων) in Greek mythology is the sky god of Kronion, the planet Saturn.

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In Greek mythology, Phaethon (Φαέθων, Phaéthōn), was the son of the Oceanid Clymene and the solar deity Helios.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Phosphorus (morning star)

Phosphorus (Greek Φωσφόρος Phōsphoros) is the Morning Star, the planet Venus in its morning appearance.

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Photoevaporation denotes the process where energetic radiation ionises gas and causes it to disperse away from the ionising source.

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Plane of reference

In celestial mechanics, the plane of reference (or reference plane) is the plane used to define orbital elements (positions).

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Planetary core

The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be composed of solid and liquid layers.

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Planetary differentiation

In planetary science, planetary differentiation is the process of separating out different constituents of a planetary body as a consequence of their physical or chemical behaviour, where the body develops into compositionally distinct layers; the denser materials of a planet sink to the center, while less dense materials rise to the surface, generally in a magma ocean.

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Planetary habitability

Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to have habitable environments hospitable to life, or its ability to generate life endogenously.

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Planetary mass

Planetary mass is a measure of the mass of a planet-like object.

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Planetary mnemonic

A planetary mnemonic refers to a phrase used to remember the planets and dwarf planets of the Solar System, with the order of words corresponding to increasing sidereal periods of the bodies.

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Planetary science

Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.

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Planetary system

A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in or out of orbit around a star or star system.

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Planetesimals are solid objects thought to exist in protoplanetary disks and in debris disks.

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Planets beyond Neptune

Following the discovery of the planet Neptune in 1846, there was considerable speculation that another planet might exist beyond its orbit.

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Planets in astrology

Planets in astrology have a meaning different from the modern astronomical understanding of what a planet is.

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Planets in science fiction

Planets in science fiction are fictional planets that appear in various media of the science fiction genre as story-settings or depicted locations.

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Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.

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Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth.

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Poynting–Robertson effect

The Poynting–Robertson effect, also known as Poynting–Robertson drag, named after John Henry Poynting and Howard P. Robertson, is a process by which solar radiation causes a dust grain orbiting a star to lose angular momentum relative to its orbit around the star.

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Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Proto-Indo-European religion

Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.

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A protoplanet is a large planetary embryo that originated within a protoplanetary disc and has undergone internal melting to produce a differentiated interior.

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Protoplanetary disk

A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.

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A protostar is a very young star that is still gathering mass from its parent molecular cloud.

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PSR B1257+12

PSR B1257+12, previously designated PSR 1257+12, alternatively designated PSR J1300+1240, also named Lich, is a pulsar located 2,300 light years from the Sun in the constellation of Virgo.

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PSR B1257+12 A

PSR B1257+12 b, alternatively designated PSR B1257+12 A, also named Draugr, is an extrasolar planet approximately 2,300 light-years away in the constellation of Virgo.

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PSR J1719-1438

PSR J1719-1438 is a millisecond pulsar with a spin period of 5.8 ms located about 4,000 ly from Earth in the direction of Serpens Cauda, one minute from the border with Ophiuchus.

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Ptolemaic Kingdom

The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.

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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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A pulsar (from pulse and -ar as in quasar) is a highly magnetized rotating neutron star or white dwarf that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation.

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Pyroeis (Greek: Πυρόεις) in Greek mythology is the sky god of Areios, the planet Mars.

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Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.

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Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics and mysticism.

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Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi

Qotb al-Din Mahmoud b. Zia al-Din Mas'ud b. Mosleh Shirazi (1236—1311) (قطب‌الدین محمود بن ضیاالدین مسعود بن مصلح شیرازی) was a 13th-century Iranian polymath and poet who made contributions to astronomy, mathematics, medicine, physics, music theory, philosophy and Sufism.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Rāhu (Sanskrit: राहु)() is one of the nine major astronomical bodies (navagraha) in Indian texts.

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Raymond Lyttleton

Raymond Arthur Lyttleton FRS (May 7, 1911 – May 16, 1995) was a British mathematician and theoretical astronomer.

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Religious cosmology

A religious cosmology (also mythological cosmology) is a way of explaining the origin, the history and the evolution of the cosmos or universe based on the religious mythology of a specific tradition.

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Retrograde and prograde motion

Retrograde motion in astronomy is, in general, orbital or rotational motion of an object in the direction opposite the rotation of its primary, that is the central object (right figure).

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Rhea (moon)

Rhea (Ῥέᾱ) is the second-largest moon of Saturn and the ninth-largest moon in the Solar System.

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Ring system

A ring system is a disc or ring orbiting an astronomical object that is composed of solid material such as dust and moonlets, and is a common component of satellite systems around giant planets.

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Rings of Jupiter

The planet Jupiter has a system of rings known as the rings of Jupiter or the Jovian ring system.

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Rings of Neptune

The rings of Neptune consist primarily of five principal rings and were first discovered (as "arcs") in 1984 in Chile by Patrice Bouchet, Reinhold Häfner and Jean Manfroid at La Silla Observatory (ESO) during an observing program proposed by André Brahic and Bruno Sicardy from Paris Observatory, and at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory by F. Vilas and L.-R. Elicer for a program led by William Hubbard.

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Rings of Saturn

The rings of Saturn are the most extensive ring system of any planet in the Solar System.

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Rings of Uranus

The rings of Uranus are a system of rings around the planet Uranus, intermediate in complexity between the more extensive set around Saturn and the simpler systems around Jupiter and Neptune.

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Roche limit

In celestial mechanics, the Roche limit, also called Roche radius, is the distance in which a celestial body, held together only by its own gravity, will disintegrate due to a second celestial body's tidal forces exceeding the first body's gravitational self-attraction.

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Rock (geology)

Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

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Rogue planet

A rogue planet (also termed an interstellar planet, nomad planet, free-floating planet, orphan planet, wandering planet, starless planet, or sunless planet) is a planetary-mass object that orbits a galactic center directly.

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Roman calendar

The Roman calendar was the calendar used by the Roman kingdom and republic.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman mythology

Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Rotation around a fixed axis

Rotation around a fixed axis or about a fixed axis of revolution or motion with respect to a fixed axis of rotation is a special case of rotational motion.

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Rotation period

In astronomy, the rotation period of a celestial object is the time that it takes to complete one revolution around its axis of rotation relative to the background stars.

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Royal Astronomical Society of Canada

The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (RASC) is a national, non-profit, charitable organization devoted to the advancement of astronomy and related sciences.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Saturn (mythology)

Saturn (Saturnus) is a god in ancient Roman religion, and a character in myth as a god of generation, dissolution, plenty, wealth, agriculture, periodic renewal and liberation.

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Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.

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In Greek mythology, Selene ("Moon") is the goddess of the moon.

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Semi-major and semi-minor axes

In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.

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Shani (शनि) refers to the planet Saturn, and is one of the nine heavenly objects known as Navagraha in Hindu astrology.

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Shukra (Sanskrit: शुक्र, IAST) is a Sanskrit word that means "lucid, clear, bright".

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In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.

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Small Solar System body

A small Solar System body (SSSB) is an object in the Solar System that is neither a planet, nor a dwarf planet, nor a natural satellite.

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Solar analog

Solar-type star, solar analogs (also analogues), and solar twins are stars that are particularly similar to the Sun.

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Solar irradiance

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Solar wind

The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.

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A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.

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South India

South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.

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Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.

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Space Age

The Space Age is a time period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race, space exploration, space technology, and the cultural developments influenced by these events.

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Space probe

A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.

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Space telescope

A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Star cluster

Star clusters are groups of stars.

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Star formation

Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse and form stars.

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Stellar classification

In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.

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Stellar population

During 1944, Walter Baade categorized groups of stars within the Milky Way into bluer stars associated with the spiral arms and the general position of yellow stars near the central galactic bulge or within globular star clusters.

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Steven Soter

Steven Soter is an astrophysicist currently holding the positions of scientist-in-residence for New York University's Environmental Studies Program and of Research Associate for the Department of Astrophysics at the American Museum of Natural History.

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Stilbon (mythology)

Stilbon (Greek: Στιλβών) in ancient Greek religion is the sky god of Hermaon, the planet Mercury.

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Stochastic process

--> In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables.

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Sub-brown dwarf

A sub-brown dwarf or planetary-mass brown dwarf is an astronomical object that formed in the same manner as stars and brown dwarfs (i.e. through the collapse of a gas cloud) but that has a mass below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium (about). Some researchers call them free-floating planets whereas others call them planetary-mass brown dwarfs.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas.

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A super-Earth is an extrasolar planet with a mass higher than Earth's, but substantially below the masses of the Solar System's ice giants, Uranus and Neptune, which have masses of 15 and 17 times Earth's, respectively.

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A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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Supernova remnant

A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.

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Surya (सूर्य, IAST: ‘'Sūrya’') is a Sanskrit word that means the Sun.

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Tantrasamgraha, or Tantrasangraha, (literally, A Compilation of the System) is an important astronomical treatise written by Nilakantha Somayaji, an astronomer/mathematician belonging to the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics.

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Týr (Old Norse: Týr short.

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Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.

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A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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Terra (mythology)

In ancient Roman religion and myth, Tellus Mater or Terra Mater ("Mother Earth") is a goddess of the earth.

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Terrestrial planet

A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.

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Tethys (moon)

Tethys (or Saturn III) is a mid-sized moon of Saturn about across.

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Theoretical planetology

Theoretical planetology, also known as theoretical planetary science is a branch of planetary sciences that developed in the 20th century.

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Thermonuclear fusion

Thermonuclear fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures.

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In Norse mythology, Thor (from Þórr) is the hammer-wielding god of thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, in addition to hallowing, and fertility.

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Tidal force

The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.

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Tidal locking

Tidal locking (also called gravitational locking or captured rotation) occurs when the long-term interaction between a pair of co-orbiting astronomical bodies drives the rotation rate of at least one of them into the state where there is no more net transfer of angular momentum between this body (e.g. a planet) and its orbit around the second body (e.g. a star); this condition of "no net transfer" must be satisfied over the course of one orbit around the second body.

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Titan (moon)

Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.

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Titan (mythology)

In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.

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Trans-Neptunian object

A trans-Neptunian object (TNO, also written transneptunian object) is any minor planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance (semi-major axis) than Neptune, 30 astronomical units (AU).

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Transit of Mercury

A transit of Mercury across the Sun takes place when the planet Mercury passes directly between the Sun and a superior planet, becoming visible against (and hence obscuring a small portion of) the solar disk.

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Transit of Venus

A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and a superior planet, becoming visible against (and hence obscuring a small portion of) the solar disk.

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Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite

The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a space telescope for NASA's Explorers program, designed to search for exoplanets using the transit method in an area 400 times larger than that covered by the Kepler mission.

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Tropical cyclone

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.

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True mass

The term true mass is synonymous with the term mass, but is used in astronomy to differentiate the measured mass of a planet from the lower limit of mass usually obtained from radial velocity techniques.

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Twelve Olympians

relief (1st century BCendash1st century AD) depicting the twelve Olympians carrying their attributes in procession; from left to right, Hestia (scepter), Hermes (winged cap and staff), Aphrodite (veiled), Ares (helmet and spear), Demeter (scepter and wheat sheaf), Hephaestus (staff), Hera (scepter), Poseidon (trident), Athena (owl and helmet), Zeus (thunderbolt and staff), Artemis (bow and quiver), Apollo (lyre), from the Walters Art Museum.Walters Art Museum, http://art.thewalters.org/detail/38764 accession number 23.40. In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the twelve Olympians are the major deities of the Greek pantheon, commonly considered to be Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus.

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Tycho Brahe

Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.

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Tychonic system

The Tychonic system (or Tychonian system) is a model of the Solar system published by Tycho Brahe in the late 16th century which combines what he saw as the mathematical benefits of the Copernican system with the philosophical and "physical" benefits of the Ptolemaic system.

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University of Geneva

The University of Geneva (French: Université de Genève) is a public research university located in Geneva, Switzerland.

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Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.

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Uranus (mythology)

Uranus (Ancient Greek Οὐρανός, Ouranos meaning "sky" or "heaven") was the primal Greek god personifying the sky and one of the Greek primordial deities.

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Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Venus (mythology)

Venus (Classical Latin) is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory.

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Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa

The Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa (Enuma Anu Enlil Tablet 63) refers to the record of astronomical observations of Venus, as preserved in numerous cuneiform tablets dating from the first millennium BC.

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Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere.

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A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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WASP-17b is an exoplanet in the constellation Scorpius that is orbiting the star WASP-17.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Water (classical element)

Water is one of the elements in ancient Greek philosophy, in the Asian Indian system Panchamahabhuta, and in the Chinese cosmological and physiological system Wu Xing.

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Western astrology

Western astrology is the system of astrology most popular in Western countries.

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Wood (Wu Xing)

In Chinese philosophy, wood, sometimes translated as Tree, is the growing of the matter, or the matter's growing stage.

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Wu Xing

The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..

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X-ray pulsar

X-ray pulsars or accretion-powered pulsars are a class of astronomical objects that are X-ray sources displaying strict periodic variations in X-ray intensity.

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Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.

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10 Hygiea

10 Hygiea is the fourth-largest asteroid in the Solar System by volume and mass, and it is located in the asteroid belt.

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11 Parthenope

11 Parthenope is a large, bright main-belt asteroid.

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12 Victoria

12 Victoria is a large main-belt asteroid.

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13 Egeria

13 Egeria is a large main-belt G-type asteroid.

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14 Irene

14 Irene is a large main-belt asteroid, discovered by John Russell Hind on May 19, 1851.

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15 Eunomia

15 Eunomia is a very large asteroid in the inner asteroid belt.

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1RXS J160929.1−210524

1RXS J160929.1-210524 (also known as GSC 6213-1358 or PZ99 J160930.3-210459) is a pre-main-sequence star nearly 470 light-years away in the constellation of Scorpius.

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2 Pallas

Pallas, minor-planet designation 2 Pallas, is the second asteroid to have been discovered (after Ceres), and is one of the largest asteroids in the Solar System.

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2M1207b is a planetary-mass object orbiting the brown dwarf 2M1207, in the constellation Centaurus, approximately 170 light-years from Earth.

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2MASS J04414489+2301513

2MASS J04414489+2301513 (often abbreviated as 2M J044144) is a young brown dwarf approximately 470 light years (145 parsecs) away with an orbiting companion about 5–10 times the mass of Jupiter.

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3 Juno

Juno, minor-planet designation 3 Juno in the Minor Planet Center catalogue system, is an asteroid in the asteroid belt.

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4 Vesta

Vesta, minor-planet designation 4 Vesta, is one of the largest objects in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of.

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5 Astraea

5 Astraea is a large asteroid from the asteroid belt.

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50000 Quaoar

50000 Quaoar, provisional designation, is a non-resonant trans-Neptunian object (cubewano) and possibly a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, located in the outermost region of the Solar System.

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51 Pegasi

51 Pegasi (abbreviated 51 Peg), also named Helvetios, is a Sun-like star located from Earth in the constellation of Pegasus.

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6 Hebe

6 Hebe is a large main-belt asteroid, containing around half a percent of the mass of the belt.

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7 Iris

7 Iris is a large main-belt asteroid orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter.

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8 Flora

8 Flora is a large, bright main-belt asteroid.

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9 Metis

9 Metis is one of the larger main-belt asteroids.

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90377 Sedna

90377 Sedna is a large minor planet in the outer reaches of the Solar System that was,, at a distance of about 86 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun, about three times as far as Neptune.

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Classification of planets, Escaping the Earth, Foreign planet, Former planet, Former planets, Length of the days and years of the planets, List of Solar System bodies formerly considered planets, List of Solar System bodies formerly regarded as planets, List of solar system bodies formerly considered planets, Major Planets, Major planet, Major planets, Names of planets, PLANETS, Planemo, Planemos, Planet names, Planet-sam, Planetary bodies, Planetary mass object, Planetary mass objects, Planetary-mass object, Planets, Rotation of planets, Satellite planet, X-ray dark planet.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planet

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