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Plate tectonics

Index Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago. [1]

255 relations: Abraham Ortelius, Accretion (geology), Adiabatic process, Africa, African Plate, Age of the Earth, Aleutian Islands, Alexander du Toit, Alfred Wegener, Aluminium, American Geophysical Union, Andes, Angular momentum, Antarctic flora, Antarctic Plate, Antonio Snider-Pellegrini, Appalachian Mountains, Apparent polar wander, Arabian Plate, Arthur Holmes, Asthenosphere, Atlantic Ocean, Atmospheric circulation, Australian Plate, Back-arc basin, Basalt, Biogeography, Black body, Bruce C. Heezen, Caledonian orogeny, Cambridge University Press, Caribbean Plate, Centrifugal force, Charles Schuchert, Chronological dating, Coast, Cocos Plate, Columbia (supercontinent), Common descent, Continental collision, Continental crust, Continental drift, Continental shelf, Convection, Convergent boundary, Coriolis force, Craton, Cretaceous, Crust (geology), Dan McKenzie (geophysicist), ..., Density, Divergent boundary, Drummond Matthews, Earth, Earth science, Earth's internal heat budget, Earth's magnetic field, Earthquake, East African Rift, East Pacific Rise, Eduard Suess, Edward A. Irving, Edward Bullard, Energy, Equator, Euclidean vector, Eurasian Plate, Europa (moon), Eutectic system, Exothermic process, Expanding Earth, Extraterrestrial life, Fault (geology), Felix Andries Vening Meinesz, Felsic, Fossil, Frank Bursley Taylor, Frederick Vine, Friction, Galilean moons, Gangamopteris, Geoid, Geological history of Earth, Geological Society of Glasgow, Geomagnetic reversal, Geophysics, George Biddell Airy, Geosyncline, Glossopteris, Gondwana, GPlates, Granite, Gravity, Hair, Harold Jeffreys, Harry Hammond Hess, Heat transfer, Himalayas, Hotspot (geology), Hugo Benioff, Huygens (spacecraft), Impact crater, Indian Ocean, Indian Plate, Indo-Australian Plate, Ireland, Island arc, Isostasy, Japan, Johannes Herman Frederik Umbgrove, John Tuzo Wilson, Juan de Fuca Plate, Jupiter, Jurassic, Keith Runcorn, Khan Academy, Kinematics, Kiyoo Wadati, Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded, Late Latin, Latitude, Laurasia, Lawrence Morley, List of materials properties, List of plate tectonics topics, List of submarine topographical features, List of tectonic plates, Lithology, Lithosphere, Longitude, Lystrosaurus, Mafic, Magma, Magnesium, Magnetic field, Magnetite, Magnetometer, Magnetostratigraphy, Mantle (geology), Mantle convection, Mantle plume, Mariana Islands, Marine geology, Mars, Mars Global Surveyor, Martian dichotomy, Maurice Ewing, Meteorology, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Mid-ocean ridge, Moon, Mountain, Nail (anatomy), NASA, Nature (journal), Nazca Plate, New Brunswick, New York City, Newfoundland and Labrador, North American Plate, Oceanic basin, Oceanic crust, Oceanic trench, Ophiolite, Orogeny, Oxford University Press, Pacific Ocean, Pacific Plate, Palaeogeography, Paleobiology, Paleomagnetism, Pangaea, Paradigm shift, Philippine Sea Plate, Pierre Bouguer, Plate tectonics, Plume tectonics, Princeton University, Quartz (publication), Radioactive decay, Ratite, Ridge push, Ring of Fire, Robert R. Coats, Robert S. Dietz, Roberto Mantovani, Rodinia, Ron G. Mason, San Andreas Fault, Saturn, Scientific theory, Scotia Plate, Scotland, Sea, Sea level, Seabed, Seafloor spreading, Search for extraterrestrial intelligence, Sedimentary rock, Seismic tomography, Seismology, Seismometer, Serpentinite, Shear zone, Sial, Silicon, Sima (geology), Sinistral and dextral, Slab pull, South America, South American Plate, Springer Science+Business Media, Stratum, Structural geology, Structure of the Earth, Subduction, Submarine, Sun, Super-Earth, Supercontinent, Supercontinent cycle, Synapsid, Tasmania, Tectonics, Tectonophysics, Tectonophysics (journal), Terrane, Terrestrial planet, Tethys Ocean, Tharsis, Therapsid, Thermal conduction, Thermal radiation, Tidal force, Titan (moon), Topography, Transform fault, U.S. National Geodetic Survey, United States Geological Survey, Valles Marineris, Vastitas Borealis, Venus, Vertical deflection, Victor Vacquier, Vine–Matthews–Morley hypothesis, Viscoelasticity, Volcanic arc, Volcano, W. Jason Morgan, Wadati–Benioff zone, Wilson cycle, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, World War II, Xavier Le Pichon, Zebra. Expand index (205 more) »

Abraham Ortelius

Abraham Ortelius (also Ortels, Orthellius, Wortels; 14 April 1527 – 28 June 1598) was a Brabantian cartographer and geographer, conventionally recognized as the creator of the first modern atlas, the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World).

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Accretion (geology)

Accretion, in geology, is a process by which material is added to a tectonic plate or a landmass.

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Adiabatic process

In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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African Plate

The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator as well as the prime meridian.

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Age of the Earth

The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed.

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Aleutian Islands

The Aleutian Islands (Tanam Unangaa, literally "Land of the Aleuts", possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the U.S. state of Alaska and the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai.

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Alexander du Toit

Alexander Logie du Toit FRS (14 March 1878 – 25 February 1948) was a geologist from South Africa, and an early supporter of Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift.

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Alfred Wegener

Alfred Lothar Wegener (–) was a German polar researcher, geophysicist and meteorologist.

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Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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American Geophysical Union

The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.

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The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.

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Antarctic flora

The Antarctic flora is a distinct community of vascular plants which evolved millions of years ago on the supercontinent of Gondwana.

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Antarctic Plate

The Antarctic Plate is a tectonic plate containing the continent of Antarctica and extending outward under the surrounding oceans.

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Antonio Snider-Pellegrini

Antonio Snider-Pellegrini (1802–1885) was a French geographer and scientist who theorized about the possibility of continental drift, anticipating Wegener's theories concerning Pangaea by several decades.

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Appalachian Mountains

The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.

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Apparent polar wander

Apparent polar wander (APW) is the perceived movement of the Earth's paleo-magnetic poles relative to a continent while regarding the continent being studied as fixed in position.

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Arabian Plate

The Arabian Plate is a tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres.

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Arthur Holmes

Prof Arthur Holmes FRS FRSE LLD (14 January 1890 – 20 September 1965) was a British geologist who made two major contributions to the understanding of geology.

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The asthenosphere (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere") is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Atmospheric circulation

Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and together with ocean circulation is the means by which thermal energy is redistributed on the surface of the Earth.

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Australian Plate

The Australian Plate is a major tectonic plate in the eastern and, largely, southern hemispheres.

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Back-arc basin

Back-arc basins are geologic basins, submarine features associated with island arcs and subduction zones.

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Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.

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Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.

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Black body

A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

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Bruce C. Heezen

Bruce Charles Heezen (April 11, 1924 – June 21, 1977) was an American geologist.

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Caledonian orogeny

The Caledonian orogeny was a mountain building era recorded in the northern parts of Ireland and Britain, the Scandinavian Mountains, Svalbard, eastern Greenland and parts of north-central Europe.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Caribbean Plate

The Caribbean Plate is a mostly oceanic tectonic plate underlying Central America and the Caribbean Sea off the north coast of South America.

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Centrifugal force

In Newtonian mechanics, the centrifugal force is an inertial force (also called a "fictitious" or "pseudo" force) directed away from the axis of rotation that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a rotating frame of reference.

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Charles Schuchert

Charles Schuchert (3 July 1858 – 20 November 1942) was an American invertebrate paleontologist who was a leader in the development of paleogeography, the study of the distribution of lands and seas in the geological past.

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Chronological dating

Chronological dating, or simply dating, is the process of attributing to an object or event a date in the past, allowing such object or event to be located in a previously established chronology.

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A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.

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Cocos Plate

The Cocos Plate is a young oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Central America, named for Cocos Island, which rides upon it.

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Columbia (supercontinent)

Columbia, also known as Nuna and Hudsonland, was one of Earth's ancient supercontinents.

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Common descent

Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.

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Continental collision

Continental collision is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of Earth that occurs at convergent boundaries.

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Continental crust

Continental crust is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves.

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Continental drift

Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.

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Continental shelf

The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.

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Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).

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Convergent boundary

In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary, also known as a destructive plate boundary, is a region of active deformation where two or more tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere are near the end of their life cycle.

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Coriolis force

In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.

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A craton (or; from κράτος kratos "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, where the lithosphere consists of the Earth's two topmost layers, the crust and the uppermost mantle.

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.

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Dan McKenzie (geophysicist)

Dan Peter McKenzie (born 21 February 1942) is a Professor of Geophysics at the University of Cambridge, and one-time head of the Bullard Laboratories of the Cambridge Department of Earth Sciences.

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The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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Divergent boundary

In plate tectonics, a divergent boundary or divergent plate boundary (also known as a constructive boundary or an extensional boundary) is a linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other.

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Drummond Matthews

Drummond Hoyle Matthews FRS (5 February 1931 – 20 July 1997) was a British marine geologist and geophysicist and a key contributor to the theory of plate tectonics.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth science

Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.

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Earth's internal heat budget

Earth's internal heat budget is fundamental to the thermal history of the Earth.

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Earth's magnetic field

Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.

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An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.

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East African Rift

The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa.

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East Pacific Rise

The East Pacific Rise is a mid-oceanic ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary located along the floor of the Pacific Ocean.

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Eduard Suess

Eduard Suess (20 August 1831 – 26 April 1914) was an Austrian geologist and an expert on the geography of the Alps.

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Edward A. Irving

Edward A. "Ted" Irving, (27 May 1927 – 25 February 2014) was a geologist and scientist with the Geological Survey of Canada.

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Edward Bullard

Sir Edward "Teddy" Crisp Bullard FRS (21 September 1907 – 3 April 1980) was a geophysicist who is considered, along with Maurice Ewing, to have founded the discipline of marine geophysics.

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In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).

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Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

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Eurasian Plate

The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.

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Europa (moon)

Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.

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Eutectic system

A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.

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Exothermic process

In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).

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Expanding Earth

The expanding Earth or growing Earth hypothesis asserts that the position and relative movement of continents is at least partially due to the volume of Earth increasing.

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Extraterrestrial life

Extraterrestrial life,Where "extraterrestrial" is derived from the Latin extra ("beyond", "not of") and terrestris ("of Earth", "belonging to Earth").

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Fault (geology)

In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.

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Felix Andries Vening Meinesz

Felix Andries Vening Meinesz (The Hague July 30, 1887 – Amersfoort August 10, 1966) was a Dutch geophysicist and geodesist.

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In geology, felsic refers to igneous rocks that are relatively rich in elements that form feldspar and quartz.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Frank Bursley Taylor

Frank Bursley Taylor (1860 – 1938) was an American geologist, the son of a lawyer in Fort Wayne, Indiana.

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Frederick Vine

Frederick John Vine FRS (born 17 June 1939) is an English marine geologist and geophysicist.

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Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.

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Galilean moons

The Galilean moons are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

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Gangamopteris is a genus of Carboniferous-Permian plants, very similar to Glossopteris.

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The geoid is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth's gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides.

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Geological history of Earth

The geological history of Earth follows the major events in Earth's past based on the geologic time scale, a system of chronological measurement based on the study of the planet's rock layers (stratigraphy).

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Geological Society of Glasgow

The Geological Society of Glasgow is a scientific society devoted to the study of geology in Scotland.

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Geomagnetic reversal

A geomagnetic reversal is a change in a planet's magnetic field such that the positions of magnetic north and magnetic south are interchanged, while geographic north and geographic south remain the same.

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Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.

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George Biddell Airy

Sir George Biddell Airy (27 July 18012 January 1892) was an English mathematician and astronomer, Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881.

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Geosyncline originally called a geosynclinalŞengör (1982), p. 11 is an obsolete geological concept to explain orogens which was developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries before the theory of plate tectonics was envisaged.

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Glossopteris (γλώσσα glossa, meaning "tongue", because the leaves were tongue-shaped, and pteris, Greek for fern or feathery) is the largest and best-known genus of the extinct order of seed ferns known as Glossopteridales (also known as Arberiales or Ottokariales).

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Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).

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GPlates is open-source application software offering a novel combination of interactive plate-tectonic reconstructions, geographic information system (GIS) functionality and raster data visualization.

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Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.

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Harold Jeffreys

Sir Harold Jeffreys, FRS (22 April 1891 – 18 March 1989) was a British mathematician, statistician, geophysicist, and astronomer.

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Harry Hammond Hess

Harry Hammond Hess (May 24, 1906 – August 25, 1969) was a geologist and a United States Navy officer in World War II.

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Heat transfer

Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.

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The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

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Hotspot (geology)

In geology, the places known as hotspots or hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle.

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Hugo Benioff

Victor Hugo Benioff (September 14, 1899 – February 29, 1968) was an American seismologist and a professor at the California Institute of Technology.

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Huygens (spacecraft)

Huygens was an atmospheric entry probe that landed successfully on Saturn's moon Titan in 2005.

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Impact crater

An impact crater is an approximately circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Indian Plate

The Indian Plate or India Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator in the eastern hemisphere.

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Indo-Australian Plate

The Indo-Australian Plate is a major tectonic plate that includes the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean, and extends northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters.

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Island arc

An island arc is a type of archipelago, often composed of a chain of volcanoes, with arc-shaped alignment, situated parallel and close to a boundary between two converging tectonic plates.

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Isostasy (Greek ''ísos'' "equal", ''stásis'' "standstill") is the state of gravitational equilibrium between Earth's crust and mantle such that the crust "floats" at an elevation that depends on its thickness and density.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Johannes Herman Frederik Umbgrove

Johannes Herman Frederik Umbgrove (February 5, 1899 Hulsberg (Limburg) – June 14, 1954 Wassenaar), called in short Jan Umbgrove, was a Dutch geologist and Earth scientist.

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John Tuzo Wilson

John Tuzo Wilson, CC, OBE, FRS, FRSC, FRSE (October 24, 1908 – April 15, 1993) was a Canadian geophysicist and geologist who achieved worldwide acclaim for his contributions to the theory of plate tectonics.

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Juan de Fuca Plate

The Juan de Fuca Plate is a tectonic plate generated from the Juan de Fuca Ridge and is subducting under the northerly portion of the western side of the North American Plate at the Cascadia subduction zone.

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.

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Keith Runcorn

Stanley Keith Runcorn FRS (19 November 1922 – 5 December 1995) was a British physicist whose paleomagnetic reconstruction of the relative motions of Europe and America revived the theory of continental drift and was a major contribution to plate tectonics.

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Khan Academy

Khan Academy is a non-profit educational organization created in 2006 by educator Salman Khan with a goal of creating a set of online tools that help educate students.

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Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion.

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Kiyoo Wadati

was an early seismologist at the Central Meteorological Observatory of Japan (now known as the Japan Meteorological Agency), researching deep (subduction zone) earthquakes.

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Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded

Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded is a 2003 book by Simon Winchester that covers the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa.

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Late Latin

Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.

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In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Laurasia was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent around (Mya).

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Lawrence Morley

Lawrence Whitaker Morley (February 19, 1920 – April 22, 2013) was a Canadian geophysicist and remote sensing pioneer.

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List of materials properties

A material's property (or material property) is an intensive property of some material, i.e. a physical property that does not depend on the amount of the material.

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List of plate tectonics topics

This is a list of articles related to plate tectonics and tectonic plates.

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List of submarine topographical features

List of submarine topographical features, oceanic landforms and topographic elements.

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List of tectonic plates

This is a list of tectonic plates on the Earth's surface.

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The lithology of a rock unit is a description of its physical characteristics visible at outcrop, in hand or core samples or with low magnification microscopy, such as colour, texture, grain size, or composition.

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A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.

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Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Lystrosaurus ("shovel lizard") was a herbivorous genus of Late Permian and Early Triassic Period dicynodont therapsids, which lived around 250 million years ago in what is now Antarctica, India, and South Africa.

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Mafic is an adjective describing a silicate mineral or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron, and is thus a portmanteau of magnesium and '''f'''err'''ic'''.

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Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.

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A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location.

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Magnetostratigraphy is a geophysical correlation technique used to date sedimentary and volcanic sequences.

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Mantle (geology)

The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.

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Mantle convection

Mantle convection is the slow creeping motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the surface.

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Mantle plume

A mantle plume is an upwelling of abnormally hot rock within the Earth's mantle, first proposed by J. Tuzo Wilson in 1963.

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Mariana Islands

The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas) are a crescent-shaped archipelago comprising the summits of fifteen mostly dormant volcanic mountains in the western North Pacific Ocean, between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east.

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Marine geology

Marine geology or geological oceanography is the study of the history and structure of the ocean floor.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mars Global Surveyor

Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was an American robotic spacecraft developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996.

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Martian dichotomy

The most conspicuous feature of Mars is a sharp contrast, known as the Martian dichotomy, between the Southern hemisphere and the Northern.

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Maurice Ewing

William Maurice "Doc" Ewing (May 12, 1906 – May 4, 1974) was an American geophysicist and oceanographer.

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Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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Mid-Atlantic Ridge

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) is a mid-ocean ridge, a divergent tectonic plate or constructive plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the longest mountain range in the world.

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Mid-ocean ridge

A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.

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The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.

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Nail (anatomy)

A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nazca Plate

The Nazca Plate, named after the Nazca region of southern Peru, is an oceanic tectonic plate in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin off the west coast of South America.

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New Brunswick

New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.

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North American Plate

The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, Greenland, Cuba, the Bahamas, extreme northeastern Asia, and parts of Iceland and the Azores.

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Oceanic basin

In hydrology, an oceanic basin may be anywhere on Earth that is covered by seawater but geologically ocean basins are large geologic basins that are below sea level.

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Oceanic crust

Oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of a tectonic plate.

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Oceanic trench

Oceanic trenches are topographic depressions of the sea floor, relatively narrow in width, but very long.

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An ophiolite is a section of the Earth's oceanic crust and the underlying upper mantle that has been uplifted and exposed above sea level and often emplaced onto continental crustal rocks.

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An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Pacific Plate

The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean.

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Palaeogeography (or paleogeography) is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes.

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Paleobiology (UK & Canadian English: palaeobiology) is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology.

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This term is also sometimes used for natural remanent magnetization. Paleomagnetism (or palaeomagnetism in the United Kingdom) is the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials.

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Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.

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Paradigm shift

A paradigm shift (also radical theory change), a concept identified by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn (1922–1996), is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline.

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Philippine Sea Plate

The Philippine Sea Plate or Philippine Plate is a tectonic plate comprising oceanic lithosphere that lies beneath the Philippine Sea, to the east of the Philippines.

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Pierre Bouguer

Pierre Bouguer (16 February 1698, Croisic – 15 August 1758, Paris) was a French mathematician, geophysicist, geodesist, and astronomer.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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Plume tectonics

Plume tectonics is a geophysical theory that finds its roots in the mantle doming concept (which did not accept major plate movements and continental drifting) which was especially popular during the 1930s, and survived throughout the seventies up till today in various forms and presentations.

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Quartz (publication)

Quartz (qz.com) is a news website owned by Atlantic Media.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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A ratite is any of a diverse group of flightless and mostly large and long-legged birds of the infraclass Palaeognathae.

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Ridge push

Ridge push or sliding plate force is a proposed driving force for plate motion in plate tectonics that occurs at mid-ocean ridges as the result of the rigid lithosphere sliding down the hot, raised asthenosphere below mid-ocean ridges.

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Ring of Fire

The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.

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Robert R. Coats

Robert Roy Coats (1910–1995) was an American geologist known for his studies of the Aleutian Islands and his exhaustive report of Elko County, Nevada.

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Robert S. Dietz

Robert Sinclair Dietz (September 14, 1914 – May 19, 1995) was a scientist with the US Coast and Geodetic Survey.

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Roberto Mantovani

Roberto Mantovani (25 March 1854 – 10 January 1933), was an Italian geologist and violinist.

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Rodinia (from the Russian родить, rodít, meaning "to beget, to give birth", or родина, ródina, meaning "motherland, birthplace") is a Neoproterozoic supercontinent that was assembled 1.3–0.9 billion years ago and broke up 750–633 million years ago.

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Ron G. Mason

Ronald George Mason (Winsor, Hampshire, England, 24 December 1916 – London, 16 July 2009) was one of the oceanographers whose pioneering Cold War geomagnetic survey work lead to the discovery of magnetic striping on the seafloor.

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San Andreas Fault

The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly through California.

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Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Scientific theory

A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested, in accordance with the scientific method, using a predefined protocol of observation and experiment.

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Scotia Plate

The Scotia Plate is a tectonic plate on the edge of the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean.

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.

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Sea level

Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.

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Seafloor spreading

Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.

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Search for extraterrestrial intelligence

The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) is a collective term for scientific searches for intelligent extraterrestrial life, for example, monitoring electromagnetic radiation for signs of transmissions from civilizations on other planets.

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Sedimentary rock

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

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Seismic tomography

Seismic tomography is a technique for imaging the subsurface of the Earth with seismic waves produced by earthquakes or explosions.

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Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.

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A seismometer is an instrument that measures motion of the ground, caused by, for example, an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, or the use of explosives.

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Serpentinite is a rock composed of one or more serpentine group minerals, the name originating from the similarity of the texture of the rock to that of the skin of a snake.

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Shear zone

A shear zone is a very important structural discontinuity surface in the Earth's crust and upper mantle.

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In geology, the term 'sial' refers to the composition of the upper layer of the Earth's crust, namely rocks rich in silicates and aluminium minerals.

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Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Sima (geology)

In geology, sima is the name for the lower layer of the Earth's crust.

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Sinistral and dextral

Sinistral and dextral, in some scientific fields, are the two types of chirality ("handedness") or relative direction.

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Slab pull

Slab pull is the portion of motion of a tectonic plate that can be accounted for by its subduction.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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South American Plate

The South American Plate is a tectonic plate which includes the continent of South America and also a sizeable region of the Atlantic Ocean seabed extending eastward to the African Plate creating the Mid-Atlantic Ridge The easterly side is a divergent boundary with the African Plate forming the southern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.

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Structural geology

Structural geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of rock units with respect to their deformational histories.

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Structure of the Earth

The interior structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells: an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous asthenosphere and mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core.

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Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.

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A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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A super-Earth is an extrasolar planet with a mass higher than Earth's, but substantially below the masses of the Solar System's ice giants, Uranus and Neptune, which have masses of 15 and 17 times Earth's, respectively.

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In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.

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Supercontinent cycle

The supercontinent cycle is the quasi-periodic aggregation and dispersal of Earth's continental crust.

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Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.

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Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.

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Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.

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Tectonophysics, a branch of geophysics, is the study of the physical processes that underlie tectonic deformation.

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Tectonophysics (journal)

Tectonophysics, The International Journal of Geotectonics and the Geology and Physics of the Interior of the Earth is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.

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A terrane in geology, in full a tectonostratigraphic terrane, is a fragment of crustal material formed on, or broken off from, one tectonic plate and accreted or "sutured" to crust lying on another plate.

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Terrestrial planet

A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.

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Tethys Ocean

The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.

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Tharsis is a vast volcanic plateau centered near the equator in the western hemisphere of Mars.

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Therapsida is a group of synapsids that includes mammals and their ancestors.

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Thermal conduction

Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.

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Thermal radiation

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.

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Tidal force

The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.

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Titan (moon)

Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.

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Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.

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Transform fault

A transform fault or transform boundary is a plate boundary where the motion is predominantly horizontal.

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U.S. National Geodetic Survey

The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), formerly the United States Survey of the Coast (1807–1836), United States Coast Survey (1836–1878), and United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS) (1878–1970), is a United States federal agency that defines and manages a national coordinate system, providing the foundation for transportation and communication; mapping and charting; and a large number of applications of science and engineering.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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Valles Marineris

Valles Marineris (Latin for Mariner Valleys, named after the Mariner 9 Mars orbiter of 1971–72 which discovered it) is a system of canyons that runs along the Martian surface east of the Tharsis region.

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Vastitas Borealis

Vastitas Borealis (Latin, 'northern waste') is the largest lowland region of Mars.

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Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Vertical deflection

The vertical deflection (deflection of the plumb line, astro-geodetic deflection) at a point on the Earth is a measure of how far the direction of the local gravity field has been shifted by local anomalies such as nearby mountains.

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Victor Vacquier

Victor Vacquier, Sr. (October 13, 1907 – January 11, 2009) was a professor of geophysics at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego.

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Vine–Matthews–Morley hypothesis

The Vine–Matthews–Morley hypothesis, also known as the Morley–Vine–Matthews hypothesis, was the first key scientific test of the seafloor spreading theory of continental drift and plate tectonics.

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Viscoelasticity is the property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation.

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Volcanic arc

A volcanic arc is a chain of volcanoes formed above a subducting plate, positioned in an arc shape as seen from above.

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A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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W. Jason Morgan

William Jason Morgan (born October 10, 1935) is an American geophysicist who has made seminal contributions to the theory of plate tectonics and geodynamics.

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Wadati–Benioff zone

A Wadati–Benioff zone (also Benioff–Wadati zone or Benioff zone or Benioff seismic zone) is a planar zone of seismicity corresponding with the down-going slab in a subduction zone.

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Wilson cycle

The Wilson cycle is a model where a continent rifts, forms an ocean basin in-between, and then begins a process of convergence that leads to the collision of the two plates and closure of the ocean.

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Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI, acronym pronounced) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Xavier Le Pichon

Xavier Le Pichon (born 18 June 1937 in Qui Nhơn, French protectorate of Annam (today Vietnam)) is a French geophysicist.

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Zebras are several species of African equids (horse family) united by their distinctive black and white striped coats.

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Continental plate, Continental plates, Crustal motion, Crustal plate, Earths plate techtonics, Earths plates, Geographical plate, Lithospheric plates, Magnetic striping, Plate Tectonics, Plate boundaries, Plate boundary, Plate movement, Plate techtonics, Plate tectonic, Plate tectonic theory, Plate tectonics theory, Plate tetonics, Spreading plate tectonics, Subducted plate, Techtonic plates, Tectonic Plate, Tectonic Plates, Tectonic motion, Tectonic movement, Tectonic plate, Tectonic plate boundaries, Tectonic plate boundary, Tectonic plate movement, Tectonic plate movement theory, Tectonic plate theory, Tectonic plates, Tectonic theory, Tectono, Tetonic plates, Theory of plate tectonics.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plate_tectonics

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