379 relations: Abstraction, Academy, Achaemenid Empire, Adeimantus of Collytus, Aegina, Afterlife, Agathos kai sophos, Akademos, Al-Farabi, Albert Einstein, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Alfred North Whitehead, Alfred Tarski, Allegorical interpretations of Plato, Allegory of the Cave, Alonzo Church, Ambrose, Analogy of the divided line, Anamnesis (philosophy), Ancient Greek personal names, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient Olympic Games, Ancient philosophy, Anniceris, Anytus, Apollo, Apollodorus of Athens, Apology (Plato), Aporia, Applied mathematics, Apuleius, Archestratus of Phrearrhi, Archetype, Arethas of Caesarea, Aristocracy, Ariston of Athens, Aristophanes, Aristotle, Aristotle's views on women, Aristoxenus, Arithmetic, Art, Athenian democracy, Attic Greek, Augustine of Hippo, Averroes, Avicenna, Axiochus (dialogue), Basilios Bessarion, Being, ..., Being and Time, Belief, Benjamin Jowett, Beyond Good and Evil, Bucknell University, Byzantine Empire, Byzantium, Callias III, Callippus of Syracuse, Cambridge Platonists, Castor and Pollux, Charmides, Charmides (dialogue), Cicero, Circular reasoning, Classical Athens, Classical Greece, Cleruchy, Clitophon (dialogue), Close reading, Codrus, Constantinople, Cosimo de' Medici, Council of Florence, Courage, Cratylus, Cratylus (dialogue), Critias, Critias (dialogue), Crito, Cyrene, Libya, David Sedley, De Divinatione, Debra Nails, Definist fallacy (disambiguation), Definitions (Plato), Demiurge, Democracy, Demodocus (dialogue), Dialectic, Dialogue, Dicaearchus, Diogenes Laërtius, Dion of Syracuse, Dionysius I of Syracuse, Dionysius II of Syracuse, Divine madness, E. 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M. Hare, Raphael, Reality, Reason, Regime, Renaissance, Republic (Plato), Rhetoric, Richard Crawley, Rival Lovers, Scholasticism, Science, Scribal abbreviation, Second Alcibiades, Second Letter (Plato), Seder HaDoroth, Seneca the Younger, Seventh Letter, Sicily, Silanion, Simon Blackburn, Simplicius of Cilicia, Sisyphus (dialogue), Skepticism, Society, Socrates, Socrates on Trial, Solomon's Temple, Solon, Sophist, Sophist (dialogue), Sophrosyne, Soul, Speusippus, Spirituality, Stadion (unit), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Statesman (dialogue), Stephanus pagination, Stobaeus, Stylometry, Suda, Sulla, Suzanne Lilar, Symposium (Plato), Syracuse, Sicily, T. K. Seung, Tertullian, Tetralogy, Textual criticism, The American Scholar (magazine), The City of God, The Enneads, The Open Society and Its Enemies, The Prince, The School of Athens, The Wasps, Theaetetus (dialogue), Theages, Theology, Theory of forms, Thirty Tyrants, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Taylor (neoplatonist), Thracians, Thrasyllus of Mendes, Tiberius, Timaeus (dialogue), Timocracy, Torso, Totalitarianism, Twelve Olympians, Type–token distinction, Tyrant, Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Universal (metaphysics), University of Oxford, Utopia, Valori (family), Value theory, Velia, W. K. C. Guthrie, Western philosophy, Western religions, Western world, Wisdom, World Congress of Philosophy, Wrestling, Xenophon. Expand index (329 more) » « Shrink index
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Adeimantus of Collytus (Ἀδείμαντος; c. 432 BC – 382 BC),Debra Nails, The People of Plato: A Prosopography of Plato and Other Socratics.
Aegina (Αίγινα, Aígina, Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens.
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
Agathos kai sophos (ἀγαθὸς καὶ σοφὸς) is a phrase coined by Plato, which literally means "wise and good" in Greek.
Akademos or Academus (Ἀκάδημος; also Hekademos or Hecademus (Ἑκάδημος)) was an Attic hero in Greek mythology.
Al-Farabi (known in the West as Alpharabius; c. 872 – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951) was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in the fields of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alexander of Aphrodisias (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Ἀφροδισιεύς; fl. 200 AD) was a Peripatetic philosopher and the most celebrated of the Ancient Greek commentators on the writings of Aristotle.
Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.
Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901 – October 26, 1983), born Alfred Teitelbaum,School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews,, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews.
Many Plato interpreters held that his writings contain passages with double meanings, called 'allegories' or 'symbols', that give the dialogues layers of figurative meaning in addition to their usual literal meaning.
The Allegory of the Cave, or Plato's Cave, was presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work Republic (514a–520a) to compare "the effect of education (παιδεία) and the lack of it on our nature".
Alonzo Church (June 14, 1903 – August 11, 1995) was an American mathematician and logician who made major contributions to mathematical logic and the foundations of theoretical computer science.
Aurelius Ambrosius (– 397), better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.
The Analogy of the Divided Line (γραμμὴ δίχα τετμημένη) is presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in the Republic (509d–511e).
In philosophy, anamnesis (ἀνάμνησις) is a concept in Plato's epistemological and psychological theory that he develops in his dialogues Meno and Phaedo, and alludes to in his Phaedrus.
The study of ancient Greek personal names is a branch of onomastics, the study of names, and more specifically of anthroponomastics, the study of names of persons.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
The ancient Olympic Games were originally a festival, or celebration of and for Zeus; later, events such as a footrace, a javelin contest, and wrestling matches were added.
This page lists some links to ancient philosophy.
Anniceris (Ἀννίκερις; fl. 300 BC) was a Cyrenaic philosopher.
Anytus (Ánytos; c. 5th–4th century BCE), son of Anthemion, was an ancient Athenian politician.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Apollodorus of Athens (Ἀπολλόδωρος ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, Apollodōros ho Athēnaios; c. 180 BC – after 120 BC) son of Asclepiades, was a Greek scholar, historian and grammarian.
The Apology of Socrates (Ἀπολογία Σωκράτους, Apologia Sokratous; Latin: Apologia Socratis), by Plato, is the Socratic dialogue that presents the speech of legal self-defence, which Socrates presented at his trial for impiety and corruption, in 399 BC.
Aporia (impasse, difficulty in passage, lack of resources, puzzlement) denotes in philosophy a philosophical puzzle or state of puzzlement and in rhetoric a rhetorically useful expression of doubt.
Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.
Apuleius (also called Lucius Apuleius Madaurensis; c. 124 – c. 170 AD) was a Latin-language prose writer, Platonist philosopher and rhetorician.
Archestratus of Phrearrhi (Ἀρχέστρατος Φρεάρριος) was Plato's neighbor.
The concept of an archetype appears in areas relating to behavior, modern psychological theory, and literary analysis.
Arethas of Caesarea (Ἀρέθας; born c. 860 AD) was Archbishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia (modern Kayseri, Turkey) early in the 10th century, and is considered one of the most scholarly theologians of the Greek Orthodox Church.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
Ariston of Collytus (Ἀρίστων; died c. 424 BC), was the father of the Greek philosopher Plato (originally named Aristocles).
Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης,; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Aristotle's views on women influenced later Western thinkers, as well as Islamic thinkers, who quoted him as an authority until the end of the Middle Ages, influencing women's history.
Aristoxenus of Tarentum (Ἀριστόξενος ὁ Ταραντῖνος; born c. 375, fl. 335 BCE) was a Greek Peripatetic philosopher, and a pupil of Aristotle.
Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.
Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including the city of Athens.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Axiochus (Ἀξίοχος) is a Socratic dialogue attributed to Plato, but which has been considered spurious for over 400 years.
Basilios (or Basilius) Bessarion (Greek: Βασίλειος Βησσαρίων; 2 January 1403 – 18 November 1472), a Roman Catholic Cardinal Bishop and the titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, was one of the illustrious Greek scholars who contributed to the great revival of letters in the 15th century.
Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.
Being and Time (Sein und Zeit) is a 1927 book by the German philosopher Martin Heidegger, in which the author seeks to analyse the concept of Being.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
Benjamin Jowett (modern variant; 15 April 1817 – 1 October 1893) was renowned as an influential tutor and administrative reformer in the University of Oxford, a theologian and translator of Plato and Thucydides.
Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future (Jenseits von Gut und Böse: Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft) is a book by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche that expands the ideas of his previous work, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, with a more critical and polemical approach.
Bucknell University is a private liberal arts college in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Callias (Kαλλίας) was an ancient Athenian aristocrat and political figure.
Callippus (Κάλλιππος Συρακούσιος) was a tyrant of Syracuse who ruled briefly for thirteen monthsSmith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, p. 574 from 354 to 352 BC.
The Cambridge Platonists were a group of theologians and philosophers at the University of Cambridge in the middle of the 17th century.
Castor and Pollux (or in Greek, Polydeuces) were twin brothers and demigods in Greek and Roman mythology, known together as the Dioscuri.
Charmides (Χαρμίδης), son of Glaucon, was an Athenian statesman who flourished during the 5th century BC.
The Charmides (Χαρμίδης) is a dialogue of Plato, in which Socrates engages a handsome and popular boy in a conversation about the meaning of sophrosyne, a Greek word usually translated into English as "temperance", "self-control", or "restraint".
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Circular reasoning (circulus in probando, "circle in proving"; also known as circular logic) is a logical fallacy in which the reasoner begins with what they are trying to end with.
The city of Athens (Ἀθῆναι, Athênai a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯; Modern Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
A cleruchy (klēroukhia) in Classical Greece, was a specialized type of colony established by Athens.
The Clitophon (Κλειτοφῶν, also transliterated as Cleitophon; Clitopho) is a 4th-century BC dialogue traditionally ascribed to Plato, though the work's authenticity is debated.
In literary criticism, close reading is the careful, sustained interpretation of a brief passage of a text.
Codrus (Greek: Κόδρος, Kódros) was the last of the semi-mythical Kings of Athens (r. ca 1089–1068 BC).
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (called 'the Elder' (Italian il Vecchio) and posthumously Father of the Fatherland (Latin pater patriae); 27 September 1389 – 1 August 1464) was an Italian banker and politician, the first member of the Medici political dynasty that served as de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance.
The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
Courage (also called bravery or valour) is the choice and willingness to confront agony, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation.
Cratylus (Κρατύλος, Kratylos) was an ancient Athenian philosopher from the mid-late 5th century BCE, known mostly through his portrayal in Plato's dialogue Cratylus.
Cratylus (Κρατύλος, Kratylos) is the name of a dialogue by Plato.
Critias (Κριτίας, Kritias; c. 460 – 403 BCE) was an ancient Athenian political figure and author.
Critias (Κριτίας), one of Plato's late dialogues, recounts the story of the mighty island kingdom Atlantis and its attempt to conquer Athens, which failed due to the ordered society of the Athenians.
Crito (or; Κρίτων) is a dialogue by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato.
Cyrene (translit) was an ancient Greek and Roman city near present-day Shahhat, Libya.
David Neil Sedley FBA (born 30 May 1947) is a British philosopher and historian of philosophy.
Cicero's De Divinatione (Latin, "Concerning Divination") is a philosophical treatise in two books written in 44 BC.
Debra Nails (born November 15, 1950) is an American philosophy professor and well known classics scholar who taught at Michigan State University.
The definist fallacy can refer to three logical fallacies related to how terms are defined in an argument.
The Definitions (Ὅροι Horoi; Definitiones) is a dictionary of 184 philosophical terms sometimes included in the corpus of Plato's works.
In the Platonic, Neopythagorean, Middle Platonic, and Neoplatonic schools of philosophy, the demiurge is an artisan-like figure responsible for fashioning and maintaining the physical universe.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Demodocus (Δημόδοκος) is purported to be one of the dialogues of Plato.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.
Dicaearchus of Messana (Δικαίαρχος Dikaiarkhos), also written Dicearchus or Dicearch, was a Greek philosopher, cartographer, geographer, mathematician and author.
Diogenes Laërtius (Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers.
Dion (Δίων ὁ Συρακόσιος; 408–354 BC), tyrant of Syracuse in Sicily, was the son of Hipparinus, and brother-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse.
Dionysius I or Dionysius the Elder (Διονύσιος ὁ Πρεσβύτερος; c. 432367 BC) was a Greek tyrant of Syracuse, in what is now Sicily, southern Italy.
Dionysius the Younger (Διονύσιος ὁ Νεώτερος, 343 BC), or Dionysius II, was a Greek politician who ruled Syracuse, Sicily from 367 BC to 357 BC and again from 346 BC to 344 BC.
Divine madness, also known as theia mania and crazy wisdom, refers to unconventional, outrageous, unexpected, or unpredictable behavior linked to religious or spiritual pursuits.
Eric Robertson Dodds (26 July 1893 – 8 April 1979) was an Irish classical scholar.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
Edmund L. Gettier III (born October 31, 1927) is an American philosopher and Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Eduard Gottlob Zeller (22 January 1814, Kleinbottwar – 19 March 1908, Stuttgart), was a German philosopher and Protestant theologian of the Tübingen School of theology.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Ellen Francis Mason (June 24, 1846 – 1930) was a New England author, civic leader, trustee, and philanthropist.
Eighteen Epigrams are attributed to Plato, most of them considered spurious.
The Epinomis (Greek: Ἐπινομίς) is a dialogue attributed to Plato.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
The Epistles (Greek: Ἐπιστολαί; Latin: Epistolae) of Plato are a series of thirteen letters traditionally included in the Platonic corpus.
Eryxias (Ἐρυξίας) is a Socratic dialogue attributed to Plato, but which is considered spurious.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Euclid of Megara (also Euclides, Eucleides; Εὐκλείδης ὁ Μεγαρεύς; c. 435 – c. 365 BC) was a Greek Socratic philosopher who founded the Megarian school of philosophy.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering.
Euthydemus (Εὐθύδημος, Euthydemos), written c. 384 BC, is a dialogue by Plato which satirizes what Plato presents as the logical fallacies of the Sophists.
Euthyphro (translit; c. 399–395 BC), by Plato, is a Socratic dialogue whose events occur in the weeks before the trial of Socrates (399 BC), for which Socrates and Euthyphro attempt to establish a definitive meaning for the word piety (virtue).
Euthyphro of Prospalta (Εὐθύφρων Προσπάλτιος; fl. 400 BCE) was an ancient Athenian religious prophet (mantis) best known for his role in his eponymous dialogue written by the philosopher Plato.
Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.
The fall of man, or the fall, is a term used in Christianity to describe the transition of the first man and woman from a state of innocent obedience to God to a state of guilty disobedience.
A family tree, or pedigree chart, is a chart representing family relationships in a conventional tree structure.
Favorinus of Arelate (c. 80 – c. 160 AD) was a Roman sophist and philosopher who flourished during the reign of Hadrian and the Second Sophistic.
The First Alcibiades or Alcibiades I (Ἀλκιβιάδης αʹ) is a dialogue featuring Alcibiades in conversation with Socrates.
Foundationalism concerns philosophical theories of knowledge resting upon justified belief, or some secure foundation of certainty such as a conclusion inferred from a basis of sound premises.
Francesco Berlinghieri (1440–1501) was an Italian scholar and humanist who lived during the fifteenth century.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between people.
Georgius Gemistus (Γεώργιος Γεμιστός; /1360 – 1452/1454), later called Plethon (Πλήθων), was one of the most renowned philosophers of the late Byzantine era.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
Glaucon (Γλαύκων; c. 445 BC – 4th century BC) son of Ariston, was an ancient Athenian and the philosopher Plato's older brother.
Gorgias (Γοργίας; c. 485 – c. 380 BC) was a Greek sophist, Siceliote, pre-Socratic philosopher and rhetorician who was a native of Leontini in Sicily.
Gorgias (Γοργίας) is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato around 380 BC.
Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.
Drachma (δραχμή,; pl. drachmae or drachmas) was the currency used in Greece during several periods in its history.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Gregory Vlastos (Γρηγόριος Βλαστός; July 27, 1907 – October 12, 1991) was a scholar of ancient philosophy, and author of several works on Plato and Socrates.
Gymnastics is a sport that requires balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and endurance.
Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. is an academic publishing house based in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Halcyon (Ἀλκυών) is a short dialogue with the distinction of being attributed in the manuscripts to both Plato and Lucian, although the work is not by either writer.
Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher of the continental tradition, best known for his 1960 magnum opus Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode) on hermeneutics.
Harold Fredrik Cherniss (11 March 1904 – 18 June 1987) was an American classicist and historian of ancient philosophy.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances.
Heinrich Gomperz (January 18, 1873 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary – December 27, 1942 in Los Angeles, California) was an Austrian philosopher.
Hendrick Jansz ter Brugghen (or Terbrugghen) (1588 – 1 November 1629) was a Dutch painter of genre scenes and religious subjects.
Henology (from Greek ἕν hen, "one") refers to the philosophical account or discourse on "The One" that appears most notably in the philosophy of Plotinus.
Henri Estienne (1528 or 1531 – 1598), also known as Henricus Stephanus, was a 16th-century French printer and classical scholar.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
The Hipparchus (Ἵππαρχος), or Hipparch, is a dialogue attributed to the classical Greek philosopher and writer Plato.
Hippias Major (or What is Beauty? or Greater Hippias (Ἱππίας μείζων, Hippías meízōn), to distinguish it from the Hippias Minor, which has the same chief character) is one of the dialogues of Plato.
Hippias Minor (Ἱππίας ἐλάττων), or On Lying, is thought to be one of Plato's early works.
Hipponicus (Ἱππόνικος) was an Athenian military commander.
Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi (also Hunain or Hunein) (أبو زيد حنين بن إسحاق العبادي;, Iohannitius, ܚܢܝܢ ܒܪ ܐܝܣܚܩ) (809 – 873) was an influential Arab Nestorian Christian translator, scholar, physician, and scientist.
HyperuranionKatherine Murphy, Richard Todd,, BRILL, 2008, p. 260.
Iamblichus (Ἰάμβλιχος, c. AD 245 – c. 325), was a Syrian Neoplatonist philosopher of Arab origin.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
An infinite regress in a series of propositions arises if the truth of proposition P1 requires the support of proposition P2, the truth of proposition P2 requires the support of proposition P3,...
Interpersonal attraction is the attraction between people which leads to an relationships both platonic or romantic.
In Plato's Ion (Ἴων) Socrates discusses with the titular character, a professional rhapsode who also lectures on Homer, the question of whether the rhapsode, a performer of poetry, gives his performance on account of his skill and knowledge or by virtue of divine possession.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.
Isocrates (Ἰσοκράτης; 436–338 BC), an ancient Greek rhetorician, was one of the ten Attic orators.
Isthmian Games or Isthmia (Ancient Greek: Ἴσθμια) were one of the Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece, and were named after the Isthmus of Corinth, where they were held.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.
James Adam (1860–1907) was a Scottish classicist who taught Classics at Emmanuel College, Cambridge.
Jean de Serres (1540–1598) was a major French historian and an advisor to King Henry IV during the Wars of Religion that marred the French Reformation in the second half of the Sixteenth Century.
Jehiel ben Solomon Heilprin (יחיאל היילפרין; ca. 1660–ca. 1746) was a Lithuanian rabbi, kabalist, and chronicler.
Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ, Modern:, Tiberian:; Ἰερεμίας; إرميا meaning "Yah Exalts"), also called the "Weeping prophet", was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament).
Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism.
John Alexander Stewart (19 October 1846 – 27 December 1933) was a Scottish writer, educator and philosopher.
John Burnet, FBA (9 December 1863 – 26 May 1928) was a Scottish classicist.
John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.
John Henry McDowell (born 7 March 1942) is a South African philosopher, formerly a fellow of University College, Oxford and now University Professor at the University of Pittsburgh.
Jonathan Barnes, FBA (born 26 December 1942 in Wenlock, Shropshire) is an English scholar of ancient philosophy.
Josiah or Yoshiyahu was a seventh-century BCE king of Judah (c. 649–609) who, according to the Hebrew Bible, instituted major religious reforms.
Julien Gracq (27 July 1910 – 22 December 2007; born Louis Poirier in Saint-Florent-le-Vieil, in the French département of Maine-et-Loire) was a French writer.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Karl Albert (2 October 1921, Neheim, Westphalia - 9 October 2008, Cologne), was a German philosopher and professor emeritus at ''Bergische Universität'' Wuppertal.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Khôra (also chora; χώρα) was the territory of the Ancient Greek polis outside the city proper.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.
The Laches (Greek: Λάχης) is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato.
The Laws (Greek: Νόμοι, Nómoi; Latin: De Legibus) is Plato's last and longest dialogue.
A legislator (or lawmaker) is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature.
Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973) was a German-American political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy.
Lewis Campbell (3 September 1830 – 25 October 1908) was a Scottish classical scholar.
Before the Athenian democracy, the tyrants, and the Archons, the city-state of Athens was ruled by kings.
The following is a list of the speakers found in the dialogues traditionally ascribed to Plato, including extensively quoted, indirect and conjured speakers.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
The Loeb Classical Library (LCL; named after James Loeb) is a series of books, today published by Harvard University Press, which presents important works of ancient Greek and Latin literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each left-hand page, and a fairly literal translation on the facing page.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
Lorenzo de' Medici (1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance culture in Italy.
Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and positively experienced, ranging from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
Lysis (Λύσις) is a dialogue of Plato which discusses the nature of friendship.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Marsilio Ficino (Latin name: Marsilius Ficinus; 19 October 1433 – 1 October 1499) was an Italian scholar and Catholic priest who was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
In Greek mythology, Melanthus (Μέλανθος) was a king of Messenia.
Meletus (Μέλητος; fl. 5th–4th century BCE) was an ancient Athenian Greek from the Pithus deme known for his prosecuting role in the trial and eventual execution of the philosopher Socrates.
Memorabilia (original title in Greek: Ἀπομνημονεύματα, Apomnemoneumata) is a collection of Socratic dialogues by Xenophon, a student of Socrates.
The Menexenus (Μενέξενος) is a Socratic dialogue of Plato, traditionally included in the seventh tetralogy along with the Greater and Lesser Hippias and the Ion.
Meno (Μένων) is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato.
Messenia (Μεσσηνία Messinia) is a regional unit (perifereiaki enotita) in the southwestern part of the Peloponnese region, in Greece.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Metaphysics (Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name.
Metaxy (μεταξύ) is defined in Plato's Symposium via the character of the priestess Diotima as the "in-between" or "middle ground".
Metempsychosis (μετεμψύχωσις) is a philosophical term in the Greek language referring to transmigration of the soul, especially its reincarnation after death.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The mina (also mĕnē, Aramaic) is an ancient Near Eastern unit of weight, which was divided into 50 shekels.
J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium contains many locations.
Minos (or; Μίνως) is purported to be one of the dialogues of Plato.
Moderate is a general term for people who fall in the center category of the left–right political spectrum.
A moral (from Latin morālis) is a message that is conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Moses Isserles (משה בן ישראל איסרלישׂ, Mojżesz ben Israel Isserles) (February 22, 1530 / Adar I, 5290 – May 11, 1572 / Iyar), was an eminent Polish Ashkenazic rabbi, talmudist, and posek.
The Muses (/ˈmjuːzɪz/; Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, Moũsai) are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts in Greek mythology.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
The Nag Hammadi library (also known as the "Chenoboskion Manuscripts" and the "Gnostic Gospels") is a collection of early Christian and Gnostic texts discovered near the Upper Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
The navel (clinically known as the umbilicus, colloquially known as the belly button, or tummy button) is a hollowed or sometimes raised area on the abdomen at the attachment site of the umbilical cord.
Neanthes of Cyzicus (Νεάνθης ὁ Κυζικηνός) is apparently the name of two writers whose works have largely been lost.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
Numenius of Apamea (Νουμήνιος ὁ ἐξ Ἀπαμείας) was a Greek philosopher, who lived in Apamea in Syria and Rome, and flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century AD.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Olympiodorus the Younger (Ὀλυμπιόδωρος ὁ Νεώτερος; c. 495 – 570) was a Neoplatonist philosopher, astrologer and teacher who lived in the early years of the Byzantine Empire, after Justinian's Decree of 529 AD which closed Plato's Academy in Athens and other pagan schools.
On Justice (Περὶ Δικαίου; De Justo) is a Socratic dialogue that was once thought to be the work of Plato.
On Virtue (Περὶ Ἀρετῆς; De Virtute) is a Socratic dialogue attributed to Plato, but which is considered spurious.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Orphism (more rarely Orphicism; Ὀρφικά) is the name given to a set of religious beliefs and practices originating in the ancient Greek and Hellenistic world, as well as by the Thracians, associated with literature ascribed to the mythical poet Orpheus, who descended into the Greek underworld and returned.
Oxford Classical Texts (OCTs), or Scriptorum Classicorum Bibliotheca Oxoniensis, is a series of books published by Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Oxyrhynchus Papyri are a group of manuscripts discovered during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by papyrologists Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt at an ancient rubbish dump near Oxyrhynchus in Egypt (modern el-Bahnasa).
Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).
Parmenides (Παρμενίδης) is one of the dialogues of Plato.
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes).
The Peace of Nicias, also known as the Fifty-Year Peace, was a peace treaty signed between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta in March 421 BC, ending the first half of the Peloponnesian War.
The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.
Pericles (Περικλῆς Periklēs, in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age — specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.
Perictione (Περικτιόνη, Periktione; fl. 5th century BC) was the mother of the Greek philosopher Plato.
Phædo or Phaedo (Φαίδων, Phaidōn), also known to ancient readers as On The Soul, is one of the best-known dialogues of Plato's middle period, along with the Republic and the Symposium. The philosophical subject of the dialogue is the immortality of the soul.
The Phaedrus (Phaidros), written by Plato, is a dialogue between Plato's protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues.
The Philebus (occasionally given as Philebos; Greek: Φίληβος), is one of the surviving Socratic dialogues written in the 4th century BC by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
According to Plato, a philosopher king is a ruler who possesses both a love of knowledge, as well as intelligence, reliability, and a willingness to live a simple life.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philotimo (also spelled filotimo; φιλότιμο) is a Greek noun translating to "love of honor".
Photios I (Φώτιος Phōtios), (c. 810/820 – 6 February 893), also spelled PhotiusFr.
The Physics (Greek: Φυσικὴ ἀκρόασις Phusike akroasis; Latin: Physica, or Naturalis Auscultationes, possibly meaning "lectures on nature") is a named text, written in ancient Greek, collated from a collection of surviving manuscripts known as the Corpus Aristotelicum because attributed to the 4th-century BC philosopher, teacher, and mentor of Macedonian rulers, Aristotle.
Plato's Academy mosaic was created in the villa of T. Siminius Stephanus in Pompeii, around 100 BC to 100 CE.
Plato's Problem is the term given by Noam Chomsky to "the problem of explaining how we can know so much" given our limited experience.
Plato's tripartite theory of soul is a theory of psyche proposed by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato in his treatise the Republic, and also with the chariot allegory in Phaedrus.
Plato's so-called unwritten doctrines are metaphysical theories ascribed to him by his students and other ancient philosophers but not clearly formulated in his writings.
The Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδημία) was founded by Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) in ca.
Platonic love (often lower-cased as platonic) is a term used for a type of love, or close relationship that is non-sexual.
Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals or abstract objects after the Greek philosopher Plato (c. 427–c. 347 BC), a student of Socrates.
In three-dimensional space, a Platonic solid is a regular, convex polyhedron.
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it.
Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; – 270) was a major Greek-speaking philosopher of the ancient world.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
In philosophy, poiesis (from ποίησις) is "the activity in which a person brings something into being that did not exist before." Poiesis is etymologically derived from the ancient Greek term ποιεῖν, which means "to make".
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
Polyamory (from Greek πολύ poly, "many, several", and Latin amor, "love") is the ability or capacity to love more than one person at a time.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Potone (Πωτώνη Pōtōnē; born before 427 BC) daughter of Ariston and Perictione, was Plato's older sister.
A number of early Greek philosophers active before and during the time of Socrates are collectively known as the Pre-Socratics.
In metaphysics, the problem of universals refers to the question of whether properties exist, and if so, what they are.
Proclus Lycaeus (8 February 412 – 17 April 485 AD), called the Successor (Greek Πρόκλος ὁ Διάδοχος, Próklos ho Diádokhos), was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, one of the last major classical philosophers (see Damascius).
Prodicus of Ceos (Πρόδικος ὁ Κεῖος, Pródikos ho Keios; c. 465 BC – c. 395 BC) was a Greek philosopher, and part of the first generation of Sophists.
In philosophy, mathematics, and logic, a property is a characteristic of an object; a red object is said to have the property of redness.
Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας; c. 490 – c. 420 BC)Guthrie, p. 262–263.
Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας) is a dialogue by Plato.
Broadly speaking, pure mathematics is mathematics that studies entirely abstract concepts.
Pyrilampes (Πυριλάμπης) was an ancient Athenian politician and stepfather of the philosopher Plato.
Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
The Pythia (Πῡθίᾱ) was the name of the high priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi who also served as the oracle, commonly known as the Oracle of Delphi.
Richard Mervyn Hare (21 March 1919 – 29 January 2002), usually cited as R. M. Hare, was an English moral philosopher who held the post of White's Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Oxford from 1966 until 1983.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
In politics, a regime (also known as "régime", from the original French spelling) is the form of government or the set of rules, cultural or social norms, etc.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Richard Crawley (1840–1893) was a Welsh writer, an academic best known for his translation of Thucydides's History of the Peloponnesian War.
The Lovers (Ἐρασταί; Amatores) is a Socratic dialogue included in the traditional corpus of Plato's works, though its authenticity has been doubted.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum or sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse.
The Second Alcibiades or Alcibiades II (Ἀλκιβιάδης βʹ) is a dialogue traditionally ascribed to Plato.
The Second Letter of Plato, also called Epistle II or Letter II, is an epistle that tradition has ascribed to Plato, though some scholars consider it a forgery.
The Seder HaDorot or "Book of Generations" (completed 1725, published 1768) by Lithuanian Rabbi Jehiel Heilprin (1660–1746) is a Hebrew-language chronological work that serves as a depot of multiple Hebrew language chronological books and manuscripts.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
The Seventh Letter of Plato is an epistle that tradition has ascribed to Plato.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Silanion (Σιλανίων, gen. Σιλανίωνος) was the best-known of the Greek portrait-sculptors working during the fourth century BC.
Simon Blackburn (born 12 July 1944) is an English academic philosopher known for his work in metaethics, where he defends quasi-realism, and in the philosophy of language; more recently, he has gained a large general audience from his efforts to popularise philosophy.
Simplicius of Cilicia (Σιμπλίκιος ὁ Κίλιξ; c. 490 – c. 560) was a disciple of Ammonius Hermiae and Damascius, and was one of the last of the Neoplatonists.
The Sisyphus (Σίσυφος) is purported to be one of the dialogues of Plato.
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Socrates on Trial is a play depicting the life and death of the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.
Solon (Σόλων Sólōn; BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet.
A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.
The Sophist (Σοφιστής; Sophista) is a Platonic dialogue from the philosopher's late period, most likely written in 360 BC.
Sophrosyne (σωφροσύνη) is an ancient Greek concept of an ideal of excellence of character and soundness of mind, which when combined in one well-balanced individual leads to other qualities, such as temperance, moderation, prudence, purity, and self-control.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Speusippus (Σπεύσιππος; c. 408 – 339/8 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher.
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
The stadion (στάδιον; stadium), formerly also anglicized as stade, was an ancient Greek unit of length, based on the length of a typical sports stadium of the time.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
The Statesman (Πολιτικός, Politikos; Latin: Politicus), also known by its Latin title, Politicus, is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato.
Stephanus pagination is a system of reference and organization used in modern editions and translations of Plato (and less famously, Plutarch) based on the three volume 1578 edition of Plato's complete works translated by Joannes Serranus (Jean de Serres) and published by Henricus Stephanus (Henri Estienne) in Geneva.
Joannes Stobaeus (Ἰωάννης ὁ Στοβαῖος; fl. 5th-century AD), from Stobi in Macedonia, was the compiler of a valuable series of extracts from Greek authors.
Stylometry is the application of the study of linguistic style, usually to written language, but it has successfully been applied to music and to fine-art paintings as well.
The Suda or Souda (Soûda; Suidae Lexicon) is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, formerly attributed to an author called Soudas (Σούδας) or Souidas (Σουίδας).
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
Baroness Suzanne Lilar (née Suzanne Verbist; 21 May 1901 – 12 December 1992) was a Flemish Belgian essayist, novelist, and playwright writing in French.
The Symposium (Συμπόσιον) is a philosophical text by Plato dated c. 385–370 BC.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
A tetralogy (from Greek τετρα- tetra-, "four" and -λογία -logia, "discourse") is a compound work that is made up of four distinct works.
Textual criticism is a branch of textual scholarship, philology, and literary criticism that is concerned with the identification of textual variants in either manuscripts or printed books.
The American Scholar is the quarterly literary magazine of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, established in 1932.
The City of God Against the Pagans (De civitate Dei contra paganos), often called The City of God, is a book of Christian philosophy written in Latin by Augustine of Hippo in the early 5th century AD.
The Enneads (Ἐννεάδες), fully The Six Enneads, is the collection of writings of Plotinus, edited and compiled by his student Porphyry (270).
The Open Society and Its Enemies is a work on political philosophy by the philosopher Karl Popper, in which the author presents a "defence of the open society against its enemies", and offers a critique of theories of teleological historicism, according to which history unfolds inexorably according to universal laws.
The Prince (Il Principe) is a 16th-century political treatise by the Italian diplomat and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli.
The School of Athens (Scuola di Atene) is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael.
The Wasps (Σφῆκες Sphēkes) is the fourth in chronological order of the eleven surviving plays by Aristophanes, the master of an ancient genre of drama called 'Old Comedy'.
The Theaetetus (Θεαίτητος) is one of Plato's dialogues concerning the nature of knowledge, written circa 369 BC.
Theages (Θεάγης) is a dialogue attributed to Plato, featuring Demodocus, Socrates and Theages.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.
The Thirty Tyrants (οἱ τριάκοντα τύραννοι, hoi triákonta týrannoi) were a pro-Spartan oligarchy installed in Athens after its defeat in the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Taylor (15 May 17581 November 1835) was an English translator and Neoplatonist, the first to translate into English the complete works of Aristotle and of Plato, as well as the Orphic fragments.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Thrasyllus of Mendes (Θράσυλλος Μενδήσιος), also known as Thrasyllus of Alexandria and by his Roman citizenship name Tiberius Claudius Thrasyllus (Τιβέριος Κλαύδιος Θράσυλλος; fl. second half of the 1st century BC and first half of the 1st century – died 36), was an Egyptian Greek grammarian and literary commentator.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
Timaeus (Timaios) is one of Plato's dialogues, mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri, written c. 360 BC.
A timocracy (from Greek τιμή timē, "price, worth" and -κρατία -kratia, "rule")in Aristotle's Politics is a state where only property owners may participate in government.
The torso or trunk is an anatomical term for the central part of the many animal bodies (including that of the human) from which extend the neck and limbs.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
relief (1st century BCendash1st century AD) depicting the twelve Olympians carrying their attributes in procession; from left to right, Hestia (scepter), Hermes (winged cap and staff), Aphrodite (veiled), Ares (helmet and spear), Demeter (scepter and wheat sheaf), Hephaestus (staff), Hera (scepter), Poseidon (trident), Athena (owl and helmet), Zeus (thunderbolt and staff), Artemis (bow and quiver), Apollo (lyre), from the Walters Art Museum.Walters Art Museum, http://art.thewalters.org/detail/38764 accession number 23.40. In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the twelve Olympians are the major deities of the Greek pantheon, commonly considered to be Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus.
The type–token distinction is used in disciplines such as logic, linguistics, metalogic, typography, and computer programming to clarify what words mean.
A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.
Enno Friedrich Wichard Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (22 December 1848 – 25 September 1931) was a German classical philologist.
In metaphysics, a universal is what particular things have in common, namely characteristics or qualities.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
The Valori Family belonged to Florence during a period of the Italian Renaissance, they were prominent in Florentine politics for five generations.
Value theory is a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else.
Velia was the Roman name of an ancient city of Magna Graecia on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
William Keith Chambers Guthrie, FBA (1 August 1906 – 17 May 1981), usually cited as W. K. C. Guthrie, was a Scottish classical scholar, best known for his History of Greek Philosophy, published in six volumes between 1962 and his death.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Western religions refer to religions that originated within Western culture, and are thus historically, culturally, and theologically distinct from the Eastern religions.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.
The World Congress of Philosophy (originally known as the International Conference of Philosophy) is a global meeting of philosophers held every five years under the auspices of the International Federation of Philosophical Societies (FISP).
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
Complete works of Plato, Dialogues of Plato, Plato and Platonism, Plato's Dialogues, Plato's Information, Plato's dialogues, Plato/Complete works, Platonesque, Platonian, Platonic dialectic, Platonic dialogues, Pláton, Plátōn, Pseudo-Plato, Πλάτων.