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Plasma (physics)

Index Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s. [1]

253 relations: Academic journal, Accretion disk, Adiabatic invariant, Aerospace engineering, Alternating current, Aluminium, Ambipolar diffusion, Anisotropy, Anode, Arc lamp, Argon, Astrophysical jet, Astrophysical plasma, Astrophysics, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric entry, Aurora, Ball-pen probe, Binary star, Birkeland current, Black hole, Boltzmann relation, British Science Association, Cambridge University Press, Capacitively coupled plasma, Cascaded Arc Plasma Source, Cathode, Cathode ray, Charge (physics), Charge density, Chemical synthesis, Chemistry, Collision, Complex system, Corona, Corona discharge, Coulomb collision, Coulomb's law, Covalent bond, Crookes tube, Dark matter, Debye length, Debye sheath, Degree of ionization, Dense plasma focus, Density, Dielectric barrier discharge, Dielectric gas, Dielectric strength, Dimension, ..., Direct current, Discipline (academia), Distribution function, Double layer (plasma physics), Drag (physics), Dusty plasma, Dyadics, Efficiency, Elastic collision, Electric arc, Electric charge, Electric current, Electric field, Electric light, Electric spark, Electric-field screening, Electrical breakdown, Electrical conductor, Electrical energy, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrically powered spacecraft propulsion, Electricity, Electroluminescence, Electromagnetic field, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron cyclotron resonance, Electron temperature, Electronvolt, Electrothermal instability, Enhanced oil recovery, Etching, Faraday cup, Filament propagation, Flow control (fluid), Fluorescent lamp, Flux tube, Fractal, Fusion power, Galaxy, Gas, Gas-filled tube, Gas-phase ion chemistry, Glow discharge, Gravity, Guiding center, Gyrokinetics, Gyroradius, Hall effect, Hall-effect thruster, Hannes Alfvén, Hannes Alfvén Prize, Heat, Heat shield, Helicon (physics), IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, Incoherent scatter, Inductively coupled plasma, Inertial confinement fusion, Instability, Insulator (electricity), Interferometry, International Space Station, Interplanetary medium, Interstellar medium, Intracluster medium, Io (moon), Ion, Ion implantation, Ion thruster, Ionization, Ionization energy, Ionosphere, Ionospheric heater, Irving Langmuir, ISM band, J. J. Thomson, Jupiter, Kelvin, Kinetic energy, Kink instability, Langmuir probe, Laser, Lecture, Lewi Tonks, Lightning, Liquid, List of plasma physicists, List of plasma physics articles, Lorentz force, Lyman Spitzer, Magnetic confinement fusion, Magnetic field, Magnetic mirror, Magnetic Reynolds number, Magnetohydrodynamic converter, Magnetohydrodynamic generator, Magnetohydrodynamics, Magnetosphere, MAGPIE, Mass spectrometry, Maxwell's equations, Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, Mercury-vapor lamp, Metal, Metal ions in aqueous solution, Metallurgy, Micrometre, Moving parts, Nanomaterials, Nanostructure, Navier–Stokes equations, Nebula, Neon sign, Neutron, Neutron star, Nikola Tesla, Nitriding, Non-neutral plasmas, Nonthermal plasma, Nuclear fusion, Outer space, Ozone, Particle beam, Particle-in-cell, Penning trap, Phase (matter), Phase space, Phase transition, Philosophical Magazine, Piezoelectric direct discharge plasma, Pinch (plasma physics), Plasma (physics), Plasma acceleration, Plasma ashing, Plasma channel, Plasma cleaning, Plasma diagnostics, Plasma display, Plasma etching, Plasma gasification, Plasma globe, Plasma medicine, Plasma oscillation, Plasma parameters, Plasma processing, Plasma propulsion engine, Plasma stability, Plasma torch, Plasma weapon, Plasma window, Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, Plasmasphere, Polar wind, Polarization density, Proton, Quark–gluon plasma, Reactive-ion etching, Reversed field pinch, Room temperature, Royal Institution, Saha ionization equation, Scramjet, Semiconductor device fabrication, Shock wave, Solar flare, Solar wind, Solid, Space physics, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Atlantis, Spacecraft, Spectroscopy, Springer Nature, Sprite (lightning), Sputtering, St. Elmo's fire, Star, State of matter, Static electricity, Stellarator, Sun, Supernova remnant, Temperature, Tesla coil, Thermal equilibrium, Thermal spraying, Thomson scattering, Tokamak, Total electron content, Townsend discharge, Ultraviolet, Universe, Upper-atmospheric lightning, Vehicle emissions control, Vlasov equation, Voltage, Waves in plasmas, Welding, White dwarf, William Crookes, Z Pulsed Power Facility. Expand index (203 more) »

Academic journal

An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.

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Accretion disk

An accretion disk is a structure (often a circumstellar disk) formed by diffused material in orbital motion around a massive central body.

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Adiabatic invariant

A property of a physical system, such as the entropy of a gas, that stays approximately constant when changes occur slowly is called an adiabatic invariant.

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Aerospace engineering

Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft.

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Alternating current

Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.

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Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Ambipolar diffusion

Ambipolar diffusion is diffusion of positive and negative species with opposite electrical charge due to their interaction via an electric field.

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Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.

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An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.

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Arc lamp

An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc).

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Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.

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Astrophysical jet

An astrophysical jet is an astronomical phenomenon where outflows of ionised matter are emitted as an extended beam along the axis of rotation.

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Astrophysical plasma

An astrophysical plasma is a plasma (highly ionized gas) that occurs beyond the solar system.

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Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atmospheric entry

Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.

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An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).

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Ball-pen probe

A ball-pen probe is a modified Langmuir probe used to measure the plasma potential in magnetized plasmas.

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Binary star

A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.

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Birkeland current

A Birkeland current is a set of currents that flow along geomagnetic field lines connecting the Earth’s magnetosphere to the Earth's high latitude ionosphere.

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Black hole

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.

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Boltzmann relation

In a plasma, the Boltzmann relation describes the number density of an isothermal charged particle fluid when the thermal and the electrostatic forces acting on the fluid have reached equilibrium.

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British Science Association

The British Science Association (BSA) is a charity and learned society founded in 1831 to aid in the promotion and development of science.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Capacitively coupled plasma

A capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) is one of the most common types of industrial plasma sources.

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Cascaded Arc Plasma Source

The cascaded arc is a wall-stabilized thermal electric arc discharge that produces a high density, low temperature plasma.

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A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.

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Cathode ray

Cathode rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes.

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Charge (physics)

In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics.

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Charge density

In electromagnetism, charge density is a measure of the amount of electric charge per unit length, surface area, or volume.

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Chemical synthesis

Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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A collision is an event in which two or more bodies exert forces on each other for a relatively short time.

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Complex system

A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.

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A corona (Latin, 'crown') is an aura of plasma that surrounds the Sun and other stars.

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Corona discharge

A corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid such as air surrounding a conductor that is electrically charged.

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Coulomb collision

A Coulomb collision is a binary elastic collision between two charged particles interacting through their own electric field.

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Coulomb's law

Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Crookes tube

A Crookes tube (also Crookes–Hittorf tube) is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered.

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Dark matter

Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.

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Debye length

In plasmas and electrolytes, the Debye length (also called Debye radius), named after the Dutch physicist and physical chemist Peter Debye, is a measure of a charge carrier's net electrostatic effect in solution and how far its electrostatic effect persists.

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Debye sheath

The Debye sheath (also electrostatic sheath) is a layer in a plasma which has a greater density of positive ions, and hence an overall excess positive charge, that balances an opposite negative charge on the surface of a material with which it is in contact.

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Degree of ionization

The degree of ionization (also known as ionization yield in the literature) refers to the proportion of neutral particles, such as those in a gas or aqueous solution, that are ionized to charged particles.

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Dense plasma focus

A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a type of plasma device originally developed as a fusion power device starting in the early 1960s.

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The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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Dielectric barrier discharge

Dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) is the electrical discharge between two electrodes separated by an insulating dielectric barrier.

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Dielectric gas

A dielectric gas, or insulating gas, is a dielectric material in gaseous state.

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Dielectric strength

In physics, the term dielectric strength has the following meanings.

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In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.

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Direct current

Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.

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Discipline (academia)

An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.

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Distribution function

In molecular kinetic theory in physics, a particle's distribution function is a function of seven variables, f(x,y,z,t;v_x,v_y,v_z), which gives the number of particles per unit volume in single-particle phase space.

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Double layer (plasma physics)

A double layer is a structure in a plasma consisting of two parallel layers of opposite electrical charge.

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Drag (physics)

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.

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Dusty plasma

A dusty plasma is a plasma containing millimeter (10−3) to nanometer (10−9) sized particles suspended in it.

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In mathematics, specifically multilinear algebra, a dyadic or dyadic tensor is a second order tensor, written in a notation that fits in with vector algebra.

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Efficiency is the (often measurable) ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result.

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Elastic collision

An elastic collision is an encounter between two bodies in which the total kinetic energy of the two bodies after the encounter is equal to their total kinetic energy before the encounter.

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Electric arc

An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.

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Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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Electric light

An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.

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Electric spark

An electric spark is an abrupt electrical discharge that occurs when a sufficiently high electric field creates an ionized, electrically conductive channel through a normally-insulating medium, often air or other gases or gas mixtures.

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Electric-field screening

In physics, screening is the damping of electric fields caused by the presence of mobile charge carriers.

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Electrical breakdown

Electrical breakdown or dielectric breakdown is when current flows through an electrical insulator when the voltage applied across it exceeds the breakdown voltage.

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Electrical conductor

In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.

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Electrical energy

Electrical energy is the energy newly derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy.

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Electrical resistance and conductance

The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.

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Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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Electrically powered spacecraft propulsion

An electrically-powered spacecraft propulsion system uses electrical energy to change the velocity of a spacecraft.

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Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of an electric current or to a strong electric field.

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Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.

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Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron cyclotron resonance

Electron cyclotron resonance is a phenomenon observed in plasma physics, condensed matter physics, and accelerator physics.

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Electron temperature

Temperature is a statistical quantity.

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In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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Electrothermal instability

The electrothermal instability (also known as the ionization instability, non-equilibrium instability or Velikhov instability in the literature) is a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability appearing in magnetized non-thermal plasmas used in MHD converters.

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Enhanced oil recovery

Enhanced oil recovery (abbreviated EOR) is the implementation of various techniques for increasing the amount of crude oil that can be extracted from an oil field.

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Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal.

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Faraday cup

A Faraday cup is a metal (conductive) cup designed to catch charged particles in vacuum.

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Filament propagation

In nonlinear optics, filament propagation is propagation of a beam of light through a medium without diffraction.

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Flow control (fluid)

Flow control is a major rapidly evolving field of fluid dynamics.

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Fluorescent lamp

A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.

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Flux tube

A flux tube is a generally tube-like (cylindrical) region of space containing a magnetic field, B, such that the field is perpendicular to the normal vector, \hat.

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In mathematics, a fractal is an abstract object used to describe and simulate naturally occurring objects.

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Fusion power

Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.

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A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.

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Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Gas-filled tube

A gas-filled tube, also known as a discharge tube, is an arrangement of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope.

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Gas-phase ion chemistry

Gas phase ion chemistry is a field of science encompassed within both chemistry and physics.

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Glow discharge

A glow discharge is a plasma formed by the passage of electric current through a gas.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Guiding center

In physics, the motion of an electrically charged particle such as an electron or ion in a plasma in a magnetic field can be treated as the superposition of a relatively fast circular motion around a point called the guiding center and a relatively slow drift of this point.

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Gyrokinetics is a theoretical framework to study plasma behavior on perpendicular spatial scales comparable to the gyroradius and frequencies much lower than the particle cyclotron frequencies.

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The gyroradius (also known as radius of gyration, Larmor radius or cyclotron radius) is the radius of the circular motion of a charged particle in the presence of a uniform magnetic field.

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Hall effect

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and to an applied magnetic field perpendicular to the current.

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Hall-effect thruster

In spacecraft propulsion, a Hall-effect thruster (HET) is a type of ion thruster in which the propellant is accelerated by an electric field.

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Hannes Alfvén

Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (30 May 1908 – 2 April 1995) was a Swedish electrical engineer, plasma physicist and winner of the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD).

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Hannes Alfvén Prize

The Hannes Alfvén Prize is a prize established by the European Physical Society (EPS) Plasma Physics Division in 2000.

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In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.

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Heat shield

A heat shield is designed to shield a substance from absorbing excessive heat from an outside source by either dissipating, reflecting or simply absorbing the heat.

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Helicon (physics)

A helicon is a low frequency electromagnetic wave that can exist in plasmas in the presence of a magnetic field.

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IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society

The IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society (NPSS) is a transnational group of about 3000 professional engineers and scientists.

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Incoherent scatter

Incoherent scattering is a type of scattering phenomenon in physics.

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Inductively coupled plasma

An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) or transformer coupled plasma (TCP) is a type of plasma source in which the energy is supplied by electric currents which are produced by electromagnetic induction, that is, by time-varying magnetic fields.

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Inertial confinement fusion

Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a type of fusion energy research that attempts to initiate nuclear fusion reactions by heating and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that most often contains a mixture of deuterium and tritium.

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In numerous fields of study, the component of instability within a system is generally characterized by some of the outputs or internal states growing without bounds.

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Insulator (electricity)

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.

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Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic waves, are superimposed causing the phenomenon of interference in order to extract information.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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Interplanetary medium

The interplanetary medium is the material which fills the Solar System, and through which all the larger Solar System bodies, such as planets, dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets, move.

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Interstellar medium

In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.

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Intracluster medium

In astronomy, the intracluster medium (ICM) is the superheated plasma that permeates a galaxy cluster.

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Io (moon)

Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ion implantation

Ion implantation is low-temperature process by which ions of one element are accelerated into a solid target, thereby changing the physical, chemical, or electrical properties of the target.

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Ion thruster

An ion thruster or ion drive is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion.

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Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.

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Ionization energy

The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.

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The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.

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Ionospheric heater

An ionospheric heater, or an ionospheric HF pump facility, is a powerful radio wave transmitter with an array of antennas which is used for research of plasma turbulence, the ionosphere and upper atmosphere.

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Irving Langmuir

Irving Langmuir (January 31, 1881 – August 16, 1957) was an American chemist and physicist.

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ISM band

The industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands are radio bands (portions of the radio spectrum) reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial, scientific and medical purposes other than telecommunications.

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J. J. Thomson

Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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Kinetic energy

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.

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Kink instability

A kink instability, also oscillation or mode, is the m.

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Langmuir probe

A Langmuir probe is a device used to determine the electron temperature, electron density, and electric potential of a plasma.

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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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A lecture (from the French 'lecture', meaning 'reading') is an oral presentation intended to present information or teach people about a particular subject, for example by a university or college teacher.

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Lewi Tonks

Lewi Tonks (1897–1971) was an American quantum physicist noted for his discovery (with Marvin D. Girardeau) of the Tonks-Girardeau gas.

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Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.

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A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

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List of plasma physicists

*Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov.

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List of plasma physics articles

This is a list of plasma physics topics.

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Lorentz force

In physics (particularly in electromagnetism) the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields.

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Lyman Spitzer

Lyman Strong Spitzer, Jr. (June 26, 1914 – March 31, 1997) was an American theoretical physicist, astronomer and mountaineer.

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Magnetic confinement fusion

Magnetic confinement fusion is an approach to generate thermonuclear fusion power that uses magnetic fields to confine the hot fusion fuel in the form of a plasma.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Magnetic mirror

A magnetic mirror, known as a magnetic trap in Russia, is a type of magnetic confinement device used in fusion power to trap high temperature plasma using magnetic fields.

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Magnetic Reynolds number

The magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) is the magnetic analogue of the Reynolds number, a fundamental dimensionless group that occurs in magnetohydrodynamics.

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Magnetohydrodynamic converter

A magnetohydrodynamic converter (MHD converter) is an electromagnetic machine with no moving parts involving magnetohydrodynamics, the study of the kinetics of electrically conductive fluids (liquid or ionized gas) in the presence of electromagnetic fields. Such converters act on the fluid using the Lorentz force to operate in two possible ways: either as an electric generator called an MHD generator, extracting energy from a fluid in motion; or as an electric motor called an MHD accelerator or magnetohydrodynamic drive, putting a fluid in motion by injecting energy. MHD converters are indeed reversible, like many electromagnetic devices. Michael Faraday first attempted to test an MHD converter in 1832. MHD converters involving plasmas were highly studied in the 1960s and 1970s, with many government funding and dedicated international conferences. The research almost stopped after it was considered the electrothermal instability would severely limit the efficiency of such converters when intense magnetic fields are used, although solutions may exist. Crossed-field magnetohydrodynamic converters (linear Faraday type with segmented electrodes) A: MHD generator. B: MHD accelerator.

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Magnetohydrodynamic generator

A magnetohydrodynamic generator (MHD generator) is a magnetohydrodynamic converter that transforms thermal energy and kinetic energy into electricity.

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Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD; also magneto-fluid dynamics or hydro­magnetics) is the study of the magnetic properties of electrically conducting fluids.

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A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.

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MAGPIE (Mega Ampere Generator for Plasma Implosion Experiments) is a pulsed power generator based at Imperial College London, United Kingdom.

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

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Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution

In physics (in particular in statistical mechanics), the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann.

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Mercury-vapor lamp

A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metal ions in aqueous solution

A metal ion in aqueous solution (aqua ion) is a cation, dissolved in water, of chemical formula z+.

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Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.

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The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".

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Moving parts

The moving parts of a machine are those parts of it that move.

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Nanomaterials describe, in principle, materials of which a single unit is sized (in at least one dimension) between 1 to 1000 nanometres (10−9 meter) but usually is 1 to 100 nm (the usual definition of nanoscale).

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A nanostructure is a structure of intermediate size between microscopic and molecular structures.

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Navier–Stokes equations

In physics, the Navier–Stokes equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of viscous fluid substances.

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A nebula (Latin for "cloud" or "fog"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.

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Neon sign

In the signage industry, neon signs are electric signs lighted by long luminous gas-discharge tubes that contain rarefied neon or other gases.

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| magnetic_moment.

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Neutron star

A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.

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Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

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Nitriding is a heat treating process that diffuses nitrogen into the surface of a metal to create a case-hardened surface.

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Non-neutral plasmas

A non-neutral plasma is a plasma for which the total charge is sufficiently different from zero, so that the electric field created by the un-neutralized charge plays an important or even dominant role in the plasma dynamics.

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Nonthermal plasma

A nonthermal plasma, cold plasma or non-equilibrium plasma is a plasma which is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, because the electron temperature is much hotter than the temperature of heavy species (ions and neutrals).

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Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).

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Outer space

Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.

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Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.

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Particle beam

A particle beam is a stream of charged or neutral particles, in many cases moving at near the speed of light.

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The particle-in-cell (PIC) method refers to a technique used to solve a certain class of partial differential equations.

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Penning trap

A Penning trap is a device for the storage of charged particles using a homogeneous axial magnetic field and an inhomogeneous quadrupole electric field.

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Phase (matter)

In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.

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Phase space

In dynamical system theory, a phase space is a space in which all possible states of a system are represented, with each possible state corresponding to one unique point in the phase space.

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Phase transition

The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.

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Philosophical Magazine

The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English.

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Piezoelectric direct discharge plasma

Piezoelectric direct discharge (PDD) plasma is a type of cold non-equilibrium plasma, generated by a direct gas discharge of a high voltage piezoelectric transformer.

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Pinch (plasma physics)

A pinch is the compression of an electrically conducting filament by magnetic forces.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Plasma acceleration

Plasma acceleration is a technique for accelerating charged particles, such as electrons, positrons, and ions, using the electric field associated with electron plasma wave or other high-gradient plasma structures (like shock and sheath fields).

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Plasma ashing

In semiconductor manufacturing plasma ashing is the process of removing the photoresist (light sensitive coating) from an etched wafer.

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Plasma channel

A plasma channel is a conductive channel of plasma.

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Plasma cleaning

Plasma cleaning is the removal of impurities and contaminants from surfaces through the use of an energetic plasma or dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma created from gaseous species.

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Plasma diagnostics

Plasma diagnostics are a pool of methods, instruments, and experimental techniques used to measure properties of a plasma, such as plasma components' density, distribution function over energy (temperature), their spatial profiles and dynamics, which enable to derive plasma parameters.

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Plasma display

A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays or larger.

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Plasma etching

Plasma etching is a form of plasma processing used to fabricate integrated circuits.

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Plasma gasification

Plasma gasification is an extreme thermal process using plasma which converts organic matter into a syngas (synthesis gas) which is primarily made up of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

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Plasma globe

A plasma globe or plasma lamp (also called plasma ball, dome, sphere, tube or orb, depending on shape) is (usually) a clear glass sphere filled with a mixture of various noble gases with a high-voltage electrode in the center of the sphere.

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Plasma medicine

Plasma medicine is an emerging field that combines plasma physics, life sciences and clinical medicine.

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Plasma oscillation

Plasma oscillations, also known as Langmuir waves (after Irving Langmuir), are rapid oscillations of the electron density in conducting media such as plasmas or metals in the ultraviolet region.

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Plasma parameters

Plasma parameters define various characteristics of a plasma, an electrically conductive collection of charged particles that responds collectively to electromagnetic forces.

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Plasma processing

Plasma processing is a plasma-based material processing technology that aims at modifying the chemical and physical properties of a surface.

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Plasma propulsion engine

A plasma propulsion engine is a type of electric propulsion that generates thrust from a quasi-neutral plasma.

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Plasma stability

An important field of plasma physics is the stability of a plasma.

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Plasma torch

A plasma torch (also known as a plasma arc, plasma gun, or plasma cutter, plasmatron) is a device for generating a directed flow of plasma.

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Plasma weapon

When discussing weapons in science fiction, a plasma weapon is a type of raygun that fires a stream, bolt(s), pulse or toroid of plasma (i.e. very hot, very energetic excited matter).

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Plasma window

The plasma window (not to be confused with a plasma shield) is a technology that fills a volume of space with plasma confined by a magnetic field.

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Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is a chemical vapor deposition process used to deposit thin films from a gas state (vapor) to a solid state on a substrate.

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The plasmasphere, or inner magnetosphere, is a region of the Earth's magnetosphere consisting of low energy (cool) plasma.

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Polar wind

The polar wind or plasma fountain is a permanent outflow of plasma from the polar regions of Earth's magnetosphere, caused by the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's atmosphere.

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Polarization density

In classical electromagnetism, polarization density (or electric polarization, or simply polarization) is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a dielectric material.

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| magnetic_moment.

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Quark–gluon plasma

A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density.

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Reactive-ion etching

Reactive-ion etching (RIE) is an etching technology used in microfabrication.

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Reversed field pinch

A reversed-field pinch (RFP) is a device used to produce and contain near-thermonuclear plasmas.

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Room temperature

Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.

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Royal Institution

The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often abbreviated as the Royal Institution or Ri) is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London.

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Saha ionization equation

The Saha ionization equation, also known as the Saha–Langmuir equation, is an expression that relates the ionization state of a gas in thermal equilibrium to the temperature and pressure.

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A scramjet ("supersonic combustion ramjet") is a variant of a ramjet airbreathing jet engine in which combustion takes place in supersonic airflow.

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Semiconductor device fabrication

Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices.

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Shock wave

In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.

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Solar flare

A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun's brightness, usually observed near its surface.

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Solar wind

The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.

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Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).

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Space physics

Space physics is the study of plasmas as they occur naturally in the Earth's upper atmosphere (aeronomy) and within the Solar System.

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Space Shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.

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Space Shuttle Atlantis

Space Shuttle Atlantis (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV‑104) is a Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle belonging to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the spaceflight and space exploration agency of the United States.

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A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Springer Nature

Springer Nature is an academic publishing company created by the May 2015 merger of Springer Science+Business Media and Holtzbrinck Publishing Group's Nature Publishing Group, Palgrave Macmillan, and Macmillan Education.

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Sprite (lightning)

Sprites are large-scale electrical discharges that occur high above thunderstorm clouds, or cumulonimbus, giving rise to a quite varied range of visual shapes flickering in the night sky.

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Sputtering is a process whereby particles are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles, particularly gas ions in a laboratory.

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St. Elmo's fire


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A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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State of matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.

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Static electricity

Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material.

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A stellarator is a device used to confine hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Supernova remnant

A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Tesla coil

A Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit designed by inventor Nikola Tesla in 1891.

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Thermal equilibrium

Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if there are no net flow of thermal energy between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.

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Thermal spraying

Thermal spraying techniques are coating processes in which melted (or heated) materials are sprayed onto a surface.

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Thomson scattering

Thomson scattering is the elastic scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a free charged particle, as described by classical electromagnetism.

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A tokamak (Токамáк) is a device that uses a powerful magnetic field to confine a hot plasma in the shape of a torus.

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Total electron content

Total electron content (or TEC) is an important descriptive quantity for the ionosphere of the Earth.

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Townsend discharge

The Townsend discharge or Townsend avalanche is a gas ionisation process where free electrons are accelerated by an electric field, collide with gas molecules, and consequently free additional electrons.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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Upper-atmospheric lightning

Upper-atmospheric lightning or ionospheric lightning are terms sometimes used by researchers to refer to a family of short-lived electrical-breakdown phenomena that occur well above the altitudes of normal lightning and storm clouds.

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Vehicle emissions control

Vehicle emissions control is the study of reducing the emissions produced by motor vehicles, especially internal combustion engines.

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Vlasov equation

The Vlasov equation is a differential equation describing time evolution of the distribution function of plasma consisting of charged particles with long-range interaction, e.g. Coulomb.

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Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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Waves in plasmas

In plasma physics, waves in plasmas are an interconnected set of particles and fields which propagates in a periodically repeating fashion.

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Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.

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White dwarf

A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.

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William Crookes

Sir William Crookes (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was a British chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry in London, and worked on spectroscopy.

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Z Pulsed Power Facility

The Z Pulsed Power Facility, informally known as the Z machine, is the largest high frequency electromagnetic wave generator in the world and is designed to test materials in conditions of extreme temperature and pressure.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma_(physics)

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