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Plastic surgery

Index Plastic surgery

Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body. [1]

137 relations: Abdomen, Abdominoplasty, Aldershot, Allotransplantation, American Board of Plastic Surgery, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Anesthesia, Arabic, Archibald McIndoe, Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Autotransplantation, Basingstoke, Bill Foxley, Biomaterial, Birth defect, Blepharoplasty, Body dysmorphic disorder, Body modification, Bologna, Botulinum toxin, Brachioplasty, Breast, Breast augmentation, Breast hypertrophy, Breast implant, Breast reconstruction, Breast reduction, British Armed Forces, Burn, Burn scar contracture, Buttock augmentation, Buttocks, Cambridge Military Hospital, Cancer, Charaka, Cheek augmentation, Chin, Chin augmentation, Cleft lip and cleft palate, Collagen, Craniofacial surgery, Craniofacial team, Cryolipolysis, Cryoneurolysis, Ear, East Asian blepharoplasty, East Grinstead, Edwin Smith Papyrus, Elective surgery, ..., England, Epithelium, Ethnic plastic surgery, Europe, Fat, Forehead lift, François Chopart, Free flap, Gaspare Tagliacozzi, General surgery, Guinea Pig Club, Gynecomastia, Hand surgery, Harold Gillies, Hematoma, Hippolyte Morestin, History of surgery, Human nose, Hyaluronic acid, Hypospadias, India, Italy, James Israel, Jimmy Edwards, Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach, John Peter Mettauer, Joseph Constantine Carpue, Karl Ferdinand von Gräfe, Kumhar, Labia, Labiaplasty, Laser, Laser hair removal, Leo Baekeland, Lip augmentation, Liposuction, List of plastic surgery flaps, Mammaplasty, Mastectomy, Mastopexy, Mercury (element), Micromastia, Microsurgery, National Informatics Centre, Neoplasm, Old Kingdom of Egypt, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Orthognathic surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Otoplasty, Oxford English Dictionary, Pain, Park Prewett Hospital, Pediatrics, Penicillin, Phalloplasty, Photorejuvenation, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Queen Victoria Hospital, Rhinoplasty, Rhytidectomy, Richard Hillary, Royal Army Medical Corps, Saline (medicine), Sanskrit, Scalp reconstruction, Self-surgery, Sicily, Sidcup, Silicone, Sir William Arbuthnot Lane, 1st Baronet, Skin grafting, Sulfonamide (medicine), Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Sussex, The Gentleman's Magazine, Tissue (biology), Urinary meatus, Vaidya, Walking-stalk skin flap, Western world, World War I, World War II, Wound, Xenotransplantation, Zygoma reduction plasty. Expand index (87 more) »


The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.

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Abdominoplasty or "tummy tuck" is a cosmetic surgery procedure used to make the abdomen thinner and more firm.

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Aldershot is a town in the Rushmoor district of Hampshire, England.

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Allotransplant (allo- meaning "other" in Greek) is the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs, to a recipient from a genetically non-identical donor of the same species.

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American Board of Plastic Surgery

The American Board of Plastic Surgery, Inc. was organized as a subsidiary of the American Board of Surgery in 1938.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Archibald McIndoe

Sir Archibald Hector McIndoe CBE FRCS (4 May 1900 – 11 April 1960) was a pioneering New Zealand plastic surgeon who worked for the Royal Air Force during the Second World War.

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Aulus Cornelius Celsus

Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC 50 AD) was a Roman encyclopaedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina, which is believed to be the only surviving section of a much larger encyclopedia.

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Autotransplantation is the transplantation of organs, tissues, or even particular proteins from one part of the body to another in the same person (auto- meaning "self" in Greek).

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Basingstoke is the largest town in the modern county of Hampshire (Southampton and Portsmouth being cities.) It is situated in south central England, and lies across a valley at the source of the River Loddon.

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Bill Foxley

Warrant Officer William Geoffrey "Bill" Foxley (17 August 1923 – 5 December 2010) was a trainee navigator with RAF Bomber Command during World War II who suffered severe burns following a crash.

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A biomaterial is any substance that has been engineered to interact with biological systems for a medical purpose - either a therapeutic (treat, augment, repair or replace a tissue function of the body) or a diagnostic one.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Blepharoplasty (Greek: blepharon, "eyelid" + plassein "to form") is the plastic surgery operation for correcting defects, deformities, and disfigurations of the eyelids; and for aesthetically modifying the eye region of the face.

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Body dysmorphic disorder

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), occasionally still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix their dysmorphic part on their person.

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Body modification

Body modification (or body alteration) is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or human physical appearance.

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Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.

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Botulinum toxin

Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.

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A brachioplasty, commonly called an arm lift, is a surgical procedure to reshape and provide improved contour to the upper arms and connecting area of chest wall.

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The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.

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Breast augmentation

Breast augmentation and augmentation mammoplasty (colloquially known as a "boob job") are plastic surgery terms for the breast-implant and the fat-graft mammoplasty approaches used to increase the size, change the shape, and alter the texture of the breasts of a woman.

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Breast hypertrophy

Breast hypertrophy is a rare medical condition of the breast connective tissues in which the breasts become excessively large.

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Breast implant

A breast implant is a prosthesis used to change the size, shape, and contour of a woman’s breast.

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Breast reconstruction

Breast reconstruction is the rebuilding of a breast, usually in women.

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Breast reduction

Reduction mammoplasty (also breast reduction and reduction mammaplasty) is the plastic surgery procedure for reducing the size of large breasts.

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British Armed Forces

The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.

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A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.

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Burn scar contracture

Burn scar contracture is the tightening of the skin after a second or third degree burn.

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Buttock augmentation

Gluteoplasty (Greek gloutόs, rump + plassein, to shape) denotes the plastic surgery and the liposuction procedures for the correction of the congenital, traumatic, and acquired defects and deformities of the buttocks and the anatomy of the gluteal region; and for the aesthetic enhancement (by augmentation or by reduction) of the contour of the buttocks.

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The buttocks (singular: buttock) are two rounded portions of the anatomy, located on the posterior of the pelvic region of primates (including humans), and many other bipeds or quadrupeds, and comprise a layer of fat superimposed on the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles.

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Cambridge Military Hospital

Cambridge Military Hospital was a hospital in Aldershot Garrison, Hampshire, England which served the various British Army camps there.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Charaka (चरक) (~6th – 2nd century BCE) was one of the principal contributors to Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India.

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Cheek augmentation

Cheek augmentation is a cosmetic surgical procedure that is intended to emphasize the cheeks on a person's face.

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The chin or the mental region is the area of the face below the lower lip and including the mandibular prominence.

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Chin augmentation

Chin augmentation using surgical implants can alter the underlying structure of the face, providing better balance to the facial features.

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Cleft lip and cleft palate

Cleft lip and cleft palate, also known as orofacial cleft, is a group of conditions that includes cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and both together (CLP).

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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.

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Craniofacial surgery

Craniofacial surgery is a surgical subspecialty that deals with congenital and acquired deformities of the head, skull, face, neck, jaws and associated structures.

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Craniofacial team

A craniofacial team is a multi-disciplinary team (MDT) which provides multidisciplinary consultations, diagnosis, treatment planning and procedures for a range of craniofacial anomalies and syndromes.

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Cryolipolysis is a non invasive body contouring treatment used to reduce fat cell volume by freezing.

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Cryoneurolysis, also referred to as cryoanalgesia, is a medical procedure that temporarily blocks nerve conduction along peripheral nerve pathways.

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The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.

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East Asian blepharoplasty

East Asian blepharoplasty, also known as "double eyelid surgery", is a type of cosmetic surgery where the skin around the eye is reshaped (blepharoplasty).

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East Grinstead

East Grinstead is a town and civil parish in the northeastern corner of Mid Sussex district of West Sussex in England near the East Sussex, Surrey, and Kent borders.

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Edwin Smith Papyrus

The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatise on trauma.

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Elective surgery

Elective surgery or elective procedure (from the eligere, meaning to choose) is surgery that is scheduled in advance because it does not involve a medical emergency.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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Ethnic plastic surgery

Ethnic plastic surgery or ethnic modification, is plastic surgery intended to change an individual's appearance to look more or less like a particular race or ethnicity.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Forehead lift

A forehead lift, also known as a browlift or browplasty, is a cosmetic surgery procedure used to elevate a drooping eyebrow that may obstruct vision and/or to remove the deep “worry” lines that run across the forehead.

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François Chopart

François Chopart (20 October 1743 – 9 June 1795) was a French surgeon born in Paris.

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Free flap

The terms free flap, free autologous tissue transfer and microvascular free tissue transfer are synonymous terms used to describe the "transplantation" of tissue from one site of the body to another, in order to reconstruct an existing defect.

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Gaspare Tagliacozzi

Gaspare Tagliacozzi (his last name has also been spelled Taliacotius, Tagliacoze or Tagliacozzio; Bologna, March 1545 – Bologna, 7 November 1599) was an Italian surgeon, pioneer of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

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General surgery

General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, appendix and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland (depending on local referral patterns).

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Guinea Pig Club

The Guinea Pig Club, established in 1941, was a social club and mutual support network for British and allied aircrew injured during World War II.

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Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.

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Hand surgery

The field of hand surgery deals with both surgical and non-surgical treatment of conditions and problems that may take place in the hand or upper extremity (commonly from the tip of the hand to the shoulder), American Society for Surgery of the Hand.

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Harold Gillies

Sir Harold Delf Gillies (17 June 1882 – 10 September 1960) was a New Zealand-born, and later London-based, otolaryngologist who is widely considered the father of modern plastic surgery.

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A hematoma (US spelling) or haematoma (UK spelling) is a localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, due to either disease or trauma including injury or surgery and may involve blood continuing to seep from broken capillaries.

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Hippolyte Morestin

Hippolyte Morestin (1 September 1869 – 12 February 1919) was a French surgeon, and associate professor of anatomy at the University of Paris.

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History of surgery

Surgery (W. J. Bishop, The early history of Surgery. Hale, London, 1960.

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Human nose

The human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils.

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Hyaluronic acid

Hyaluronic acid (HA; conjugate base hyaluronate), also called hyaluronan, is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues.

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Hypospadias is a congenital disorder of the urethra where the urinary opening is not at the usual location on the head of the penis.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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James Israel

James Adolf Israel (2 February 1848 – 2 February 1926) was a Jewish-German surgeon who was a native of Berlin.

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Jimmy Edwards

James Keith O'Neill Edwards, DFC (23 March 19207 July 1988) was an English comedy writer and actor on radio and television, best known as Pa Glum in Take It From Here and as headmaster "Professor" James Edwards in Whack-O!.

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Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach

Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1 February 1792 – 11 November 1847) was a German surgeon.

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John Peter Mettauer

John Peter Mettauer (1787–1875) was an American surgeon and gynecologist born in Prince Edward County, Virginia.

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Joseph Constantine Carpue

Joseph Constantine Carpue (4 May 1764 – 30 January 1846) was an English surgeon who was born in London.

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Karl Ferdinand von Gräfe

Karl Ferdinand von Gräfe, (8 March 1787 – 4 July 1840), was a German surgeon from Warsaw.

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Kumhar is a caste or community in India and Pakistan.

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The labia are part of the female genitalia; they are the major externally visible portions of the vulva.

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Labiaplasty (also known as labioplasty, labia minora reduction, and labial reduction) is a plastic surgery procedure for altering the labia minora (inner labia) and the labia majora (outer labia), the folds of skin surrounding the human vulva.

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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Laser hair removal

Laser hair removal is the process of hair removal by means of exposure to pulses of laser light that destroy the hair follicle.

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Leo Baekeland

Leo Henricus Arthur Baekeland FRSE(Hon) (November 14, 1863 – February 23, 1944) was a Belgian-American chemist.

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Lip augmentation

Lip augmentation is a type of cosmetic surgery or non-surgical procedure that aims to alter the appearance of the lips by increasing their fullness through enlargement using fillers.

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Liposuction, or simply lipo, is a type of cosmetic surgery that removes fat from the human body in an attempt to change its shape.

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List of plastic surgery flaps

Below is a list of common and eponymous plastic surgery flaps with their classification and common usage.

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Mammaplasty (also called mammoplasty or mastoplasty) refers to a group of surgical procedures, the goal of which is to reshape or otherwise modify the appearance of the breast.

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Mastectomy (from Greek μαστός "breast" and ἐκτομή ektomia "cutting out") is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely.

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Mastopexy (Greek μαστός mastos “breast” + -pēxiā “affix”) is the plastic surgery mammoplasty procedure for raising sagging breasts upon the chest of the woman; by changing and modifying the size, contour, and elevation of the breasts.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Micromastia (also called hypomastia, breast aplasia, breast hypoplasia, or mammary hypoplasia) is a medical term describing the postpubertal underdevelopment of a woman's breast tissue.

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Microsurgery is a general term for surgery requiring an operating microscope.

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National Informatics Centre

The National Informatics Centre (NIC) (Rashtriya Suchna Vigyan Kendra) is the premier science & technology organisation of Government of India in informatics services and information and communication technology (ICT) applications.

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Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

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Old Kingdom of Egypt

The Old Kingdom, in ancient Egyptian history, is the period in the third millennium (c. 2686–2181 BC) also known as the 'Age of the Pyramids' or 'Age of the Pyramid Builders' as it includes the great 4th Dynasty when King Sneferu perfected the art of pyramid building and the pyramids of Giza were constructed under the kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.

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Oral and maxillofacial surgery

Oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS or OMFS) specializes in treating many diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral (mouth) and maxillofacial (jaws and face) region.

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Orthognathic surgery

Orthognathic surgery; also known as corrective jaw surgery or simply jaw surgery, is surgery designed to correct conditions of the jaw and face related to structure, growth, sleep apnea, TMJ disorders, malocclusion problems owing to skeletal disharmonies, or other orthodontic problems that cannot be easily treated with braces.

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Orthopedic surgery

Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.

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Otoplasty (Greek οὖς, oûs, "ear" + πλάσσειν plássein, "to shape") denotes the surgical and non-surgical procedures for correcting the deformities and defects of the pinna (external ear), and for reconstructing a defective, or deformed, or absent external ear, consequent to congenital conditions (e.g. microtia, anotia, etc.) and trauma (blunt, penetrating, or blast).

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.

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Park Prewett Hospital

Park Prewett Hospital, also known as Park Prewett Mental Hospital, was a psychiatric hospital northwest of Basingstoke, in the county of Hampshire in England, which operated from 1917 until 1997.

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Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.

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Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).

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Phalloplasty is the construction or reconstruction of a penis, or the artificial modification of the penis by surgery.

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Photorejuvenation is a skin treatment that uses lasers, intense pulsed light, or photodynamic therapy to treat skin conditions and remove effects of photoaging such as wrinkles, spots, and textures.

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Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery is a peer-reviewed medical journal and the official publication of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.

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Queen Victoria Hospital

The Queen Victoria Hospital (QVH), located in East Grinstead, West Sussex, England is the specialist reconstructive surgery centre for the south east of England, and also provides services at clinics across the region.

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Rhinoplasty (ῥίς rhis, nose + πλάσσειν plassein, to shape), commonly known as a nose job, is a plastic surgery procedure for correcting and reconstructing the form, restoring the functions, and aesthetically enhancing the nose by resolving nasal trauma (blunt, penetrating, blast), congenital defect, respiratory impediment, or a failed primary rhinoplasty.

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A facelift, technically known as a rhytidectomy (from Ancient Greek ῥυτίς (rhytis) "wrinkle" + ἐκτομή (ektome) "excision", surgical removal of wrinkles), is a type of cosmetic surgery procedure used to give a more youthful facial appearance.

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Richard Hillary

Flight Lieutenant Richard Hope Hillary (20 April 1919 – 8 January 1943) was an Anglo-Australian Royal Air Force fighter pilot during the Second World War.

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Royal Army Medical Corps

The Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) is a specialist corps in the British Army which provides medical services to all Army personnel and their families, in war and in peace.

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Saline (medicine)

Saline, also known as saline solution, is a mixture of sodium chloride in water and has a number of uses in medicine.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Scalp reconstruction

Scalp reconstruction is a surgical procedure for people with scalp defects.

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Self-surgery is the act of performing a surgical procedure on oneself.

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Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Sidcup is a district of south-east London, England, primarily in the London Borough of Bexley.

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Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.

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Sir William Arbuthnot Lane, 1st Baronet

Sir William Arbuthnot Lane, Bt, CB, FRCS, Legion of Honour (4 July 1856 – 16 January 1943), was a British surgeon and physician.

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Skin grafting

Skin grafting is a type of graft surgery involving the transplantation of skin.

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Sulfonamide (medicine)

Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.

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Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician during 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: ''Suśruta-saṃhitā'').

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Sushruta Samhita

The Sushruta Samhita (सुश्रुतसंहिता, IAST: Suśrutasaṃhitā, literally "Suśruta's Compendium") is an ancient Sanskrit text on medicine and surgery, and one of the most important such treatises on this subject to survive from the ancient world.

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Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons), is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex.

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The Gentleman's Magazine

The Gentleman's Magazine was founded in London, England, by Edward Cave in January 1731.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Urinary meatus

The urinary meatus, also known as the external urethral orifice, is the opening or meatus of the urethra.

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Vaidya (Sanskrit: वैद्य) is a Sanskrit word meaning "physician".

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Walking-stalk skin flap

A walking-stalk skin flap or waltzing tube pedicle is a reconstructive technique in which the skin and soft tissue to be used for the flap is formed into a tubular pedicle and moved from the source to the target site by anchoring at both ends, periodically severing one end and anchoring it closer to the flap target site.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).

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Xenotransplantation (xenos- from the Greek meaning "foreign"), is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another.

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Zygoma reduction plasty

Zygoma reduction surgery, is maxillofacial plastic and reconstructive surgery that reduces the size and protrusion of the cheekbones (zygomatic arch or zygoma) by performing an osteotomy or surgically cutting and rehanging its position to achieve a desired plastic and cosmetic outcome.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic_surgery

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