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Plant breeding

Index Plant breeding

Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. [1]

162 relations: Agriculture, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, American College of Nutrition, Antimicrobial resistance, Bacillus thuringiensis, Backcrossing, Bacteria, Battle for Grain, Biodiversity, Biometrics, Bt cotton, Calcium, Cauliflower, Cauliflower mosaic virus, Cell (biology), Cell biology, Cell division, Cereal, Chemistry, Chromosome, Chromosome engineering, Cisgenesis, Colchicine, Crop yield, Cultigen, Cultivar, Cultivated plant taxonomy, Cytoplasmic male sterility, Detasseling, Dimethyl sulfate, DNA profiling, Double-pair mating, Doubled haploidy, Drought, Drug tolerance, Embryo, Embryo rescue, Entomology, Ethyl methanesulfonate, European Society of Breeding Research, F1 hybrid, Family-based QTL mapping, Fertilisation, Food security, Fungus, Gartons Agricultural Plant Breeders, Gene, Gene expression, Gene gun, Gene–environment interaction, ..., Genetic diversity, Genetic engineering, Genetic recombination, Genetically modified crops, Genetically modified food, Genetically modified food controversies, Genetically modified organism, Genetics, Genome, Genomics of domestication, Genotype, George Harrison Shull, Global issue, Government, Green Revolution, Gregor Mendel, Helicoverpa zea, Herbicide, Heterosis, Hybrid (biology), Insect, Intellectual property, International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, Iron, Italy, Keith Downey (agricultural scientist), Laboratory, Luther Burbank, Maize, Marcus Morton Rhoades, Marker-assisted selection, Mechanical weed control, Medication, Mendelian inheritance, Microinjection, Mildew, Molecular biology, Molecular breeding, Molecular marker, Mutagen, Mutant, Nature, Nazareno Strampelli, New Rice for Africa, Niels Ebbesen Hansen, Nitrogen, Norman Borlaug, Nutrient, Nutrition, Oat, Organic farming, Orthodox seed, Oryza glaberrima, Pathology, Pea, Pest (organism), Pharming (genetics), Phenotype, Phenotypic trait, Phosphorus, Physiology, Phytochemistry, Plant, Plant breeders' rights, Plant breeding in Nepal, Plant tissue culture, Poison, Pollen, Pollination, Pollination bags, Pollinator exclusion experiment, Polyploid, Potato, Promoter (genetics), Protein, Protoplast, Quality (business), Quantitative trait locus, Radiation, Recalcitrant seed, Reproduction, Rhizobium rhizogenes, Riboflavin, RNA interference, Rye, Salinity, Science (journal), Scientist, Seedling, Selection methods in plant breeding based on mode of reproduction, Smart breeding, Solanine, Somaclonal variation, Statistics, Substantial equivalence, Systematics, Temperature, The Guardian, Thomas Andrew Knight, Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Transposable element, Triticale, United States, University of Texas at Austin, Vegetable, Vegetative reproduction, Virus, Vitamin C, Wheat, World War II, Zygosity. Expand index (112 more) »


Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Agrobacterium tumefaciens

Agrobacterium tumefaciens (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium radiobacter) is the causal agent of crown gall disease (the formation of tumours) in over 140 species of eudicots.

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American College of Nutrition

The American College of Nutrition (ACN) is a 501(c)(3) charitable non-profit organization established to encourage the scientific investigation of nutrition and metabolism.

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Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.

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Bacillus thuringiensis

Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide.

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Backcrossing is a crossing of a hybrid with one of its parents or an individual genetically similar to its parent, in order to achieve offspring with a genetic identity which is closer to that of the parent.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Battle for Grain

The Battle for Grain was an economic policy undertaken by the Fascists in Italy during the 1920s as a move toward autarky.

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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations.

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Bt cotton

Bt cotton is a genetically modified organism (GMO) or genetically modified pest resistant plant cotton variety, which produces an insecticide to bollworm.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea in the genus Brassica, which is in the family Brassicaceae.

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Cauliflower mosaic virus

Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is a member of the genus Caulimovirus, one of the six genera in the Caulimoviridae family, which are pararetroviruses that infect plants.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell biology

Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Chromosome engineering

Chromosome engineering is "the controlled generation of chromosomal deletions, inversions, or translocations with defined endpoints." By combining chromosomal translocation, chromosomal inversion, and chromosomal deletion, chromosome engineering has been shown to identify the underlying genes that cause certain diseases in mice.

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Cisgenesis is a product designation for a category of genetically engineered plants.

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Colchicine is a medication most commonly used to treat gout.

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Crop yield

In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).

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A cultigen (from the Latin cultus – cultivated, and gens – kind) is a plant that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is the result of artificial selection.

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The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.

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Cultivated plant taxonomy

Cultivated plant taxonomy is the study of the theory and practice of the science that identifies, describes, classifies, and names cultigens—those plants whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity.

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Cytoplasmic male sterility

Cytoplasmic male sterility is total or partial male sterility in plants as the result of specific nuclear and mitochondrial interactions.

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Detasseling corn is removing the immature pollen-producing bodies, the tassel, from the tops of corn (maize) plants and placing them on the ground.

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Dimethyl sulfate

Dimethyl sulfate is a chemical compound with formula (CH3O)2SO2.

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DNA profiling

DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.

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Double-pair mating

Double-pair mating (DPM) is a mating (crossing) design used in plant breeding.

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Doubled haploidy

A doubled haploid (DH) is a genotype formed when haploid cells undergo chromosome doubling.

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A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.

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Drug tolerance

Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Embryo rescue

Embryo rescue is one of the earliest and successful forms of in-vitro culture techniques that is used to assist in the development of plant embryos that might not survive to become viable plants.

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Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.

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Ethyl methanesulfonate

No description.

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European Society of Breeding Research

The European Society of Breeding Research, Europaeische Gesellschaft fuer Zuechtungsforschung, Association Européenne pour l'Amélioration des Plantes, Asociación Europea para el Mejoramiento de las Plantas, European Association for Research in Plant Breeding (in short EUCARPIA) is a non-profit organisation which promotes international scientific and technical research in the area of plant breeding in order to encourage its further development.

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F1 hybrid

An F1 hybrid (or filial 1 hybrid) is the first filial generation of offspring of distinctly different parental types.

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Family-based QTL mapping

Quantitative trait loci mapping or QTL mapping is the process of identifying genomic regions that potentially contain genes responsible for important economic, health or environmental characters.

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Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

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Food security

Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Gartons Agricultural Plant Breeders

Dr John Garton, of the firm of Garton Brothers of Newton-le-Willows in the United Kingdom was the Originator of Scientific Farm Plant Breeding.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Gene gun

A gene gun or a biolistic particle delivery system, originally designed for plant transformation, is a device for delivering exogenous DNA (transgenes) to cells.

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Gene–environment interaction

Gene–environment interaction (or genotype–environment interaction or G×E) is when two different genotypes respond to environmental variation in different ways.

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Genetic diversity

Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

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Genetic recombination

Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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Genetically modified crops

Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.

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Genetically modified food

Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods, bioengineered foods, genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.

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Genetically modified food controversies

Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production.

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Genetically modified organism

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Genomics of domestication

Domesticated species and the human populations that domesticate them are typified by a mutualistic relationship of interdependence, in which humans have over thousands of years modified the genomics of domesticated species.

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The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).

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George Harrison Shull

George Harrison Shull (April 15, 1874 – September 28, 1954) was an eminent American plant geneticist and the younger brother of botanical illustrator and plant breeder J. Marion Shull.

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Global issue

Informally, a global issue is issue that any social, economic, political or environmental problem that adversely affects the global community and our environment, possibly in a catastrophic way.

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A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.

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Green Revolution

The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution, refers to a set of research and the development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s (with prequels in the work of the agrarian geneticist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s), that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.

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Gregor Mendel

Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.

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Helicoverpa zea

Helicoverpa zea, commonly known as the corn earworm, is a species (formerly in the genus Heliothis) in the family Noctuidae.

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Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.

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Heterosis, hybrid vigor, or outbreeding enhancement, is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring.

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Hybrid (biology)

In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.

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Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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Intellectual property

Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.

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International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants

The International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP), also known as the Cultivated Plant Code, is a guide to the rules and regulations for naming cultigens, plants whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Keith Downey (agricultural scientist)

Richard Keith Downey, (born January 26, 1927) is a Canadian agricultural scientist and, as one of the originators of canola, became known as the "Father of Canola".

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A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.

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Luther Burbank

Luther Burbank (March 7, 1849 – April 11, 1926) was an American botanist, horticulturist and pioneer in agricultural science.

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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Marcus Morton Rhoades

Marcus Morton Rhoades (July 24, 1903 in Graham, Missouri – December 30, 1991) was an American cytogeneticist.

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Marker-assisted selection

Marker assisted selection or marker aided selection (MAS) is an indirect selection process where a trait of interest is selected based on a marker (morphological, biochemical or DNA/RNA variation) linked to a trait of interest (e.g. productivity, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and quality), rather than on the trait itself.

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Mechanical weed control

Mechanical weed control is any physical activity that inhibits unwanted plant growth.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Mendelian inheritance

Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.

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Microinjection is the use of a glass micropipette to inject a liquid substance at a microscopic or borderline macroscopic level.

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Mildew is a form of fungus.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecular breeding

Molecular breeding is the application of molecular biology tools, often in plant breeding and animal breeding The areas of molecular breeding include.

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Molecular marker

A molecular marker is a molecule contained within a sample taken from an organism (biological markers) or other matter.

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In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.

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In biology and especially genetics, a mutant is an organism or a new genetic character arising or resulting from an instance of mutation, which is an alteration of the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome of an organism.

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Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.

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Nazareno Strampelli

Nazareno Strampelli (May 29, 1866 in Castelraimondo, Italy – January 23, 1942) was an Italian agronomist and plant breeder.

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New Rice for Africa

New Rice for Africa ("NERICA") is a cultivar group of interspecific hybrid rice developed by the Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice) to improve the yield of African rice cultivars.

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Niels Ebbesen Hansen

Niels Ebbesen Hansen (January 4, 1866 – October 5, 1950) was a Danish-American horticulturist, botanist, and agricultural explorer for the United States Department of Agriculture and the state of South Dakota.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Norman Borlaug

Norman Ernest Borlaug (March 25, 1914September 12, 2009) was an American agronomist and humanitarian who led initiatives worldwide that contributed to the extensive increases in agricultural production termed the Green Revolution.

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A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.

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The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).

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Organic farming

Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.

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Orthodox seed

Orthodox seeds are seeds which will survive drying and/or freezing during ex-situ conservation.

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Oryza glaberrima

Oryza glaberrima, commonly known as African rice, is one of the two domesticated rice species.

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Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.

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The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.

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Pest (organism)

A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.

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Pharming (genetics)

Pharming, a portmanteau of "farming" and "pharmaceutical", refers to the use of genetic engineering to insert genes that code for useful pharmaceuticals into host animals or plants that would otherwise not express those genes, thus creating a genetically modified organism (GMO).

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Phenotypic trait

A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Phytochemistry is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plant breeders' rights

Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.

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Plant breeding in Nepal

Plant breeding in Nepal is the art and science of improving the heredity of plants for benefit of humanity in Nepal.

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Plant tissue culture

Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissues or organs under sterile conditions on a nutrient culture medium of known composition.

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In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.

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Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).

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Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.

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Pollination bags

Pollination bags, sometimes called crossing bags, isolation bags or exclusion bags, are containers made of various different materials for the purpose of controlling pollination for plants.

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Pollinator exclusion experiment

Pollinator exclusion experiments are experiments used by ecologists to determine the effectiveness of putative plant pollination vectors.

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Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.

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The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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Promoter (genetics)

In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protoplast, from ancient Greek πρωτόπλαστος (prōtóplastos, "first-formed"), is a biological term proposed by Hanstein in 1880 to refer to the entire cell, excluding the cell wall, but currently has several definitions.

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Quality (business)

In business, engineering, and manufacturing, quality has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-inferiority or superiority of something; it's also defined as being suitable for its intended purpose (fitness for purpose) while satisfying customer expectations.

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Quantitative trait locus

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a section of DNA (the locus) which correlates with variation in a phenotype (the quantitative trait).

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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Recalcitrant seed

Recalcitrant seeds (subsequently known as unorthodox seeds) are seeds that do not survive drying and freezing during ex-situ conservation and vice versa.

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Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".

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Rhizobium rhizogenes

Rhizobium rhizogenes (formerly Agrobacterium rhizogenes) is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces hairy root disease in dicotyledonous plants.

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Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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RNA interference

RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.

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Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.

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Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.

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A seedling is a young plant sporophyte developing out of a plant embryo from a seed.

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Selection methods in plant breeding based on mode of reproduction

Plant breeders use different methods depending on the mode of reproduction of crops, which include.

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Smart breeding

SMART breeding (Selection with Markers and Advanced Reproductive Technologies) or Precision breeding refers to a genetic engineering technique of reproducing a species members together to retain desirable traits and so produce a stronger hybrid.

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Solanine is a glycoalkaloid poison found in species of the nightshade family within the genus Solanum, such as the potato (Solanum tuberosum), the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and the eggplant (Solanum melongena).

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Somaclonal variation

Somaclonal variation is the variation seen in plants that have been produced by plant tissue culture.

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Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Substantial equivalence

In food safety, the concept of substantial equivalence holds that the safety of a new food, particularly one that has been genetically modified (GM), may be assessed by comparing it with a similar traditional food that has proven safe in normal use over time.

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Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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Thomas Andrew Knight

Thomas Andrew Knight (1759–1838), FRS, of Elton Hall in the parish of Elton in Herefordshire (4 miles south-west of Ludlow) and later of Downton Castle (3 miles north-west of Elton), was a horticulturalist and botanist.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Transcription factor

In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.

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Transposable element

A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.

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Triticale (× Triticosecale), is a hybrid of wheat (Triticum) and rye (Secale) first bred in laboratories during the late 19th century in Scotland and Germany.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Texas at Austin

The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.

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Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.

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Vegetative reproduction

Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.

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Breeding (plant), Classical plant breeding, Crop breeding, Crop enhancement, Crop selection, Cross (plant), Crossed (plant), Crosses (plant), Crossing (plant), Crossings (plant), Pest resistance, Physiological and molecular wheat breeding, Plant Breeding, Plant biotechnology, Plant breeder, Plant breeders, Plant crossing, Plant improvement, Vegetable breeding.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_breeding

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