203 relations: Absaroka Range, Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Adams' catalyst, Adulterant, Alkene, Alloy, Alluvium, Alpha decay, Ammonium chloride, Ammonium hexachloroplatinate, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, Antimonide, Antonio de Ulloa, Aqua regia, Arsenic, Arsenide, Atomic number, Becquerel, Beta decay, Bolide, Borax, Breitling SA, Brittleness, Bromine, Bronze, Bullion, Bushveld Igneous Complex, Calcination, Canada, Carbon monoxide, Carboplatin, Catalysis, Catalytic converter, Catalytic reforming, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Charles III of Spain, Chemical element, Chemotherapy, Chlorine, Chloroplatinic acid, Chocó Department, Chromite, Cisplatin, Colombia, Commodity, Cooperite (mineral), Copper, Corrosion, Cross-link, Crown of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, ..., Crust (geology), Darién Province, Density, Dentistry, Diamond, Dichloro(cycloocta-1,5-diene)platinum(II), Dimethyl sulfoxide, DNA, Double beta decay, Ductility, Earth, Electricity, Electrode, Electron capture, Esmeraldas, Ecuador, Ethylene, Ferromagnetism, Food and Drug Administration, Franz Karl Achard, Fuel cell, Gauteng, George VI, Gerhard Ertl, Gold, Gravimetry, Group 10 element, Half-life, Hans Merensky, Heavy metals, Henrik Teofilus Scheffer, History of the metre, HSAB theory, Huancavelica, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen peroxide, Implant (medicine), In vivo, India, Inorganic Chemistry (journal), Inorganic Syntheses, Iodine, Iridium, Iron, Iron(II) chloride, Iron–platinum nanoparticle, ISO 4217, Isotope, Italy, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Jewellery, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Julius Caesar Scaliger, Kilogram, List of countries by platinum production, Louis XV of France, Magnet, Merensky Reef, Metallurgy, Metre, Microgram, Mixed metal oxide electrode, Montana, Moon, National Geographic, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Native element minerals, Natural abundance, Nickel, Nitric acid, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Noble metal, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Ontario, Organometallic chemistry, Organometallics, Osmium, Oxaliplatin, Oxidation state, Oxygen, Oxygen sensor, Palladium, Palladium(II) acetate, Paramagnetism, Parts-per notation, Patek Philippe & Co., Patina, Payment card, Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Petroleum naphtha, Pierre Macquer, Pierre-François Chabaneau, Placer deposit, Platinum black, Platinum group, Platinum hexafluoride, Platinum in Africa, Platinum nanoparticle, Platinum print, Platinum tetrafluoride, Platinum(II) acetate, Platinum(II) bromide, Platinum(II) chloride, Platinum(IV) bromide, Platinum(IV) chloride, Platinum, Alaska, Platinum-based antineoplastic, Potassium hexachloroplatinate, Potassium hydroxide, Powder metallurgy, Pre-Columbian era, Precious metal, Reactivity series, Recommended exposure limit, Recording Industry Association of America certification, Resistance thermometer, Rolex, Royal Society, Russia, Salt (chemistry), Selenium, Silicone rubber, Silver, Sodium acetate, South Africa, Spark plug, Sperrylite, Square planar molecular geometry, Standard hydrogen electrode, Sudbury Basin, Sulfide, Sulfide minerals, Sulfur, Tamil Nadu, Telluride (chemistry), Tellurium, Thermogravimetric analysis, Tonne, Torbern Bergman, Transition metal, Ural Mountains, Vacheron Constantin, Vegetable oil, Vehicle emissions control, Volatilisation, Watchmaker, Water, William Brownrigg, William Lewis (scientist), Zeise's salt, Zinc, 1,5-Cyclooctadiene, 2000s commodities boom. Expand index (153 more) » « Shrink index
The Absaroka Range is a sub-range of the Rocky Mountains in the United States.
The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
Adams' catalyst, also known as platinum dioxide, is usually represented as platinum(IV) oxide hydrate, PtO2•H2O.
An adulterant is a pejorative term for a substance found within other substances such as food, fuels or chemicals even though it is not allowed for legal or other reasons.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.
Ammonium hexachloroplatinate, also known as ammonium chloroplatinate, is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2.
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (3 March 1709 – 7 August 1782) was a German chemist from Berlin, then capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and a pioneer of analytical chemistry.
Antimonides (sometimes called stibnides) are compounds of antimony with more electropositive elements.
Antonio de Ulloa y de la Torre-Giral (12 January 1716 – 3 July 1795) was a Spanish general of the navy, explorer, scientist, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana.
Aqua regia (from Latin, "royal water" or "king's water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
In chemistry, an arsenide is a compound of arsenic with a less electronegative element or elements.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A bolide (French via Latin from the Greek βολίς bolís, "missile") is an extremely bright meteor, especially one that explodes in the atmosphere.
Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.
Breitling SA is a Swiss luxury watchmaker based in Grenchen, Switzerland.
# A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Bullion is gold, silver, or other precious metals in the form of bars or ingots.
The Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) is the largest layered igneous intrusion within the Earth's crust.
The IUPAC defines calcination as "heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen".
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carboplatin, sold under the trade name Paraplatin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of forms of cancer.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation and a reduction reaction).
Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas distilled from crude oil (typically having low octane ratings) into high-octane liquid products called reformates, which are premium blending stocks for high-octane gasoline.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Charles III (Spanish: Carlos; Italian: Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain and the Spanish Indies (1759–1788), after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V (1734–1759), kingdoms he abdicated to his son Ferdinand.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chloroplatinic acid or hexachloroplatinic acid is an inorganic compound with the formula 2(H2O)x.
Chocó Department (Departamento del Chocó) is a department of Colombia known for its large Afro-Colombian population.
Chromite is an iron chromium oxide: FeCr2O4.
Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
Cooperite is a grey mineral consisting of platinum sulfide (PtS), generally in combinations with sulfides of other elements such as palladium and nickel (PdS and NiS).
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another.
The Crown of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, also known as The Queen Mother's Crown, is the crown made for Queen Elizabeth, the wife of King George VI, to wear at their coronation in 1937 and State Openings of Parliament during her husband's reign.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Darién is a province in Panama whose capital city is La Palma.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Dichloro(1,5-cyclooctadiene)platinum(II) (Pt(cod)Cl2) is an organometallic compound of platinum.
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In nuclear physics, double beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which two protons are simultaneously transformed into two neutrons, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
Esmeraldas is a coastal city in northwestern Ecuador.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Franz Karl Achard (April 28, 1753 – April 20, 1821) was a German (Prussian) chemist, physicist and biologist.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
Gauteng, which means "place of gold", is one of the nine provinces of South Africa.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
Gerhard Ertl (born 10 October 1936) is a German physicist and a Professor emeritus at the Department of Physical Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Berlin, Germany.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gravimetry is the measurement of the strength of a gravitational field.
Group 10, numbered by current IUPAC style, is the group of chemical elements in the periodic table that consists of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized darmstadtium (Ds).
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Hans Merensky (16 March 1871 in Botshabelo – 21 October 1952 on his farm Westfalia near Duiwelskloof) was a South African geologist, prospector, scientist, conservationist and philanthropist.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Henrik Teofilus Scheffer (December 28, 1710 in Stockholm – August 10, 1759 in Stockholm) was a Swedish chemist.
In the aftermath of the French Revolution (1789), the traditional units of measure used in the Ancien Régime were replaced.
HSAB concept is an initialism for "hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases".
Huancavelica or Wankawilka in Quechua is a city in Peru.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Inorganic Chemistry is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society since 1962.
Inorganic Syntheses is a book series which aims to publish "detailed and foolproof" procedures for the synthesis of inorganic compounds.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron(II) chloride, also known as ferrous chloride, is the chemical compound of formula FeCl2.
Iron–platinum nanoparticles (FePt NPs) are 3D superlattices composed of an approximately equal atomic ratio of Fe and Pt.
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
Julius Caesar Scaliger (April 23, 1484 – October 21, 1558), or Giulio Cesare della Scala, was an Italian scholar and physician, who spent a major part of his career in France.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
This is a list of countries by platinum production.
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
The Merensky Reef is a layer of igneous rock in the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) in the North West, Limpopo, Gauteng and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa which together with an underlying layer, the Upper Group 2 Reef (UG2), contains most of the world's known reserves of platinum group metals (PGMs) or platinum group elements (PGEs) - platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.
Mixed metal oxide (MMO) electrodes are devices with useful properties for use as anodes in electrochemical electrolysis reaction.
Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
Native element minerals are those elements that occur in nature in uncombined form with a distinct mineral structure.
In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
Organometallics is a biweekly journal published by the American Chemical Society.
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.
Oxaliplatin, sold under the brand name Eloxatin, is a cancer medication used to treat colorectal cancer.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
An oxygen sensor (or lambda sensor) is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analysed.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
Palladium(II) acetate is a chemical compound of palladium described by the formula n, abbreviated n. It is more reactive than the analogous platinum compound.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Patek Philippe & Co. is a luxury Swiss watch manufacturer founded in 1851, located in Geneva and the Vallée de Joux.
Patina is a thin layer that variously forms on the surface of copper, bronze and similar metals (tarnish produced by oxidation or other chemical processes), or certain stones, and wooden furniture (sheen produced by age, wear, and polishing), or any similar acquired change of a surface through age and exposure.
Payment cards are part of a payment system issued by financial institutions, such as bank, to a customer that enables its owner (the cardholder) to access the funds in the customer's designated bank accounts, or through a credit account and make payments by electronic funds transfer and access automated teller machines (ATMs).
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Petroleum naphtha is an intermediate hydrocarbon liquid stream derived from the refining of crude oil with CAS-no 64742-48-9.
Pierre-Joseph Macquer (9 October 1718, Paris – 15 February 1784, Paris) was an influential French chemist.
Pierre-François Chabaneau (June 27, 1754 – February 18, 1842) was a French chemist who spent much of his life working in Spain.
In geology, a placer deposit or placer is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity separation from a specific source rock during sedimentary processes.
Platinum black (Pt black) is a fine powder of platinum with good catalytic properties.
The platinum-group metals (abbreviated as the PGMs; alternatively, the platinoids, platinides, platidises, platinum group, platinum metals, platinum family or platinum-group elements (PGEs)) are six noble, precious metallic elements clustered together in the periodic table.
Platinum hexafluoride is the chemical compound with the formula PtF6.
Platinum, and platinum group metals, are produced in Zimbabwe and South Africa.
Platinum nanoparticles are usually in the form of a suspension or colloid of nanoparticles of platinum in a fluid, usually water.
Platinum prints, also called platinotypes, are photographic prints made by a monochrome printing process involving platinum.
Platinum tetrafluoride is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula.
Platinum(II) acetate is a purple-colored coordination complex.
Platinum bromide is the chemical compound with the formula PtBr2.
Platinum(II) chloride is the chemical compound PtCl2.
Platinum(IV) bromide is the chemical compound composed of platinum and bromine with the formula PtBr4.
Platinum(IV) chloride is the inorganic compound of platinum and chlorine with the empirical formula PtCl4.
Platinum (Arviiq in Central Alaskan Yup'ik) is a city in Bethel Census Area, Alaska, United States.
Platinum-based antineoplastic drugs (informally called platins) are chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer.
Potassium hexachloroplatinate is the inorganic compound with the formula K2PtCl6.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Powder metallurgy (PM) is a term covering a wide range of ways in which materials or components are made from metal powders.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
In chemistry, a reactivity series (or activity series) is an empirical, calculated, and structurally analytical progression of a series of metals, arranged by their "reactivity" from highest to lowest.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
In the United States, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) awards certification based on the number of albums and singles sold through retail and other ancillary markets.
Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are sensors used to measure temperature.
Rolex SA is a Swiss luxury watchmaker.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Silicone rubber is an elastomer (rubber-like material) composed of silicone—itself a polymer—containing silicon together with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sodium acetate, CH3COONa, also abbreviated NaOAc, is the sodium salt of acetic acid.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
A spark plug (sometimes, in British English, a sparking plug, and, colloquially, a plug) is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine.
Sperrylite is a platinum arsenide mineral with formula PtAs2 and is an opaque metallic tin white mineral which crystallizes in the isometric system with the pyrite group structure.
The square planar molecular geometry in chemistry describes the stereochemistry (spatial arrangement of atoms) that is adopted by certain chemical compounds.
The Standard hydrogen electrode (abbreviated SHE), is a redox electrode which forms the basis of the thermodynamic scale of oxidation-reduction potentials.
The Sudbury Basin, also known as Sudbury Structure or the Sudbury Nickel Irruptive, is a major geological structure in Ontario, Canada.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
The sulfide minerals are a class of minerals containing sulfide (S2−) as the major anion.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
The telluride ion is the anion Te2− and its derivatives.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
Thermogravimetric analysis or thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) is a method of thermal analysis in which the mass of a sample is measured over time as the temperature changes.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Torbern Olaf (Olof) Bergman (KVO) (20 March 17358 July 1784) was a Swedish chemist and mineralogist noted for his 1775 Dissertation on Elective Attractions, containing the largest chemical affinity tables ever published.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
Vacheron Constantin is a luxury Swiss manufacture of prestige watches and a brand of the Richemont group.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Vehicle emissions control is the study of reducing the emissions produced by motor vehicles, especially internal combustion engines.
Volatilization is the process whereby a dissolved sample is vaporised.
A watchmaker is an artisan who makes and repairs watches.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
William Brownrigg (24 March 1711 – 1800) was a British doctor and scientist, who practised at Whitehaven in Cumberland.
William Lewis FRS (c. 1708 – 1781) was a British chemist and physician.
Zeise's salt, potassium trichloro(ethene)platinate(II), is the chemical compound with the formula K·H2O.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
1,5-Cyclooctadiene is the organic compound with the chemical formula C8H12.
The 2000s commodities boom or the commodities super cycle was the rise, and fall, of many physical commodity prices (such as those of food, oil, metals, chemicals, fuels and the like) during the early 21st century (2000–2014), following the Great Commodities Depression of the 1980s and 1990s.