106 relations: Addiction module, Adeno-associated virus, Adenoviridae, Agarose gel electrophoresis, Ampicillin, Antibiotic, Antidote, Antimicrobial resistance, Archaea, Élie Wollman, Bacteria, Bacterial artificial chromosome, Bacterial conjugation, Bacteriocin, Bacteriophage, Base pair, Bioinformatics, Capsid, Cell (biology), Cell division, Chromosome, Clone manager, Copy-number variation, Cosmid, Denaturation (biochemistry), DNA, DNA supercoil, DnaA, Double minute, Ecological niche, Epstein–Barr virus, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, Extension cord, Fertility factor (bacteria), François Jacob, Gel electrophoresis, Gene, Gene expression, Gene therapy, Genetic engineering, Genome, Genomic DNA, Herpesviridae, Hok/sok system, Homologous recombination, Horizontal gene transfer, Innate immune system, Insulin, Isogenic human disease models, ..., Iteron, Joshua Lederberg, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Kluyveromyces lactis, Lambda phage, Life, Ligation (molecular biology), Literature, Lytic cycle, MacVector, Marker gene, Minichromosome, Mobilome, Molecular biology, Molecular cloning, Multiple cloning site, Nitrogen fixation, Oncogene, Origin of replication, ParABS system, ParMRC system, Pathogen, Pilus, Plasmid, Plasmid partition system, Plasmid preparation, Plasmidome, Poison, Polyomaviridae, Poxviridae, Protein, Provirus, Recombinant DNA, Replicon (genetics), Reporter gene, Restriction digest, Restriction enzyme, Restriction site, Rolling circle replication, Salicylic acid, Segrosome, Selectable marker, Software, Toluene, Toxin, Transformation (genetics), Transposable element, Triparental mating, Twist Bioscience, Vector (molecular biology), Vector NTI, Virulence factor, Virus, Yeast, Yeast artificial chromosome, Zinc finger nuclease. Expand index (56 more) » « Shrink index
Addiction modules are toxin-antitoxin systems.
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small virus which infects humans and some other primate species.
Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.
Agarose gel electrophoresis is a method of gel electrophoresis used in biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and clinical chemistry to separate a mixed population of macromolecules such as DNA or proteins in a matrix of agarose, one of the two main components of agar.
Ampicillin is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat a number of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, salmonellosis, and endocarditis.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Élie Léo Wollman (July 4, 1917 – June 1, 2008) was a French microbial geneticist who first described plasmids (what he termed "episomes"), and served as vice director of research for the Pasteur Institute for twenty years.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for transforming and cloning in bacteria, usually E. coli.
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.
Bacteriocins are proteinaceous or peptidic toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strain(s).
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Clone Manager is a commercial bioinformatics software work suite of Sci-Ed, that supports molecular biologists with data management and allows them to perform certain in silico preanalysis.
Copy number variation (CNV) is a phenomenon in which sections of the genome are repeated and the number of repeats in the genome varies between individuals in the human population.
A cosmid is a type of hybrid plasmid that contains a Lambda phage cos sequence.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA supercoiling refers to the over- or under-winding of a DNA strand, and is an expression of the strain on that strand.
DnaA is a protein that activates initiation of DNA replication in bacteria.
Double minutes are small fragments of extrachromosomal DNA, which have been observed in a large number of human tumors including breast, lung, ovary, colon, and most notably, neuroblastoma.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of eight known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
An extension cord, power extender, drop cord, or extension lead is a length of flexible electrical power cable (flex) with a plug on one end and one or more sockets on the other end (usually of the same type as the plug).
The fertility factor (first named F by one of its discoverers Esther Lederberg) (also called the sex factor in E. Coli or the F sex factor) allows genes to be transferred from one bacterium carrying the factor to another bacterium lacking the factor by conjugation. The F factor is carried on the F episome, the first episome to be discovered. Unlike other plasmids, F factor is constitutive for transfer proteins due to the gene traJ. The F plasmid belongs to a class of conjugative plasmids that control sexual functions of bacteria with a fertility inhibition (Fin) system.
François Jacob (17 June 1920 – 19 April 2013) was a French biologist who, together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme levels in all cells occurs through regulation of transcription.
Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid is chromosomal DNA, in contrast to extra-chromosomal DNAs like plasmids.
Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.
The hok/sok system is a postsegregational killing mechanism employed by the R1 plasmid in Escherichia coli.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Isogenic human disease models are a family of cells that are selected or engineered to accurately model the genetics of a specific patient population, in vitro.
Iterons are directly repeated DNA sequences which play an important role in regulation of plasmid copy number in bacterial cells.
Joshua Lederberg, ForMemRS (May 23, 1925 – February 2, 2008) was an American molecular biologist known for his work in microbial genetics, artificial intelligence, and the United States space program.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the ninth known human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is HHV-8.
Kluyveromyces lactis is a Kluyveromyces yeast commonly used for genetic studies and industrial applications.
Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage, coliphage λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli (E. coli).
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
In molecular biology, ligation is the joining of two nucleic acid fragments through the action of an enzyme.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction (referring to bacterial viruses or bacteriophages), the other being the lysogenic cycle.
MacVector is a commercial sequence analysis application for Apple Macintosh computers running Mac OS X. It is intended to be used by molecular biologists to help analyze, design, research and document their experiments in the laboratory.
In biology, a marker gene may have several meanings.
A minichromosome is a small chromatin-like structure consisting of centromeres, telomeres and replication origins and little additional genetic material.
The mobilome is the total of all mobile genetic elements in a genome.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.
A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
The origin of replication (also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated.
Originally identified as a genetic element required for faithful partitioning of low-copy-number plasmids, the parABS system is a broadly conserved molecular mechanism for plasmid partitioning and chromosome segregation in bacteria.
ParMRC is known as one of the best systems for bacterial segregation.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
A pilus (Latin for 'hair'; plural: pili) is a hair-like appendage found on the surface of many bacteria.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
A plasmid partition system is a mechanism that ensures the stable inheritance of plasmids during bacterial cell division.
A plasmid preparation is a method of DNA extraction and purification for plasmid DNA.
An environment's plasmidome refers to the plasmids present in it.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Polyomaviridae is a family of viruses whose natural hosts are primarily mammals and birds.
Poxviridae is a family of viruses.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A provirus is a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
A replicon is a DNA molecule or RNA molecule, or a region of DNA or RNA, that replicates from a single origin of replication.
In molecular biology, a reporter gene (often simply reporter) is a gene that researchers attach to a regulatory sequence of another gene of interest in bacteria, cell culture, animals or plants.
A restriction digest is a procedure used in molecular biology to prepare DNA for analysis or other processing.
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.
Restriction sites, or restriction recognition sites, are locations on a DNA molecule containing specific (4-8 base pairs in length) sequences of nucleotides, which are recognized by restriction enzymes.
Rolling circle replication describes a process of unidirectional nucleic acid replication that can rapidly synthesize multiple copies of circular molecules of DNA or RNA, such as plasmids, the genomes of bacteriophages, and the circular RNA genome of viroids.
Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).
Segrosomes are protein complexes that ensure accurate segregation (partitioning) of plasmids or chromosomes during bacterial cell division.
A selectable marker is a gene introduced into a cell, especially a bacterium or to cells in culture, that confers a trait suitable for artificial selection.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.
Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain.
Twist Bioscience is a privately held company based in San Francisco that manufactures synthetic DNA for clients in the biotechnology industry.
In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed (e.g.- plasmid, cosmid, Lambda phages).
Vector NTI is a commercial bioinformatics software package used by many life scientists to work, among other things, with nucleic acids and proteins in silico.
Virulence factors are molecules produced by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that add to their effectiveness and enable them to achieve the following.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are genetically engineered chromosomes derived from the DNA of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is then ligated into a bacterial plasmid.
Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are artificial restriction enzymes generated by fusing a zinc finger DNA-binding domain to a DNA-cleavage domain.
Col plasmid, Episome, Episomes, F plus cell, F-duction, F-pili, Megaplasmid, Minipreparation, Minprep, Multicopy plasmid, PDNA, Plasmid vector, Plasmide, Plasmids, Theta type plasmid, Theta-type plasmid.