153 relations: Abundance (ecology), Aeroplankton, Africa, Algae, Algal bloom, Amphipoda, Animal, Annelid, Anoxic waters, Antarctic krill, Archaea, Arid, Atlantic Ocean, Autotroph, Bacteria, Bacterioplankton, Benthos, Biogeochemical cycle, Biogeochemistry, Biological life cycle, Biological pump, Biomass (ecology), Carbon, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere, Carbon sink, Cellular respiration, Cephalopod, Chaetognatha, Chemical element, Chemosynthesis, Chlorophyta, Chrysophyta, Ciliate, Cladocera, Coccolithophore, Copepod, Crustacean, Ctenophora, Cyanobacteria, Density, Detritus, Diatom, Diel vertical migration, Dinoflagellate, Earth science, Ecological niche, Ecosystem, Egg, El Niño, ..., Equivalent spherical diameter, Eukaryote, Fish, Fishery, Flagellate, Food chain, Food web, Foraminifera, Fresh water, Fungus, Gelatinous zooplankton, Greek language, Heteropoda, Heterotroph, High-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions, Holoplankton, Human impact on the environment, Hydrosphere, Ichthyoplankton, Iron, Iron fertilization, Janthinidae, Jellyfish, Knight-errant, Krill, Larva, Light, Marine bacteriophage, Marine mammal, Marine snow, Meroplankton, Metabolism, Methanogen, Micrometre, Micronutrient, Microorganism, Microscopic scale, Mixotroph, Mycoplankton, Nekton, Nitrate, Notothenioidei, Nutrient, Nutrient cycle, Ocean, Ocean acidification, Ocean current, Orders of magnitude (length), Organism, Ostracod, Oxygen, Paradox of the plankton, Pelagic zone, Phosphate, Photosynthesis, Phylogenetics, Phytoplankton, Picoplankton, Planktology, Plant, Pleuston, Polychaete, Precambrian, Primary production, Prokaryote, Protist, Protozoa, Pteropoda, Pyrosome, Remineralisation, Reynolds number, Rotifer, Sahara, Salp, Sea, Sea foam, Sea urchin, Seawater, Seston, Silicate, Siphonophorae, Species, Species distribution, Spring bloom, Squid, Starfish, Stratification (water), Subtropics, Taxonomy (biology), Tintinnid, Tomopteris, Trade winds, Trophic level, Tropics, Tunicate, Veliger, Victor Hensen, Water column, Whale, Worm, Yellow-green algae, Yolk, Zooplankton. Expand index (103 more) » « Shrink index
In ecology, abundance is the relative representation of a species in a particular ecosystem.
Aeroplankton (or aerial plankton) are tiny lifeforms that float and drift in the air, carried by the current of the wind; they are the atmospheric analogue to oceanic plankton.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.
Amphipoda is an order of malacostracan crustaceans with no carapace and generally with laterally compressed bodies.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.
Anoxic waters are areas of sea water, fresh water, or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of hypoxia.
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a species of krill found in the Antarctic waters of the Southern Ocean.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterioplankton refers to the bacterial component of the plankton that drifts in the water column.
Benthos is the community of organisms that live on, in, or near the seabed, also known as the benthic zone.
In geography and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.
Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere).
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
The biological pump, in its simplest form, is the ocean's biologically driven sequestration of carbon from the atmosphere to deep sea water and sediment.
Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere.
A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
Chaetognatha, meaning bristle-jaws, and commonly known as arrow worms, is a phylum of predatory marine worms which are a major component of plankton worldwide.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.
Chlorophyta is a division of green algae, informally called chlorophytes.
Chrysophyta is a term used to refer to certain heterokonts.
The ciliates are a group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia, which are identical in structure to eukaryotic flagella, but are in general shorter and present in much larger numbers, with a different undulating pattern than flagella.
The Cladocera are an order of small crustaceans commonly called water fleas.
A coccolithophore (or coccolithophorid, from the adjective) is a unicellular, eukaryotic phytoplankton (alga).
Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'to carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
In biology, detritus is dead particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material).
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
Diel vertical migration (DVM), also known as diurnal vertical migration, is a pattern of movement used by some organisms, such as copepods, living in the ocean and in lakes.
The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.
In science, the equivalent spherical diameter (or ESD) of an irregularly shaped object is the diameter of a sphere of equivalent volume.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.
A flagellate is a cell or organism with one or more whip-like appendages called flagella.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community.
Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gelatinous zooplankton are fragile animals that live in the water column in the ocean.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Heteropoda is a genus of spiders in the family Sparassidae, the huntsman spiders.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
High-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions are regions of the ocean where the abundance of phytoplankton is low and fairly constant despite the availability of macronutrients.
Holoplankton are organisms that are planktic (they live in the water column and cannot swim against a current) for their entire life cycle.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
Ichthyoplankton (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthus, "fish"; and πλαγκτός, planktos, "drifter") are the eggs and larvae of fish.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron fertilization is the intentional introduction of iron fines to iron-poor areas of the ocean surface to stimulate phytoplankton production.
Janthinidae, common name the purple snails or violet snails, are a family of pelagic sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the informal group Ptenoglossa of the clade Hypsogastropoda.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
A knight-errant (or knight errant) is a figure of medieval chivalric romance literature.
Krill are small crustaceans of the order Euphausiacea, and are found in all the world's oceans.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Marine bacteriophages or marine phages are viruses that live as obligate parasitic agents in marine bacteria such as cyanobacteria.
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
In the deep ocean, marine snow is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column.
Meroplankton is a term used to describe a wide variety of planktonic organisms, which spend a portion of their lives in the benthic region of the ocean.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.
A mixotroph is an organism that can use a mix of different sources of energy and carbon, instead of having a single trophic mode on the continuum from complete autotrophy at one end to heterotrophy at the other.
Mycoplankton are saprotropic members of the plankton communities of marine and freshwater ecosystems.
Nekton or necton refers to the aggregate of actively swimming aquatic organisms in a body of water.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Notothenioidei is one of 18 suborders from the order Perciformes and includes Antarctic fish and sub-Antarctic fish.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
A nutrient cycle (or ecological recycling) is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of matter.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Ostracods, or ostracodes, are a class of the Crustacea (class Ostracoda), sometimes known as seed shrimp.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
In aquatic biology, the paradox of the plankton describes the situation in which a limited range of resources supports an unexpectedly wide range of plankton species, apparently flouting the competitive exclusion principle which holds that when two species compete for the same resource, one will be driven to extinction.
The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
Picoplankton is the fraction of plankton composed by cells between 0.2 and 2 μm that can be either prokaryotic and eukaryotic phototrophs and heterotrophs.
Planktology is the study of plankton, various small drifting plants, animals and microorganisms that inhabit bodies of water.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
The water strider, a common pleuston Pleuston are the organisms that live in the thin surface layer existing at the air-water interface of a body of water as their habitat.
The Polychaeta, also known as the bristle worms or polychaetes, are a paraphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Pteropoda (common name pteropods, from the Greek meaning "wing-foot") are specialized free-swimming pelagic sea snails and sea slugs, marine opisthobranch gastropods.
Pyrosomes, genus Pyrosoma, are free-floating colonial tunicates that live usually in the upper layers of the open ocean in warm seas, although some may be found at greater depths.
In biogeochemistry, remineralization (US, UK Spelling: remineralisation) refers to the breakdown or transformation of organic matter (those molecules derived from a biological source) into its simplest inorganic forms.
The Reynolds number is an important dimensionless quantity in fluid mechanics used to help predict flow patterns in different fluid flow situations.
The rotifers (Rotifera, commonly called wheel animals) make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
A salp (plural salps), salpa (plural salpae or salpas), is a barrel-shaped, planktonic tunicate.
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
Sea foam, ocean foam, beach foam, or spume is a type of foam created by the agitation of seawater, particularly when it contains higher concentrations of dissolved organic matter (including proteins, lignins, and lipids)James G. Acker, CoastalBC.com.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Seston is the organisms (bioseston) and non-living matter (abioseston or tripton) swimming or floating in a water body.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
The Siphonophorae or Siphonophora, the siphonophores, are an order of the hydrozoans, a class of marine animals belonging to the phylum Cnidaria.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Species distribution is the manner in which a biological taxon is spatially arranged.
The spring bloom is a strong increase in phytoplankton abundance (i.e. stock) that typically occurs in the early spring and lasts until late spring or early summer.
Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.
Water stratification is when water masses with different properties - salinity (halocline), oxygenation (chemocline), density (pycnocline), temperature (thermocline) - form layers that act as barriers to water mixing which could lead to anoxia or euxinia.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Tintinnids are ciliates of the choreotrich taxon Tintinnida, distinguished by vase-shaped shells, the name deriving from a Latin source meaning a small tinkling bell, that are called loricae, which are mostly protein but may incorporate minute pieces of minerals.
Tomopteris (Neo-Latin from Greek meaning "a cut" + "wing" but taken to mean "fin") is a genus of marine planktonic polychaetes.
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.
The trophic level of an organism is the position it occupies in a food chain.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
A tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal, a member of the subphylum Tunicata, which is part of the Chordata, a phylum which includes all animals with dorsal nerve cords and notochords.
A veliger is the planktonic larva of many kinds of sea snails and freshwater snails, as well as most bivalve molluscs (clams) and tusk shells.
Christian Andreas Victor Hensen (10 February 1835 – 5 April 1924) was a German zoologist (planktology).
A water column is a conceptual column of water from the surface of a sea, river or lake to the bottom sediment.
Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
Worms are many different distantly related animals that typically have a long cylindrical tube-like body and no limbs.
Yellow-green algae or the Xanthophyceae (xanthophytes) are an important group of heterokont algae.
Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.