318 relations: Acinetobacter, Acrylate polymer, Acrylic paint, Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, Acryloyl group, Active Disassembly, Adipate, Aerobic digestion, Alcohol, Alexander Parkes, Alkane, Alkylphenol, Aluminium, Amber, American Chemical Society, American Chemistry Council, Amide, Amine, Aminocaproic acid, Amorphous solid, Anaerobic digestion, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii, Backbone chain, Bakelite, BASF, Belgian Americans, Benzyl butyl phthalate, Biocompatibility, Biodegradable additives, Biodegradable plastic, Biodegradation, Bioplastic, Birmingham, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, Bisphenol A, Bone, BoPET, Boron trifluoride, Brevibacillus borstelensis, Calico Printers' Association, California Institute of Technology, Caprolactam, Carbon, Carcinogen, Casein, Casting, Celluloid, ..., Cellulose, Celsius, Ceramic, Chalk, Charles Goodyear, Chemical decomposition, Chemical industry, Chemical property, Chemical structure, Chemically inert, Chewing gum, Chlorofluorocarbon, Collagen, Colloid, Combustibility and flammability, Commodity plastics, Compact disc, Comparative Tracking Index, Condensation reaction, Conductive polymer, Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act, Copper, Corn construction, Corn starch, Cross-link, Crystal, Crystallization of polymers, Deformation (engineering), Density, Dental sealant, Dibutyl phthalate, Diisodecyl phthalate, Diisononyl phthalate, Dow Chemical Company, Ductility, DuPont, Ebonite, Elastomer, Elmer Keiser Bolton, Endocrine disruptor, Engineering plastic, Environmental degradation, Environmental Health Perspectives, Epoxy, Estrogen, European Union, Extrusion, Fiber, Filler (materials), Film, Fire retardant, Fishing line, Flavobacterium, Foam peanut, Formaldehyde, Formica, Formica (plastic), Furan, Futuro, Galalith, Garden furniture, Genetic engineering, Geotrichum candidum, Germany, Giulio Natta, Glass, Glass transition, Glasses, Global warming, Greek language, Halocarbon, Hardness, Herman Francis Mark, Hermann Staudinger, High-density polyethylene, Horn (anatomy), Hot isostatic pressing, Imperial Chemical Industries, Implant (medicine), Incineration, Industrial Revolution, Injection moulding, Inorganic compound, Intermolecular force, International Agency for Research on Cancer, International Organization for Standardization, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ionizing radiation, Ivory, Japan, Kapton, Labor intensity, Lactic acid, Landfill, Latex, Leather, Lentinus tigrinus, Leo Baekeland, List of largest chemical producers, List of Nobel laureates, List of synthetic polymers, London, Low-density polyethylene, Maleimide, Materials science, Melamine resin, Melting point, Mesoamerica, Metal, Methane emissions, Methyl methacrylate, Microplastics, Middle Ages, Modified starch, Molding (process), Molecular mass, Molecule, Monomer, Montreal Protocol, National Geographic Society, Natural rubber, New car smell, New York (state), New York City, Nitric acid, Nitrocellulose, Nitrogen, Nocardia, Nuclear arms race, Nylon, Nylon 6, Nylon riots, OLED, Oligomer, Olympic Games, Organic compound, Organotin chemistry, Oxygen, Ozone layer, Pantyhose, Pestalotiopsis, Petrochemical, Phanerochaete, Phenol, Phenol formaldehyde resin, Photopolymer, Phthalate, Physical property, Piping, Plain bearing, Plastarch material, Plastic colorant, Plastic container, Plastic film, Plastic model, Plastic pipework, Plastic recycling, Plastic surgery, Plastic wrap, Plasticity (physics), Plasticizer, Plastics engineering, Plastics extrusion, Plasticulture, Plumbing, Poly(methyl methacrylate), Polyacetylene, Polyaddition, Polyamide, Polycarbonate, Polyester, Polyether ether ketone, Polyetherimide, Polyethylene, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polyhydroxyalkanoates, Polyhydroxybutyrate, Polyimide, Polylactic acid, Polymer, Polymer chemistry, Polymer physics, Polymer stabilizers, Polypropylene, Polystyrene, Polysulfone, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Polyurethane, Polyvinyl chloride, Polyvinylidene chloride, Product design, Progressive Bag Alliance, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Recycling, Recycling symbol, Redox, Repeat unit, Resin identification code, Rheology, Riot shield, Rock (geology), Roll-to-roll processing, Rotational molding, Royal Artillery Barracks, Saran (plastic), Sargasso Sea, Self-healing material, Sergey Lebedev (chemist), Shellac, Shrink wrap, Side chain, Silicone, Silk, Society of the Plastics Industry, Soda–lime glass, Southeast Asia, Space Race, Sphingomonas, Stabilizer (chemistry), Starch, Step-growth polymerization, Stocking, Styrene, Styrene-butadiene, Styrofoam, Sulfur, Synthetic fiber, Synthetic membrane, Textile, Thermal cleaning, Thermoforming, Thermoplastic, Thermosetting polymer, Timeline of materials technology, Toothbrush, Toxicity, Toy, Transparency and translucency, UL (safety organization), UL 94, Ultimate tensile strength, Ultraviolet, Unified atomic mass unit, United States, Urea-formaldehyde, Vicat softening point, Vinyl chloride, Vinyl siding, Vinyloop, Volatile organic compound, Vulcanization, Wallace Carothers, Waste-to-energy, Wastewater, Water Polo Arena, Wood, Wood flour, World Health Organization, World War I, World War II, World's fair, Young's modulus, Yutaka Tokiwa, Zinc oxide, 1862 International Exhibition, 1939 New York World's Fair. 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Acinetobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the wider class of Gammaproteobacteria.
Acrylate polymers belong to a group of polymers which could be referred to generally as plastics.
Acrylic paint is a fast-drying paint made of pigment suspended in acrylic polymer emulsion.
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) (chemical formula (C8H8)x·(C4H6)y·(C3H3N)z) is a common thermoplastic polymer.
In organic chemistry, the acryloyl group is form of enone with structure H2C.
Active Disassembly (AD) is a developing technology which is associated with the term Active Disassembly using Smart Materials (ADSM).
Adipates are the salts and esters of adipic acid.
Aerobic digestion is a process in sewage treatment designed to reduce the volume of sewage sludge and make it suitable for subsequent use.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alexander Parkes (29 December 1813 29 June 1890) was a metallurgist and inventor from Birmingham, England.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
Alkylphenols are a family of organic compounds obtained by the alkylation of phenols.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.
The American Chemistry Council (ACC), formerly known as the Manufacturing Chemists' Association (at its founding in 1872) and then as the Chemical Manufacturers' Association (from 1978 until 2000), is an industry trade association for American chemical companies, based in Washington, D.C.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Aminocaproic acid (also known as ε-aminocaproic acid, ε-Ahx, or 6-aminohexanoic acid) is a derivative and analogue of the amino acid lysine, which makes it an effective inhibitor for enzymes that bind that particular residue.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.
Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus of the genus Aspergillus, and is one of the most common Aspergillus species to cause disease in individuals with an immunodeficiency.
Aspergillus niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus.
Aspergillus sydowii is a pathogenic fungus that causes several diseases in humans.
In polymer science, the backbone chain of a polymer is the longest series of covalently bonded atoms that together create the continuous chain of the molecule.
Bakelite (sometimes spelled Baekelite), or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, is the first plastic made from synthetic components.
BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world.
Belgian Americans are Americans who can trace their ancestry to immigrants of Belgium who emigrated to the United States.
Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a phthalate, an ester of phthalic acid, benzyl alcohol, and ''n''-butanol.
Biocompatibility is related to the behavior of biomaterials in various contexts.
Biodegradable additives are additives that enhance the biodegradation of polymers by allowing microorganisms to utilize the carbon within the polymer chain itself.
Biodegradable plastics are plastics that are decomposed by the action of living organisms, usually bacteria.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
Bioplastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, or microbiota.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate or DEHA is an organic compound with the formula (CH2CH2CO2C8H17)2.
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, diethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP; dioctyl phthalate, DOP) is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO2C8H17)2.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 belonging to the group of diphenylmethane derivatives and bisphenols, with two hydroxyphenyl groups.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
BoPET (biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate) is a polyester film made from stretched polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and is used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, reflectivity, gas and aroma barrier properties, and electrical insulation.
Boron trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BF3.
Brevibacillus borstelensis is a Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium of the genus Brevibacillus.
The Calico Printers' Association Ltd was a British textile company founded in 1899, from the amalgamation of 46 textile printing companies and 13 textile merchants.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
Caprolactam (CPL) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)5C(O)NH.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Casein ("kay-seen", from Latin caseus, "cheese") is a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).
Casting is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify.
Celluloids are a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, with added dyes and other agents.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
Charles Goodyear (December 29, 1800 – July 1, 1860) was an American self-taught chemist and manufacturing engineer who developed vulcanized rubber, for which he received patent number 3633 from the United States Patent Office on June 15, 1844.
Chemical decomposition, analysis or breakdown is the separation of a single chemical compound into its two or more elemental parts or to simpler compounds.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
In chemistry, the term chemically inert is used to describe a substance that is not chemically reactive.
Chewing gum is a soft, cohesive substance designed to be chewed without being swallowed.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
Commodity plastics are plastics that are used in high volume and wide range of applications, such as film for packaging, photographic and magnetic tape, clothing, beverage and trash containers and a variety of household products where mechanical properties and service environments are not critical.
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.
The Comparative Tracking Index or CTI is used to measure the electrical breakdown (tracking) properties of an insulating material.
A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).
Conductive polymers or, more precisely, intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) are organic polymers that conduct electricity.
The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA) of 2008 is a United States law signed on August 14, 2008 by President George W. Bush.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corn construction refers to the use of corn (maize) in construction.
Corn starch, cornstarch, cornflour or maize starch or maize is the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain.
A cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Crystallization of polymers is a process associated with partial alignment of their molecular chains.
In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to-.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Dental sealants (also termed pit and fissure sealants, or simply fissure sealants) are a dental treatment intended to prevent tooth decay.
Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is an organic compound commonly used plasticizer. With the chemical formula C6H4(CO2C4H9)2, it is a colorless oil, although commercial samples are often yellow. Because of its low toxicity and wide liquid range, it is used as a plasticizer.Peter M. Lorz, Friedrich K. Towae, Walter Enke, Rudolf Jäckh, Naresh Bhargava, Wolfgang Hillesheim "Phthalic Acid and Derivatives" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2007, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.
Diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) is a commonly used plasticizer used in the production of plastic and plastic coating to increase flexibility.
The Dow Chemical Company, commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States, and the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Ebonite is a brand name for very hard rubber first obtained by Charles Goodyear by vulcanizing natural rubber for prolonged periods.
An elastomer is a polymer with viscoelasticity (i. e., both viscosity and elasticity) and very weak intermolecular forces, and generally low Young's modulus and high failure strain compared with other materials.
Elmer Keiser Bolton (June 23, 1886 – July 30, 1968) was an American chemist and research director for DuPont, notable for his role in developing neoprene and directing the research that led to the discovery of nylon.
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.
Engineering plastics are a group of plastic materials that have better mechanical and/or thermal properties than the more widely used commodity plastics (such as polystyrene, PVC, polypropylene and polyethylene).
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.
Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a peer-reviewed journal published monthly with support from the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).
Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.
Fillers are particles added to material (plastics, composite material, concrete) to lower the consumption of more expensive binder material or to better some properties of the mixtured material.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
A fire retardant is a substance that is used to slow or stop the spread of fire or reduce its intensity.
A fishing line is a cord used or made for angling.
Flavobacterium is a genus of gram-negative, nonmotile and motile, rod-shaped bacteria that consists of 130 recognized species.
Foam peanuts, also known as packing peanuts, or packing noodles are a common loose-fill packaging and cushioning material used to prevent damage to fragile objects during shipping.
Formica is a genus of ants of the family Formicidae, commonly known as wood ants, mound ants, thatching ants, and field ants.
Formica laminate is a laminated composite material invented at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in the United States in 1912.
Furan is a heterocyclic organic compound, consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen.
A Futuro house in Warrington, New Zealand. Futuro, or Futuro House, is a round, prefabricated house designed by Matti Suuronen, of which fewer than 100 were built during the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Galalith (Erinoid in the United Kingdom) is a synthetic plastic material manufactured by the interaction of casein and formaldehyde.
Garden furniture, also called patio furniture or outdoor furniture, is a type of furniture specifically designed for outdoor use.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Geotrichum candidum is a fungus which is a member of the human microbiome, notably associated with skin, sputum and feces where it occurs in 25-30% of specimens.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giulio Natta (26 February 1903 – 2 May 1979) was an Italian chemist and Nobel laureate.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials), from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.
Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are devices consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically using a bridge over the nose and arms which rest over the ears.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine –) resulting in the formation of organofluorine compounds, organochlorine compounds, organobromine compounds, and organoiodine compounds.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
Herman Francis Mark (May 3, 1895, Vienna – April 6, 1992, Austin, Texas) was an Austrian-American chemist regarded for his contributions to the development of polymer science.
Hermann Staudinger (23 March 1881 – 8 September 1965) was a German organic chemist who demonstrated the existence of macromolecules, which he characterized as polymers.
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high-density (PEHD) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum.
A horn is a permanent pointed projection on the head of various animals consisting of a covering of keratin and other proteins surrounding a core of live bone.
Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is a manufacturing process, used to reduce the porosity of metals and increase the density of many ceramic materials.
Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) was a British chemical company and was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain.
An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure.
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Injection moulding (British English) or injection molding (American English) is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting molten material into a mould.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Kapton is a polyimide film developed by DuPont in the late 1960s that remains stable across a wide range of temperatures, from.
Labor intensity is the relative proportion of labor (compared to capital) used in a process.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.
Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium.
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.
Lentinus tigrinus is a mushroom in the Polyporaceae family.
Leo Henricus Arthur Baekeland FRSE(Hon) (November 14, 1863 – February 23, 1944) was a Belgian-American chemist.
Chemical & Engineering News publishes an annual list of the world's largest chemical producers by sales, excluding formulated products such as pharmaceutical drugs and coatings.
The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
Synthetic polymers are human-made polymers.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is a thermoplastic made from the monomer ethylene.
Maleimide is a chemical compound with the formula H2C2(CO)2NH (see diagram).
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
Melamine resin or melamine formaldehyde (also shortened to melamine) is a hard, thermosetting plastic material made from melamine and formaldehyde by polymerization.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Global methane emissions are major part of the global greenhouse gas emissions.
Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is an organic compound with the formula CH2.
Microplastics are small pieces of plastic that pollute the environment.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Modified starch, also called starch derivatives, are prepared by physically, enzymatically, or chemically treating native starch to change its properties.
Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
New car smell is the odor that comes from the combination of materials found in new automobiles, as well as other vehicles like buses or trucks.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nocardia is a genus of weakly staining Gram-positive, catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria.
The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies during the Cold War.
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
Nylon 6 or polycaprolactam is a polymer developed by Paul Schlack at IG Farben to reproduce the properties of nylon 6,6 without violating the patent on its production.
The nylon riots were a series of disturbances at American stores created by a nylon stocking shortage.
An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current.
An oligomer (oligo-, "a few" + -mer, "parts") is a molecular complex of chemicals that consists of a few monomer units, in contrast to a polymer, where the number of monomers is, in principle, infinite.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organotin compounds or stannanes are chemical compounds based on tin with hydrocarbon substituents.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
Pantyhose, called sheer tights in the United Kingdom and a few other countries, are close-fitting legwear covering the wearer's body from the waist to the toes.
Pestalotiopsis is a genus of ascomycete fungi.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
Phanerochaete is a genus of crust fungi in the family Phanerochaetaceae.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde.
A photopolymer or light-activated resin is a polymer that changes its properties when exposed to light, often in the ultraviolet or visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Phthalates, or phthalate esters, are esters of phthalic acid.
A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.
Within industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids (liquids and gases) from one location to another.
A plain bearing, or more commonly sliding bearing and slide bearing (in railroading sometimes called a solid bearing or friction bearing), is the simplest type of bearing, comprising just a bearing surface and no rolling elements.
Plastarch Material (PSM) is a biodegradable, thermoplastic resin.
Plastic colorants are chemical compounds used to color plastic.
Plastic containers are containers made exclusively or partially of plastic.
Plastic film is a thin continuous polymeric material.
A 4-year-old boy starts painting an assembled plastic model of the South Goodwin Lightship A plastic model is a plastic scale model manufactured as a kit, primarily assembled by hobbyists, and intended for static display.
Plastic pipe is a tubular section, or hollow cylinder, made of plastic.
Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products.
Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body.
Plastic wrap, cling film, shrink wrap, Saran wrap, cling wrap, food wrap, or pliofilm is a thin plastic film typically used for sealing food items in containers to keep them fresh over a longer period of time.
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.
Plasticizers (UK: plasticisers) or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or decrease the viscosity of a material.
Plastics engineering encompasses the processing, design, development, and manufacture of plastics products.
Plastics extrusion is a high-volume manufacturing process in which raw plastic is melted and formed into a continuous profile.
The term plasticulture refers to the practice of using plastic materials in agricultural applications.
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic or acrylic glass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex among several others (see below), is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.
Polyacetylene (IUPAC name: polyethyne) usually refers to an organic polymer with the repeating unit (C2H2)n.
A polymerization reaction that forms polymers via individual independent addition reactions.
A polyamide is a macromolecule with repeating units linked by amide bonds.
Polycarbonates (PC) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures.
Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) is a colourless organic thermoplastic polymer in the polyaryletherketone (PAEK) family, used in engineering applications.
Polyetherimide (PEI) is an amorphous, amber-to-transparent thermoplastic with characteristics similar to the related plastic PEEK.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.
Polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHAs are polyesters produced in nature by numerous microorganisms, including through bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids.
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), a polymer belonging to the polyesters class that are of interest as bio-derived and biodegradable plastics.
Polyimide (sometimes abbreviated PI) is a polymer of imide monomers.
Poly(lactic acid) or polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable and bioactive thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the United States and Canada), cassava roots, chips or starch (mostly in Asia), or sugarcane (in the rest of the world).
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polymer chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline that deals with the structures, chemical synthesis and properties of polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers.
Polymer physics is the field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerisation of polymers and monomers respectively.
Stabilizers are a class of chemical addatives commonly added to polymeric materials, such as plastics, to inhibit or retard their degradation.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.
Polysulfones are a family of thermoplastic polymers.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.
Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) is a homopolymer of vinylidene chloride.
Product design as a verb is to create a new product to be sold by a business to its customers.
The American Progressive Bag Alliance (APBA), founded in 2005, is a group of American plastic bag manufacturers and related companies who lobby against plastic bag bans or fees.
Pseudomonas fluorescens is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium.
Pseudomonas putida is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, saprotrophic soil bacterium.
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.
The universal recycling symbol (or in Unicode) is internationally recognized.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A repeat unit or repeating unit is a part of a polymer whose repetition would produce the complete polymer chain (except for the end-groups) by linking the repeat units together successively along the chain, like the beads of a necklace.
The ASTM International Resin Identification Coding System, often abbreviated as the RIC, is a set of symbols appearing on plastic products that identify the plastic resin out of which the product is made.
Rheology (from Greek ῥέω rhéō, "flow" and -λoγία, -logia, "study of") is the study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force.
A riot shield is a lightweight protection device deployed by police and some military organizations.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
In the field of electronic devices, Roll-to-roll processing, also known as web processing, reel-to-reel processing or R2R, is the process of creating electronic devices on a roll of flexible plastic or metal foil.
Rotational Molding (BrE moulding) involves a heated hollow mold which is filled with a charge or shot weight of material.
The Royal Artillery Barracks at Woolwich in the Royal Borough of Greenwich, London, was the home of the Royal Artillery from 1776 until 2007.
Saran is a trade name currently owned by S.C. Johnson & Son, Inc. for a polyethylene food wrap.
The Sargasso Sea is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean bounded by four currents forming an ocean gyre.
Self-healing materials are artificial or synthetically-created substances that have the built-in ability to automatically repair damage to themselves without any external diagnosis of the problem or human intervention.
Sergei Vasiljevich Lebedev (Серге́й Васи́льевич Ле́бедев; July 25, 1874 – May 1, 1934) was a Russian/Soviet chemist and the inventor of polybutadiene synthetic rubber, the first commercially viable and mass-produced type of synthetic rubber.
Shellac is a resin secreted by the female lac bug, on trees in the forests of India and Thailand.
Shrink wrap, also shrink film, is a material made up of polymer plastic film.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone.
Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
Founded in 1937, the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. was a professional society representing individuals in the plastics industry.
Soda–lime glass, also called soda–lime–silica glass, is the most prevalent type of glass, used for windowpanes and glass containers (bottles and jars) for beverages, food, and some commodity items.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
Sphingomonas was defined in 1990 as a group of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic, strictly aerobic bacteria.
In industrial chemistry, a stabilizer is a chemical that is used to prevent degradation.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Step-growth polymerization refers to a type of polymerization mechanism in which bi-functional or multifunctional monomers react to form first dimers, then trimers, longer oligomers and eventually long chain polymers.
Stockings (also known as hose, especially in a historical context) are close-fitting, variously elastic garments covering the leg from the foot up to the knee or possibly part or all of the thigh.
Styrene, also known as ethenylbenzene, vinylbenzene, and phenylethene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH.
Styrene-butadiene or styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) describe families of synthetic rubbers derived from styrene and butadiene (the version developed by Goodyear is called Neolite).
Styrofoam is a trademarked brand of closed-cell extruded polystyrene foam (XPS), commonly called "Blue Board" manufactured as foam continuous building insulation board used in walls, roofs, and foundations as thermal insulation and water barrier.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Synthetic fibers (British English: synthetic fibres) are fibers made by humans with chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that humans get from living organisms with little or no chemical changes.
An artificial membrane, or synthetic membrane, is a synthetically created membrane which is usually intended for separation purposes in laboratory or in industry.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Thermal cleaning is a combined process involving pyrolysis and oxidation.
Thermoforming is a manufacturing process where a plastic sheet is heated to a pliable forming temperature, formed to a specific shape in a mold, and trimmed to create a usable product.
A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
A thermoset, also called a thermosetting plastic, is a plastic that is irreversibly cured from a soft solid or viscous liquid, prepolymer or resin.
Major innovations in materials technology.
The toothbrush is an oral hygiene instrument used to clean the teeth, gums, and tongue.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
A toy is an item that is used in play, especially one designed for such use.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
UL is a global safety consulting and certification company headquartered in Northbrook, Illinois.
UL 94, the Standard for Safety of Flammability of Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices and Appliances testing, is a plastics flammability standard released by Underwriters Laboratories of the United States.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Urea-formaldehyde, also known as urea-methanal, so named for its common synthesis pathway and overall structure, is a non-transparent thermosetting resin or polymer.
Vicat softening temperature or Vicat hardness is the determination of the softening point for materials that have no definite melting point, such as plastics.
Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C.
Vinyl siding is plastic exterior siding for a house, used for decoration and weatherproofing, imitating wood clapboard, board and batten or shakes, and used instead of other materials such as aluminum or fiber cement siding.
Vinyloop® is a physical plastic recycling process for polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
Vulcanization or vulcanisation is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials by heating them with sulfur or other equivalent curatives or accelerators.
Wallace Hume Carothers (April 27, 1896 – April 29, 1937) was an American chemist, inventor and the leader of organic chemistry at DuPont, credited with the invention of nylon.
Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) is the process of generating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste, or the processing of waste into a fuel source.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
The Water Polo Arena was a venue of the 2012 Summer Olympics held in London from 27 July to 12 August 2012.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
Wood flour is finely pulverized wood that has a consistency fairly equal to sand or sawdust, but can vary considerably, with particles ranging in dimensions from a fine powder to roughly that of a grain of rice.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A world's fair, world fair, world expo, universal exposition, or international exposition (sometimes expo or Expo for short) is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations.
Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material.
Yutaka Tokiwa is a Senior Researcher at Okinawa Industrial Technology Center, who has published extensively on the biodegradability of plastics.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
The International of 1862, or Great London Exposition, was a world's fair.
The 1939–40 New York World's Fair, which covered the of Flushing Meadows-Corona Park (also the location of the 1964–1965 New York World's Fair), was the second most expensive American world's fair of all time, exceeded only by St.
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