453 relations: Acetate, Acritarch, Aerobic organism, Aglaophyton, Agriculture, Agronomy, Alfred Wegener, Algae, Algal mat, Allergic rhinitis, Alpine climate, Alternation of generations, Amber, Ancient Egypt, Anemophily, Animal, Annual plant, Anoxic waters, Ant, Antarctic flora, Antifreeze protein, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arboretum, Archaea, Archaeopteris, Archaeplastida, Arecaceae, Aristotle, Asexual reproduction, Aspirin, ATM serine/threonine kinase, Autotroph, Bacteria, Baragwanathia, Barbara McClintock, BBC, Bean, Biennial plant, Biofuel, Biogeochemical cycle, Biological dispersal, Biology, Biome, Biosphere, Bonsai, Botanical garden, Botany, Branch, Bromeliaceae, Brown algae, ..., Bryophyte, Bryopsidales, Building material, Calcification, Cambrian, Cambridge University Press, Cannabinoid, Cannabis sativa, Carbon dioxide, Carl Linnaeus, Carnivorous plant, Cassava, Cell division, Cell nucleus, Cell plate, Cell potency, Cell Press, Cell wall, Cellular respiration, Cellulose, Cenozoic, Centriole, Cereal, Chaetosphaeridiales, Charales, Charophyta, Chemical compound, Chlorokybus, Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyll, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Chlorophyta, Chloroplast, Chlorosis, Chromosome, Clade, Cladogram, Cladophorales, Cladoxylopsida, Coal, Coal measures, Coca, Cocaine, Coevolution, Colchicine, Coleochaetophyceae, Continental drift, Continental shelf, Controlled ecological life-support system, Cooksonia, Cork (material), Cotton, Cultivated plant taxonomy, Cyanobacteria, Cycad, Cyperus papyrus, Cytokinesis, Dasycladales, De Materia Medica, Deciduous, Dehydration, Dendrochronology, Desiccation, Desmidiales, Devonian, Digitalis, Dinoflagellate, DNA damage (naturally occurring), DNA repair, Domestication, DPVweb, Drosera, Drug, Dry season, E. O. Wilson, Echinacea, Ecoregion, Embryophyte, Endophyte, Endosymbiont, Epichloë coenophiala, Epidermis (botany), Epiphyte, Equisetopsida, Ernst Haeckel, Erosion, Espalier, Essential oil, Ethnobotany, Etiolation, Euglenid, Eukaryote, Evergreen, Evolutionary grade, Evolutionary history of plants, Feces, Fern, Fertilizer, Festuca arundinacea, Firewood, Flax, Floral emblem, Floridean starch, Flower, Flowering plant, Food, Food web, Forest, Forestry, Fossil, Fossil fuel, Fossil Grove, Frederick Orpen Bower, Freezing, Frost, Fruit, Fungus, Gametophyte, Garden, Garden tourism, Gardening, Gene, Genetics, Genome, Geologic time scale, Germination, Ginkgo biloba, Ginkgoales, Glasgow, Glaucophyte, Glomerales, Glossopteris, Glucose, Gnetophyta, Grain, Grassland, Greek language, Green algae, Greenhouse, Gregor Mendel, Growing season, Gum (botany), Gymnosperm, Hanami, Haptophyte, Heat shock protein, Hemicellulose, Hemiepiphyte, Herbalism, Herbert Copeland, Herbivore, Heterokont, Heterospory, Heterotroph, History of agriculture, Horneophytopsida, Hornwort, Horticultural therapy, Horticulture, Houseplant, Human genome, Hypericum perforatum, Hypha, Hypoxia (environmental), Ikebana, Industrial crop, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, Invasive species, IUCN Red List, Kew Gardens, Kingdom (biology), Klebsormidiaceae, Kudzu, Language of flowers, Lapidary, Late embryogenesis abundant proteins, Latex, Lathraea, Lawn, Leaf, Leaf sensor, Legume, Lepidodendron, Leptosporangiate fern, Light, Lipid, List of domesticated animals, List of fictional plants, List of individual trees, List of plants used in herbalism, List of poisonous plants, List of systems of plant taxonomy, List of U.S. state and territory trees, Lithophyte, Lycopodiophyta, Lycopodiopsida, Lynn Margulis, Magnesium, Magnolia, Mangrove, Marattiidae, Marchantiophyta, Medication, Medicinal plants, Meristem, Mesostigmatophyceae, Mesozoic, Microbiology, Microsoft Silverlight, Mimosa pudica, Mistletoe, Mitochondrion, Mitosis, Model organism, Morphine, Moss, Most recent common ancestor, Multicellular organism, Mushroom, Musical instrument, Mutualism (biology), Myco-heterotrophy, Mycorrhiza, Mycotroph, Myrmecophyte, NASA, National Cherry Blossom Festival, National emblem, National Geographic Society, National park, Natural dye, Natural gas, Nature (journal), Nectar, Nicotine, Nitrogen, Nitrogen cycle, Nitrogen fixation, Nutrient, Nymphaea lotus, Oak, Olive oil, Opium, Orchidaceae, Ordovician, Organic compound, Organic matter, Organic synthesis, Ornamental plant, Orobanche, Ovule, Oxygen, Paclitaxel, Paleozoic, Papaver somniferum, Paraphyly, Parasitic plant, Parasitism, Park, Pea, Peat, Pectin, Pedanius Dioscorides, Perennial plant, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Petrifaction, Petrified wood, Petroleum, Pharmacopoeia, Phloem, Phosphorus, Photosynthesis, Phragmites, Phragmoplast, Phragmoplastophyta, Phylogenetic tree, Phytolith, Phytoplankton, Phytotelma, Picea abies, Pigment, Pinophyta, Plant cognition, Plant cuticle, Plant defense against herbivory, Plant identification, Plant pathology, Plant reproductive morphology, Plant stem, Plants in culture, Plants in space, Plastid, Ploidy, Pollen, Pollination, Polysporangiophyte, Population, Potassium, Potato, Prasinophyceae, Precambrian, Progymnosperm, Prokaryote, Psilotopsida, Psychoactive drug, Pteridophyte, Pteridospermatophyta, Pulp (paper), Quinine, Rainforest, Ramie, Rayon, Reactive oxygen species, Red algae, Reserpine, Resin, Resurrection plant, Rhynie chert, Rhyniophytina, Rice, Robert Whittaker, Root, Saprotrophic nutrition, Science (journal), Sea lettuce, Seaweed, Secondary metabolite, Sedimentary rock, Seed, Sequoia sempervirens, Sexual reproduction, Silicon dioxide, Silurian, Smoking, Soil, Soil erosion, Soil gas, Southern Hemisphere, Species, Spermatophyte, Spirogyra, Spirotaenia, Spore, Sporophyte, Staple food, Starch, Stoma, Stomatophyta, Strangler fig, Streptophyta, Subarctic climate, Sucrose, Sugar, Sunlight, Symbiosis, Syncytium, Taiga, Tanacetum parthenium, Tannin, Targionia (plant), Taxon, Taxonomy (biology), Temperate climate, Temperature, The Plant List, Thread (yarn), Tobacco, Topiary, Toxalbumin, Toxicodendron radicans, Trebouxiophyceae, Tree, Trees in mythology, Trends (journals), Tropical rainforest, Tropics, Tulip mania, Tundra, Ulvophyceae, Urban area, Utricularia gibba, Vacuole, Vascular plant, Vascular tissue, Vegetable, Vegetable oil, Venus flytrap, Victoria Park, Glasgow, Vincristine, Viridiplantae, Vitamin, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Water, Water cycle, Weed, Wheat, Wood, Writing material, Xylem, Zosterophyllopsida, Zygnematophyceae. 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An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
Acritarchs are organic microfossils, present from approximately to the present.
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.
Aglaophyton major (or more correctly Aglaophyton majus) was the sporophyte generation of a diplohaplontic, pre-vascular, axial, free-sporing land plant of the Lower Devonian (Pragian stage, around). It had anatomical features intermediate between those of the bryophytes and vascular plants or tracheophytes.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agronomy (Ancient Greek ἀγρός agrós 'field' + νόμος nómos 'law') is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation.
Alfred Lothar Wegener (–) was a German polar researcher, geophysicist and meteorologist.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Algal mat is one of many types of microbial mat formed on the water surface or on the surface of rocks.
Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.
Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.
Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis) is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct sexual haploid and asexual diploid stages.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Anemophily or wind pollination is a form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by wind.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies.
Anoxic waters are areas of sea water, fresh water, or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of hypoxia.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
The Antarctic flora is a distinct community of vascular plants which evolved millions of years ago on the supercontinent of Gondwana.
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or ice structuring proteins (ISPs) refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain vertebrates, plants, fungi and bacteria that permit their survival in subzero environments.
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.
An arboretum (plural: arboreta) in a general sense is a botanical collection composed exclusively of trees.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Archaeopteris is an extinct genus of tree-like plants with fern-like leaves.
The Archaeplastida (or kingdom Plantae sensu lato) are a major group of eukaryotes, comprising the red algae (Rhodophyta), the green algae, and the land plants, together with a small group of freshwater unicellular algae called glaucophytes.
The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
ATM serine/threonine kinase, symbol ATM, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks.
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Baragwanathia is a genus of extinct plants of the division Lycopodiophyta of Late Silurian to Early Devonian age, fossils of which have been found in Australia, Canada, China and Czechia.
Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 – September 2, 1992) was an American scientist and cytogeneticist who was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
A biennial plant is a flowering plant that takes two years to complete its biological lifecycle.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
In geography and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.
Biological dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals (animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) from their birth site to their breeding site ('natal dispersal'), as well as the movement from one breeding site to another ('breeding dispersal').
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
(tray planting) is a Japanese art form using cultivation techniques to produce small trees in containers that mimic the shape and scale of full size trees.
A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms botanic and botanical and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
A branch or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part of the central trunk of a tree (or sometimes a shrub).
The Bromeliaceae (the bromeliads) are a family of monocot flowering plants of 51 genera and around 3475 known species native mainly to the tropical Americas, with a few species found in the American subtropics and one in tropical west Africa, Pitcairnia feliciana.
The brown algae (singular: alga), comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere.
Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes): the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
Bryopsidales is an order of green algae, in the class Ulvophyceae.
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes.
Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods.
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Phragmoplast and cell plate formation in a plant cell during cytokinesis. Left side: Phragmoplast forms and cell plate starts to assemble in the center of the cell. Towards the right: Phragmoplast enlarges in a donut-shape towards the outside of the cell, leaving behind mature cell plate in the center. The cell plate will transform into the new cell wall once cytokinesis is complete. Cytokinesis in terrestrial plants occurs by cell plate formation.
Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency.
Cell Press, an imprint of Elsevier, is a publisher of biomedical journals, including Cell and Neuron.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
In cell biology a centriole is a cylindrical cellular organelle composed mainly of a protein called tubulin.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Chaetosphaeridiales is an order of green algae.
Charales is an order of freshwater green algae in the division Charophyta, class Charophyceae, commonly known as stoneworts.
Charophyta is a division of freshwater green algae.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
Chlorokybus is a genus of basal Green algae or Streptophyte containing the sole species Chlorokybus atmophyticus, a soil alga found in alpine areas.
The Chlorophyceae are one of the classes of green algae, distinguished mainly on the basis of ultrastructural morphology.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Chlorophyll a is a specific form of chlorophyll used in oxygenic photosynthesis. It absorbs most energy from wavelengths of violet-blue and orange-red light. It also reflects green-yellow light, and as such contributes to the observed green color of most plants. This photosynthetic pigment is essential for photosynthesis in eukaryotes, cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes because of its role as primary electron donor in the electron transport chain. Chlorophyll a also transfers resonance energy in the antenna complex, ending in the reaction center where specific chlorophylls P680 and P700 are located.
Chlorophyll b is a form of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll b helps in photosynthesis by absorbing light energy. It is more soluble than chlorophyll ''a'' in polar solvents because of its carbonyl group. Its color is yellow, and it primarily absorbs blue light. In land plants, the light-harvesting antennae around photosystem II contain the majority of chlorophyll b. Hence, in shade-adapted chloroplasts, which have an increased ratio of photosystem II to photosystem I, there is a higher ratio of chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a. This is adaptive, as increasing chlorophyll b increases the range of wavelengths absorbed by the shade chloroplasts.
Chlorophyta is a division of green algae, informally called chlorophytes.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
In botany, chlorosis is a condition in which leaves produce insufficient chlorophyll.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.
Cladophorales are an order of green algae, in the class Ulvophyceae.
The cladoxylopsids are a group of plants known only as fossils that are thought to be ancestors of ferns and horsetails.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The coal measures is a lithostratigraphical term for the coal-bearing part of the Upper Carboniferous System.
Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.
Colchicine is a medication most commonly used to treat gout.
Coleochaetophyceae are a class of charophyte algae that includes some of the closest multicellular relatives of land plants.
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
Controlled (or closed) ecological life-support systems (acronym CELSS) are a self-supporting life support system for space stations and colonies typically through controlled closed ecological systems, such as the BioHome, BIOS-3, Biosphere 2, Mars Desert Research Station, and Yuegong-1.
Cooksonia is an extinct grouping of primitive land plants.
Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber (the cork oak), which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Cultivated plant taxonomy is the study of the theory and practice of the science that identifies, describes, classifies, and names cultigens—those plants whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cycads are seed plants with a long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today.
Cyperus papyrus (papyrus,papyrus sedge, paper reed, Indian matting plant, Nile grass) is a species of aquatic flowering plant belonging to the sedge family Cyperaceae.
Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells.
Dasycladales is an order of large unicellular green algae in the class Ulvophyceae.
De Materia Medica (Latin name for the Greek work Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, Peri hulēs iatrikēs, both meaning "On Medical Material") is a pharmacopoeia of herbs and the medicines that can be obtained from them.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.
Desmidiales, commonly called Desmids (Gr. desmos, bond or chain), are an order in the Charophyta, a division of green algae in which the land plants (Embryophyta) emerged.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and biennials commonly called foxgloves.
The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.
DNA damage is distinctly different from mutation, although both are types of error in DNA.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
DPVweb is a database for virologists working on plant viruses combining taxonomic, bioinformatic and symptom data.
Drosera, commonly known as the sundews, is one of the largest genera of carnivorous plants, with at least 194 species.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
The dry season is a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics.
Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author.
Echinacea is a genus, or group of herbaceous flowering plants in the daisy family.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.
An endophyte is an endosymbiont, often a bacterium or fungus, that lives within a plant for at least part of its life cycle without causing apparent disease.
An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.
Epichloë coenophiala is a systemic and seed-transmissible endophyte of tall fescue, a grass endemic to Eurasia and North Africa, but widely naturalized in North America, Australia and New Zealand.
The word'epidermis' is a single layer of cells that covers the leaves, flowers, roots and stems of plants.
An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating around it.
Equisetopsida, or Sphenopsida, is a class of vascular plants with a fossil record going back to the Devonian.
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Espalier is the horticultural and ancient agricultural practice of controlling woody plant growth for the production of fruit, by pruning and tying branches to a frame.
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (defined as "the tendency of a substance to vaporize") aroma compounds from plants.
Ethnobotany is the study of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people.
Etiolation is a process in flowering plants grown in partial or complete absence of light.
Euglenids (euglenoids, or euglenophytes, formally Euglenida/Euglenoida, ICZN, or Euglenophyceae, ICBN) are one of the best-known groups of flagellates, which are excavate eukaryotes of the phylum Euglenophyta and their cell structure is typical of that group.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.
In alpha taxonomy, a grade is a taxon united by a level of morphological or physiological complexity.
The evolution of plants has resulted in a wide range of complexity, from the earliest algal mats, through multicellular marine and freshwater green algae, terrestrial bryophytes, lycopods and ferns, to the complex gymnosperms and angiosperms of today.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Festuca arundinacea (syn., Schedonorus arundinaceus and Lolium arundinaceum) is a species of grass commonly known as tall fescue.
Firewood is any wooden material that is gathered and used for fuel.
Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.
In a number of countries, plants have been chosen as symbols to represent specific geographic areas.
Floridean starch is a type of a storage glucan found in glaucophytes and in red algae (also known as rhodophytes), in which it is usually the primary sink for fixed carbon from photosynthesis.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
The Fossil Grove is located within Victoria Park, Glasgow, Scotland.
Prof Frederick Orpen Bower FRSE FRS (4 November 1855 – 11 April 1948) was an English botanist.
Freezing, or solidification, is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.
Frost is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in humid air in cold conditions, usually overnight.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.
A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature.
Garden tourism is a type of niche tourism involving visits or travel to botanical gardens and places which are significant in the history of gardening.
Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko (both pronounced), also known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct.
Ginkgoales or Ginkgophyte is a gymnosperm order containing only one extant species: Ginkgo biloba, the ginkgo tree.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
The glaucophytes, also known as glaucocystophytes or glaucocystids, are a small group of rare freshwater microscopic algae.
Glomerales is an order of symbiotic fungi within the phylum Glomeromycota.
Glossopteris (γλώσσα glossa, meaning "tongue", because the leaves were tongue-shaped, and pteris, Greek for fern or feathery) is the largest and best-known genus of the extinct order of seed ferns known as Glossopteridales (also known as Arberiales or Ottokariales).
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Gnetophyta is a division of plants, grouped within the gymnosperms (which also includes conifers, cycads, and ginkgos), that consists of some 70 species across the three relict genera: Gnetum (family Gnetaceae), Welwitschia (family Welwitschiaceae), and Ephedra (family Ephedraceae).
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.
The growing season is the part of the year during which local weather conditions (i.e. rainfall and temperature) permit normal plant growth.
Gum is a sap or other resinous material associated with certain species of the plant kingdom.
The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
is the Japanese traditional custom of enjoying the transient beauty of flowers; flowers ("hana") are in this case almost always referring to those of the cherry ("sakura") or, less frequently, plum ("ume") trees.
The haptophytes, classified either as the Haptophyta, Haptophytina or Prymnesiophyta (named for Prymnesium), are a Division (botany) of algae.
Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions.
A hemicellulose (also known as polyose) is any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides), such as arabinoxylans, present along with cellulose in almost all plant cell walls.
A hemiepiphyte is a plant that spends part of its life cycle as an epiphyte.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Herbert Faulkner Copeland (May 21, 1902 – Jan 31, 1968) was an American Copeland, Herb.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
The heterokonts or stramenopiles (formally, Heterokonta or Stramenopiles) are a major line of eukaryotes currently containing more than 25,000 known species.
Heterospory is the production of spores of two different sizes and sexes by the sporophytes of land plants.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively.
Horneophytopsida is a class of extinct plants which consisted of branched stems without leaves, true roots or vascular tissue, found from the Late Silurian to the Early Devonian (around). They are the simplest known polysporangiophytes, i.e. plants with sporophytes bearing many spore-forming organs (sporangia) on branched stems.
Hornworts are a group of non-vascular plants constituting the division Anthocerotophyta.
Horticultural therapy (also known as or STH) is defined by the American Horticultural Therapy Association (AHTA) as the engagement of a person in gardening and plant-based activities, facilitated by a trained therapist, to achieve specific therapeutic treatment goals.
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
A houseplant is a plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices.
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, "web") is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.
Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.
is the Japanese art of flower arrangement.
An industrial crop, also called a non-food crop, is a crop grown to produce goods for manufacturing, for example of fibre for clothing, rather than food for consumption.
The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants".
The International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP), also known as the Cultivated Plant Code, is a guide to the rules and regulations for naming cultigens, plants whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
Kew Gardens is a botanical garden in southwest London that houses the "largest and most diverse botanical and mycological collections in the world".
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
The Klebsormidiaceae are a family containing three genera of charophyte green alga forming multicellular, non-branching filaments.
Kudzu (also called Japanese arrowroot) is a group of plants in the genus Pueraria, in the pea family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
The language of flowers, sometimes called floriography, is a means of cryptological communication through the use or arrangement of flowers.
A lapidary (lapidarist, lapidarius) is an artist or artisan who forms stone, minerals, or gemstones into decorative items such as cabochons, engraved gems (including cameos), and faceted designs.
Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins (LEA proteins) are proteins in animals and plants that protect other proteins from aggregation due to desiccation or osmotic stresses associated with low temperature.
Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium.
Lathraea (toothwort) is a small genus of five to seven species of flowering plants, native to temperate Europe and Asia.
A lawn is an area of soil-covered land planted with grasses and other durable plants such as clover which are maintained at a short height with a lawnmower and used for aesthetic and recreational purposes.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
A leaf sensor is a phytometric device (measurement of plant physiological processes) that measures water loss or the water deficit stress (WDS) in plants by real-time monitoring the moisture level in plant leaves.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Lepidodendron — also known as scale tree — is an extinct genus of primitive, vascular, arborescent (tree-like) plant related to the lycopsids (club mosses).
Leptosporangiate ferns are the largest group of living ferns, including some 11000 species worldwide.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation.
This list of fictional plants describes invented plants that appear in works of fiction.
The following is a list of notable trees from around the world.
This is a list of plants used or formerly used as herbal medicine.
Poisonous plants are those plants that produce toxins that deter herbivores from consuming them.
This list of systems of plant taxonomy presents "taxonomic systems" used in plant classification.
This is a list of U.S. state and territory trees, including official trees of the following states and U.S. territories (and the District of Columbia).
Lithophytes are plants that grow in or on rocks.
The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called lycophyta or lycopods) is a tracheophyte subgroup of the Kingdom Plantae.
Lycopodiopsida is a class of herbaceous vascular plants known as the clubmosses and firmosses.
Lynn Margulis (born Lynn Petra Alexander; March 5, 1938 – November 22, 2011) was an American evolutionary theorist and biologist, science author, educator, and popularizer, and was the primary modern proponent for the significance of symbiosis in evolution.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnolia is a large genus of about 210The number of species in the genus Magnolia depends on the taxonomic view that one takes up.
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
Marattiidae is a subclass of class Polypodiopsida (ferns).
The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.
The Mesostigmatophyceae are basal green algae, and it contains two species.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
Microsoft Silverlight (or simply Silverlight) is a deprecated application framework for writing and running rich Internet applications, similar to Adobe Flash.
Mimosa pudica (from pudica "shy, bashful or shrinking"; also called sensitive plant, sleepy plant, action plant, Dormilones, touch-me-not, shameplant, or shy plant) is a creeping annual or perennial flowering plant of the pea/legume family Fabaceae and Magnoliopsida taxon, often grown for its curiosity value: the compound leaves fold inward and droop when touched or shaken, defending themselves from harm, and re-open a few minutes later.
Mistletoe is the English common name for most obligate hemiparasitic plants in the order Santalales.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
Myco-heterotrophy (from Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus", ἕτερος heteros, "another", "different" and τροφή trophe, "nutrition") is a symbiotic relationship between certain kinds of plants and fungi, in which the plant gets all or part of its food from parasitism upon fungi rather than from photosynthesis.
A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.
A mycotroph is a plant that gets all or part of its carbon, water, or nutrient supply through symbiotic association with fungi.
Myrmecophyte (mər′mek•ə‚fīt; literally "ant-plant") is a plant that lives in a mutualistic association with a colony of ants.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Cherry Blossom Festival is a spring celebration in Washington, D.C., commemorating the March 27, 1912, gift of Japanese cherry trees from Mayor Yukio Ozaki of Tokyo City to the city of Washington, D.C. Mayor Ozaki donated the trees to enhance the growing friendship between the United States and Japan and also celebrate the continued close relationship between the two nations.
A national emblem is an emblem or seal that is reserved for use by a nation state or multi-national state as a symbol of that nation.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
Natural dyes are dyes or colorants derived from plants, invertebrates, or minerals.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Nymphaea lotus, the white Egyptian lotus, tiger lotus, white lotus or Egyptian white water-lily, is a flowering plant of the family Nymphaeaceae.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, for cut flowers and specimen display.
Orobanche (broomrape or broom-rape) is a genus of over 200 species of parasitic herbaceous plants in the family Orobanchaceae, mostly native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere.
In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paclitaxel (PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.
A parasitic plant is a plant that derives some or all of its nutritional requirement from another living plant.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.
Pectin (from πηκτικός, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
In geology, petrifaction or petrification is the process by which organic material becomes a fossil through the replacement of the original material and the filling of the original pore spaces with minerals.
Petrified wood (from the Greek root petro meaning "rock" or "stone"; literally "wood turned into stone") is the name given to a special type of fossilized remains of terrestrial vegetation.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
A pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea (literally, “drug-making”), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society.
In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phragmites is a genus of four species of large perennial grasses found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world.
Phragmoplast and cell plate formation in a plant cell during cytokinesis. Left side: Phragmoplast forms and cell plate starts to assemble in the center of the cell. Towards the right: Phragmoplast enlarges in a donut-shape towards the outside of the cell, leaving behind mature cell plate in the center. The cell plate will transform into the new cell wall once cytokinesis is complete. The phragmoplast is a plant cell specific structure that forms during late cytokinesis.
The Phragmoplastophyta (Lecointre & Guyander 2006) or Streptophytina (Lewis & McCourt 2004, incl. Coleochaetophyceae, Zygnematophyceae and Mesotaeniaceae) are a proposed sister clade of the Klebsormidiaceae, with which they form the Streptophyte/Charophyte clade.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
Phytoliths (from Greek, "plant stone") are rigid, microscopic structures made of silica, found in some plant tissues and persisting after the decay of the plant.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
Phytotelma (plural phytotelmata) is a small water-filled cavity in a terrestrial plant.
Picea abies, the Norway spruce, is a species of spruce native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Plant cognition is the study of the mental capacities of plants.
A plant cuticle is a protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm.
Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores.
Plant identification is the process of matching a specimen plant to a known taxon.
Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).
Plant reproductive morphology is the study of the physical form and structure (the morphology) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly concerned with sexual reproduction.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
Plants serve many functions in culture.
Plants in space is about plants in outer space.
The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
Polysporangiophytes, also called polysporangiates or formally Polysporangiophyta, are plants in which the spore-bearing generation (sporophyte) has branching stems (axes) that terminate in sporangia.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
The Prasinophytes are a paraphyletic class of unicellular green algae.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
The progymnosperms are an extinct group of woody, spore-bearing plants that is presumed to have evolved from the trimerophytes, and eventually gave rise to the gymnosperms.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Psilotopsida is a class of ferns or fern-like plants, considered to be one of the three classes of eusporangiate ferns.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
A pteridophyte is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem) that disperses spores (and lacks seeds).
The term Pteridospermatophyta (or "seed ferns" or "Pteridospermatopsida") refers to several distinct groups of extinct seed-bearing plants (spermatophytes).
Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags.
Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
Ramie is a flowering plant in the nettle family Urticaceae, native to eastern Asia.
Rayon is a manufactured fiber made from regenerated cellulose fiber.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
The red algae, or Rhodophyta, are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae.
Reserpine (also known by trade names Raudixin, Serpalan, Serpasil) is an indole alkaloid, Major Types Of Chemical Compounds In Plants & Animals Part II: Phenolic Compounds, Glycosides & Alkaloids. Wayne's Word: An On-Line Textbook of Natural History.
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
A resurrection plant is any poikilohydric plant that can survive extreme dehydration, even over months or years.
The Rhynie chert is an Early Devonian sedimentary deposit exhibiting extraordinary fossil detail or completeness (a Lagerstätte).
Rhyniophytina is a subdivision of extinct early vascular plants that are considered to be similar to the genus Rhynia, found in the Early Devonian (around). Sources vary in the name and rank used for this group, some treating it as the class Rhyniopsida, others as the division Rhyniophyta.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Robert Harding Whittaker (December 27, 1920 – October 20, 1980) was a distinguished American plant ecologist, active in the 1950s to the 1970s.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
Saprotrophic nutrition or lysotrophic nutrition is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed (dead or waste) organic matter.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
The sea lettuces comprise the genus Ulva, a group of edible green algae that is widely distributed along the coasts of the world's oceans.
Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Sequoia sempervirens Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607 is the sole living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae (formerly treated in Taxodiaceae).
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, one form of soil degradation.
Soil gases are the gases found in the air space between soil components.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.
Spirogyra (common names include water silk, mermaid's tresses, and blanket weed) is a genus of filamentous charophyte green algae of the order Zygnematales, named for the helical or spiral arrangement of the chloroplasts that is characteristic of the genus.
Spirotaenia is a genus of basal green algae that may be sister to the Chlorokybophyceae.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
A sporophyte is the diploid multicellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga.
A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
The Stomatophyta are a proposed sister branch of the Marchantiophyta (Liverworts), together forming the Embryophyta.
Strangler fig is the common name for a number of tropical and subtropical plant species, including some banyans and unrelated vines, including among many other species.
Streptophyta, informally the streptophytes (from the Greek strepto, for twisted, i.e., the morphology of the sperm of some members), is an unranked clade of plants.
The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
A syncytium or symplasm (plural syncytia; from Greek: σύν (syn).
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Tanacetum parthenium, feverfew, is a flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae.
Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.
Targionia is a genus of liverworts in the order Marchantiales.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The Plant List is a list of botanical names of species of plants created by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden and launched in 2010.
Thread is a type of yarn used for sewing.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Topiary is the horticultural practice of training perennial plants by clipping the foliage and twigs of trees, shrubs and subshrubs to develop and maintain clearly defined shapes, whether geometric or fanciful.
Toxalbumins are toxic plant proteins that disable ribosomes and thereby inhibit protein synthesis, producing severe cytotoxic effects in multiple organ systems.
Toxicodendron radicans, commonly known as eastern poison ivy or poison ivy, is a poisonous Asian and Eastern North American flowering plant that is well-known for causing urushiol-induced contact dermatitis, an itchy, irritating, and sometimes painful rash, in most people who touch it.
The Trebouxiophyceae are a class of green algae, in the division Chlorophyta.
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.
Trees are significant in many of the world's mythologies and religions, and have been given deep and sacred meanings throughout the ages.
Trends is a series of scientific journals owned by Elsevier that publish review articles in a range of areas of biology.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
Tulip mania (Dutch: tulpenmanie) was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for some bulbs of the recently introduced and fashionable tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then dramatically collapsed in February 1637.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
The Ulvophyceae or ulvophytes are a class of green algae, distinguished mainly on the basis of ultrastructural morphology, life cycle and molecular phylogenetic data.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Utricularia gibba, commonly known as the humped or floating bladderwort, is a small, mat-forming species of carnivorous aquatic bladderwort.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants.
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
The Venus flytrap (also referred to as Venus's flytrap or Venus' flytrap), Dionaea muscipula, is a carnivorous plant native to subtropical wetlands on the East Coast of the United States in North Carolina and South Carolina.
Victoria Park is a park located in Glasgow, Scotland.
Vincristine, also known as leurocristine and marketed under the brandname Oncovin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. This includes acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, neuroblastoma, and small cell lung cancer among others. It is given intravenously. Most people experience some side effects from vincristine treatment. Commonly it causes a change in sensation, hair loss, constipation, difficulty walking, and headaches. Serious side effects may include neuropathic pain, lung damage, or low blood white cells. It will likely cause harm to the baby if given during pregnancy. It works by stopping cells from dividing properly. Vincristine was first isolated in 1961. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 1.80 and 42.60 USD per dose. It is a vinca alkaloid that can be obtained from the Madagascar periwinkle Catharanthus roseus.
Viridiplantae (literally "green plants") are a clade of eukaryotic organisms made up of the green algae, which are primarily aquatic, and the land plants (embryophytes), which emerged within them.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
The Warsaw University of Life Sciences (Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, SGGW) is the largest agricultural university in Poland, established in 1816 in Warsaw.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place".
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
Writing material refers to the materials that provide the surfaces on which humans use writing instruments to inscribe writings.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
The zosterophylls were a group of extinct land plants that first appeared in the Silurian period.
Zygnematophyceae (or Conjugatophyceae) is a class of green algae in the division Charophyta.
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