118 relations: Abscisic acid, Abscission, Agriculture, Alfalfa, Algae, Amino acid, Animal, Apical dominance, Arbuscular mycorrhiza, Aspirin, Auxin, Bacteria, Biotransformation, Brassinolide, Brassinosteroid, Bud, Callus, Cambium, Carbohydrate, Catabolism, Cell (biology), Cell signaling, Chemical compound, Chemical substance, Chemical synthesis, Chloroplast, Circulatory system, Climacteric (botany), Concentration, Cutting (plant), Cytokinin, Cytoplasm, Death, Dicotyledon, Ethylene, Exudate, Flower, Frits Warmolt Went, Fruit, Fungus, Gene expression, Gibberella fujikuroi, Gibberellin, Gland, Grafting, Gravitropism, Guard cell, Heart, Herbivore, Hormone, ..., Hyponastic response, In vitro, Indole-3-acetic acid, Indole-3-butyric acid, Ion, Jasmonate, Jasmonic acid, Karrikin, Kenneth V. Thimann, Leaf, Leaf expansion, Litre, Longevity, Lymph, Meristem, Metabolism, Methyl jasmonate, Methylation, Microorganism, Micropropagation, Mole (unit), Molecule, Monocotyledon, Moulting, Nitric oxide, Nutrient, Pathogen, Peptide, Phenol, Phenotype, Phloem, Phosphate, Phytochrome, Plant, Plant hormone, Plant peptide hormone, Plant propagation, Plant senescence, Plant stem, Pollination, Polyamine, Rapeseed, Root, Salicylic acid, Salix alba, Secondary metabolite, Secretion, Senescence, Sieve tube element, Sodium salicylate, Stoma, Striga asiatica, Strigolactone, Sugar, Symbiosis, Tissue (biology), Tissue culture, Transcription (biology), Triacontanol, Turgor pressure, United Kingdom, Vascular plant, Volatile organic compound, Weed, Xylem, 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid, 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Expand index (68 more) » « Shrink index
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone.
Abscission (from Latin ab, "away", and scindere, "to cut'") is the shedding of various parts of an organism, such as a plant dropping a leaf, fruit, flower, or seed.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alfalfa, Medicago sativa also called lucerne, is a perennial flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop in many countries around the world.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Apical dominance is the phenomenon whereby the main, central stem of the plant is dominant over (i.e., grows more strongly than) other side stems; on a branch the main stem of the branch is further dominant over its own side branchlets.
An arbuscular mycorrhiza (plural mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, a.k.a. endomycorrhiza) is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungus (AM fungi, or AMF) penetrates the cortical cells of the roots of a vascular plant.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Auxins (plural of auxin) are a class of plant hormones (or plant growth regulators) with some morphogen-like characteristics.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
Brassinolide is a plant hormone.
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of polyhydroxysteroids that have been recognized as a sixth class of plant hormones.
In botany, a bud is an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of a stem.
A callus is an area of thickened skin that forms as a response to repeated friction, pressure, or other irritation.
A cambium (plural cambia or cambiums), in botany, is a tissue layer that provides partially undifferentiated cells for plant growth.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
The climacteric is a stage of fruit ripening associated with increased ethylene production and a rise in cellular respiration.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
A plant cutting is a piece of a plant that is used in horticulture for vegetative (asexual) propagation.
Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
An exudate is a fluid emitted by an organism through pores or a wound, a process known as exuding.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
Frits Warmolt Went (May 18, 1903 – May 1, 1990) was a Dutch biologist whose 1928 experiment demonstrated the existence of auxin in plants.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Gibberella fujikuroi is a fungal plant pathogen.
Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that regulate various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, flower development and leaf and fruit senescence.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
Grafting or graftage is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together.
Gravitropism (also known as geotropism) is a coordinated process of differential growth by a plant or fungus in response to gravity pulling on it.
Guard cells are specialized cells in the epidermis of leaves, stems and other organs that are used to control gas exchange.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The hyponastic response is an upward bending of leaves or other plant parts, resulting from growth of the lower side.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, 3-IAA) is the most common, naturally occurring, plant hormone of the auxin class.
Indole-3-butyric acid (1H-Indole-3-butanoic acid, IBA) is a white to light-yellow crystalline solid, with the molecular formula C12H13NO2.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Jasmonate (JA) and its derivatives are lipid-based plant hormones that regulate a wide range of processes in plants, ranging from growth and photosynthesis to reproductive development.
Jasmonic acid (JA) is an organic compound found in several plants including jasmine.
Karrikins are a group of plant growth regulators found in the smoke of burning plant material.
Kenneth Vivian Thimann (August 5, 1904 – January 15, 1997) was an English-American plant physiologist and microbiologist known for his studies of plant hormones, which were widely influential in agriculture and horticulture.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Leaf expansion is a process by which plants make efficient use of the space around them by causing their leaves to enlarge, or wither.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography.
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Micropropagation is the practice of rapidly multiplying stock plant material to produce a large number of progeny plants, using modern plant tissue culture methods.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phytochromes are a class of photoreceptor in plants, bacteria and fungi use to detect light.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth.
Peptide signaling plays a significant role in various aspects of plant growth and development and specific receptors for various peptides have been identified as being membrane-localized receptor kinases, the largest family of receptor-like molecules in plants.
Plant propagation is the process of creating new plants from a variety of sources: seeds, cuttings and other plant parts.
Plant senescence is the process of aging in plants.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
A polyamine is an organic compound having more than two amino groups.
Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).
Salix alba, the white willow, is a species of willow native to Europe and western and central Asia.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.
Sieve elements are specialized cells that are important for the function of phloem, which is highly organized tissue that transports organic compounds made during photosynthesis.
Sodium salicylate is a sodium salt of salicylic acid.
In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
Striga asiatica, the Asiatic witchweed, is a hemiparasitic plant in the broomrape family.
Strigolactones are a group of chemical compounds produced by plant's roots.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tissue culture is the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
1-Triacontanol is a fatty alcohol of the general formula C30H62O, also known as melissyl alcohol or myricyl alcohol.
Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place".
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) is an organic compound with the formula C10H7CH2CO2H.
2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (also known as 2,4,5-T), a synthetic auxin, is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to defoliate broad-leafed plants.
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (usually called 2,4-D) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C8H6Cl2O3.