104 relations: Adhesive, Alhambra, Ambridge, Pennsylvania, Amputation, Anhydrite, Asbestos, Asbestos abatement, Asbestosis, Behshahr, Borujerdi House, Brickwork, Bughole, Burn, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium oxide, Calcium sulfate, Cancer, Cast Courts (Victoria and Albert Museum), Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Clay panel, Composite material, Concrete, Crystallization, Dental impression, Dentures, Desiccant, Dropped ceiling, Drywall, Endothermic process, England, Exothermic process, Fireproofing, Firestop, Fresco, Gauze, Gypsum, Harl, Heat, Hemihydrate, Himeji, Hy-Rib, Hyōgo Prefecture, Iberian Peninsula, International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers, Intonaco, Intumescent, Iran, Irritation, Japan, Joint compound, ..., Kashan, Lafarge (company), Lath, Lath and plaster, Lime plaster, Limestone, Lincolnshire, London stock brick, Lost-wax casting, Maghreb, Middle East, Mineral wool, Montmartre, Mount Vesuvius, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Near East, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Old Economy Village, Old-growth forest, Opus albarium, Orthopedic cast, Parge coat, Pargeting, Passive fire protection, Permissible exposure limit, Phosphogypsum, Pigment, Plaster, Plasterwork, Polished plaster, Poly(methyl methacrylate), Polystyrene, Pompeii, Portland cement, Powder bed and inkjet head 3D printing, Radiation therapy, Recommended exposure limit, Relief, Roughcast, Sandpaper, Shoal, Silicon dioxide, Silicosis, Sistine Chapel ceiling, Structural steel, Stucco, Tadelakt, Terracotta, Thermal insulation, Vermiculite, Wall stud, Wattle and daub, Whitewash, Yeseria. Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
The Alhambra (الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrā, lit. "The Red One",The "Al-" in "Alhambra" means "the" in Arabic, but this is ignored in general usage in both English and Spanish, where the name is normally given the definite articleالْحَمْرَاء, trans.; literally "the red one", feminine; in colloquial Arabic: the complete Arabic form of which was Qalat Al-Hamra)الْقَلْعَةُ ٱلْحَمْرَاءُ, trans.
Ambridge is a borough in Beaver County in Western Pennsylvania, incorporated in 1905 and named after the American Bridge Company.
Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.
Anhydrite is a mineral—anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4.
Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.
Many buildings contain asbestos, which was used in spray-applied flame retardant, thermal system insulation, and in a variety of other materials.
Asbestosis is long term inflammation and scarring of the lungs due to asbestos.
Behshahr (بهشهر; formerly Ashraf and Ashraf ol Belād) is a city in Mazandaran, Iran & the capital of Behshahr County.
The Borujerdi House (Khāneh-ye Borujerdihā) is a historic house in Kashan, Iran.
Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar.
A bughole (or pinhole) is a small hole in the surface of a concrete structure caused by the expansion and eventual outgassing of trapped pockets of air in setting concrete.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The Cast Courts (originally called the Architectural CourtsWilliamson 1996, p. 182.) of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, England, comprise two large halls.
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park is located in the District of Columbia and the states of Maryland and West Virginia.
Clay panel (also known as clay board, clay wallboard, clay building board, clay building panel) is a panel made of clay with some additives.
A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
A dental impression is a negative imprint of hard (teeth) and soft tissues in the mouth from which a positive reproduction (cast or model) can be formed.
Dentures (also known as false teeth) are prosthetic devices constructed to replace missing teeth; they are supported by the surrounding soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity.
A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its vicinity; it is the opposite of a humectant.
A dropped ceiling is a secondary ceiling, hung below the main (structural) ceiling.
Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, gypsum panel, sheet rock, or gypsum board) is a panel made of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum), with or without additives, typically extruded between thick sheets of facer and backer paper, utilized in the construction of interior walls and ceilings.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
Fireproofing is rendering something (structures, materials, etc.) resistant to fire, or incombustible; or material for use in making anything fire-proof.
A firestop is a passive fire protection system made up of various components and used to seal openings and joints in a fire-resistance-rated wall or floor assembly.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
Gauze is a thin, translucent fabric with a loose open weave.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
In Scottish and Ulster usage, harling describes an exterior building-surfacing technique which results in a long-lasting weatherproof shield for a stone building.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
A hemihydrate, or semihydrate, is a hydrate whose solid contains one molecule of water of crystallization per two molecules, or per two unit cells.
is a city located in Hyōgo Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan.
Hy-Rib was a brand name for a product manufactured by the Trussed Concrete Steel Company.
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kansai region on Honshu island.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers (BAC) is a labor union in the United States and Canada which represents bricklayers, restoration specialists, pointers/cleaners/caulkers, stonemasons, marble masons, cement masons, plasterers, tilesetters, terrazzo mechanics, and tile, marble and terrazzo finishers.
Intonaco is an Italian term for the final, very thin layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted.
An intumescent is a substance that swells as a result of heat exposure, thus increasing in volume and decreasing in density.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irritation, in biology and physiology, is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Joint compound (also known as drywall compound or Mastic) is a white powder of primarily gypsum dust mixed with water to form a mud the consistency of cake frosting, which is used with paper or fiber joint tape to seal joints between sheets of drywall to create a seamless base for paint on interior walls.
Kashan (کاشان, also Romanized as: Kāshān) is a city in Isfahan province, Iran.
Lafarge is a French industrial company specialising in three major products: cement, construction aggregates, and concrete.
A lath or slat is a thin, narrow strip of straight-grained wood used under roof shingles or tiles, on lath and plaster walls and ceilings to hold plaster, and in lattice and trellis work.
Lath and plaster is a building process used to finish mainly interior walls and ceilings in Canada and the United States until the late 1950s.
Lime plaster is a type of plaster composed of sand, water, and lime, usually non-hydraulic hydrated lime (also known as slaked lime, high calcium lime or air lime).
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in east central England.
London stock brick is the type of handmade brick which was used for the majority of building work in London and South East England until the growth in the use of Flettons and other machine-made bricks in the early 20th century.
Lost-wax casting (also called "investment casting", "precision casting", or cire perdue in French) is the process by which a duplicate metal sculpture (often silver, gold, brass or bronze) is cast from an original sculpture.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mineral wool is a general name for fiber materials that are formed by spinning or drawing molten minerals (or "synthetic minerals" such as slag and ceramics).
Montmartre is a large hill in Paris's 18th arrondissement.
Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio; Vesuvio; Mons Vesuvius; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Old Economy Village is a historic settlement in Ambridge, Beaver County, Pennsylvania, United States.
An old-growth forest — also termed primary forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, or late seral forest— is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community.
Opus albarium is the Latin name for a refined type of plasterwork used in the interiors of houses, consisting of a special stucco incorporating marble dust, then beaten compact with rammers: the technique is described by Vitruvius.
An orthopedic cast, or simply cast, is a shell, frequently made from plaster or fiberglass, encasing a limb (or, in some cases, large portions of the body) to stabilize and hold anatomical structures, most often a broken bone (or bones), in place until healing is confirmed.
A parge coat is a thin coat of a cementitious or polymeric mortar applied to concrete or masonry for refinement of the surface.
Pargeting (or sometimes pargetting) is a decorative or waterproofing plastering applied to building walls.
Passive fire protection (PFP) is an integral component of the components of structural fire protection and fire safety in a building.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Phosphogypsum refers to the calcium sulfate hydrate formed as a by-product of the production of fertilizer from phosphate rock.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.
Plasterwork refers to construction or ornamentation done with plaster, such as a layer of plaster on an interior or exterior wall structure, or plaster decorative moldings on ceilings or walls.
Polished plaster is a term for the finish of some plasters and for the description of new and updated forms of traditional Italian plaster finishes.
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic or acrylic glass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex among several others (see below), is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.
Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout.
Powder bed and inkjet 3D printing, known variously as "binder jetting" and "drop-on-powder" – or simply "3D printing" (3DP) – is a rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing technology for making objects described by digital data such as a CAD file.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Roughcast or pebbledash is a coarse plaster surface used on outside walls that consists of lime and sometimes cement mixed with sand, small gravel, and often pebbles or shells.
Sandpaper and glasspaper are names used for a type of coated abrasive that consists of sheets of paper or cloth with abrasive material glued to one face.
In oceanography, geomorphology, and earth sciences, a shoal is a natural submerged ridge, bank, or bar that consists of, or is covered by, sand or other unconsolidated material, and rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silicosis (also known as miner's phthisis, grinder's asthma, potter's rot and other occupation-related names, or by the invented name pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis) is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in the form of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs.
The Sistine Chapel ceiling, painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512, is a cornerstone work of High Renaissance art.
Structural steel is a category of steel used for making construction materials in a variety of shapes.
Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder and water.
Tadelakt (tadla:kt) is a waterproof plaster surface used in Moroccan architecture to make baths, sinks, water vessels, interior and exterior walls, ceilings, roofs, and even floors.
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (i.e. the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.
Vermiculite is a hydrous phyllosilicate mineral.
A wall stud is a vertical framing member in a building's wall of smaller cross section than a post.
Wattle and daub is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw.
Whitewash, or calcimine, kalsomine, calsomine, or lime paint is a low-cost type of paint made from slaked lime (calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2) and chalk (calcium carbonate, (CaCO3), sometimes known as "whiting". Various other additives are also used.
Yeseria is a technique of carving plaster used by the Spanish Moors like also by the post-Reconsquista's Mudéjar architecture.