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Index Pleistocene

The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations. [1]

177 relations: Acheulean, Age (geology), Alps, Andes, Anglian stage, Antarctica, Archaeology, Archaic humans, Asian land mammal age, Atlas Mountains, Aurochs, Australia, Australopithecus garhi, Beestonian stage, Before Present, Blancan, Braided river, Calabrian (stage), Calcite, Calibration of radiocarbon dates, Cambridge University Press, Camel, Carbon-14, Cave, Cave bear, Cenozoic, Charles Lyell, Chronozone, Circle of latitude, Climate state, Continent, Cordilleran Ice Sheet, Core sample, Cromerian Stage, Deposition (geology), Diprotodon, Dire wolf, Discoaster, East Antarctic Ice Sheet, Eburonian, Eemian, El Niño, Elephant bird, Elster glaciation, Ensenadan, Epoch (geology), Era (geology), Ethiopia, Eurasia, European land mammal age, ..., Foraminifera, Fossil, Gelasian, Genetics (journal), Geologic time scale, Geological period, Gigantopithecus, Giraffidae, Glacial period, Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, Glyptodon, Gomphothere, Great Britain, Great Salt Lake, Greek language, Ground sloth, Gunz glaciation, Haast's eagle, Holocene, Holocene extinction, Hominini, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens, Horse, Hoxnian Stage, Human evolution, Ice sheet, Illinoian (stage), Indian Ocean, International Commission on Stratigraphy, International Union of Geological Sciences, Irish elk, Irvingtonian, Isotope, Kansan glaciation, Lake Agassiz, Lake Bonneville, Last Glacial Maximum, Last glacial period, Late Pleistocene, Latin, Laurentide Ice Sheet, Lion, Loess, Lujanian, Machairodontinae, Madagascar, Magnetostratigraphy, Mammal, Mammoth, Marine isotope stage, Mark Lynas, Mass, Mass spectrometry, Mastodon, Megabyte, Megafauna, Megalania, Meiolania, Middle Paleolithic, Middle Pleistocene, Milankovitch cycles, Mindel glaciation, Moa, Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, National Geographic (U.S. TV channel), National Museum of Natural History, Nature (journal), Neanderthal, New Zealand, North America, North American land mammal age, Northern Europe, Oldowan, Online Etymology Dictionary, Overtone, Oxygen, Oxygen isotope ratio cycle, Pacific Ocean, Paleolithic, Paranthropus, Patagonia, Permafrost, Peru, Plate tectonics, Pleistocene megafauna, Plio-Pleistocene, Pliocene, Poikilotherm, Pre-Illinoian, Quaternary, Quinkana, Rancholabrean, Riss glaciation, Rwenzori Mountains, Saale glaciation, Sangamonian, Sediment, Short-faced bear, Siberia, Sicily, Sivatherium, Smilodon, Smithsonian Institution, South American land mammal age, Southern California, Stage (stratigraphy), Stratotype, Submergent coastline, Tasmania, Tiger, Timeline of glaciation, Trade winds, Travertine, Uquian, Waveform, Würm glaciation, Weichselian glaciation, White-tailed deer, Wisconsin glaciation, Wolstonian Stage, Wood mouse, Woolly rhinoceros, Yarmouthian (stage), Year, Younger Dryas. Expand index (127 more) »


Acheulean (also Acheulian and Mode II), from the French acheuléen, is an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by distinctive oval and pear-shaped "hand-axes" associated with Homo erectus and derived species such as Homo heidelbergensis.

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Age (geology)

A geologic age is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an epoch into smaller parts.

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The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Anglian stage

The Anglian Stage is the name used in the British Isles for a middle Pleistocene glaciation.

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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Archaic humans

A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period contemporary and predating the emergence of the earliest anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) over 315 kya.

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Asian land mammal age

The Asian land mammal ages, acronym ALMA, establish a geologic timescale for prehistoric Asian fauna beginning 58.7 Mya during the Paleogene and continuing through to the Miocene (Aquitanian) (23.03 Ma).

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Atlas Mountains

The Atlas Mountains (jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb.

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The aurochs (or; pl. aurochs, or rarely aurochsen, aurochses), also known as urus or ure (Bos primigenius), is an extinct species of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe, Asia, and North Africa.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Australopithecus garhi

Australopithecus garhi is a 2.5-million-year-old gracile australopithecine species whose fossils were discovered in 1996 by a paleontologist research team led by Berhane Asfaw and Tim White.

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Beestonian stage

The Beestonian Stage is the name for an early Pleistocene stage used in the British Isles.

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Before Present

Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.

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The Blancan North American Stage on the geologic timescale is the North American faunal stage according to the North American Land Mammal Ages chronology (NALMA), typically set from 4,750,000 to 1,806,000 years BP, a period of.

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Braided river

A braided river, or braided channel, consists of a network of river channels separated by small, and often temporary, islands called braid bars or, in British usage, aits or eyots.

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Calabrian (stage)

Calabrian is a subdivision of the Pleistocene Epoch of the geologic time scale, defined as ~1.8 Ma.—781,000 years ago ± 5,000 years, a period of ~. The end of the stage is defined by the last magnetic pole reversal (781 ± 5 Ka) and plunge into an ice age and global drying possibly colder and drier than the late Miocene (Messinian) through early Pliocene (Zanclean) cold period.

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Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Calibration of radiocarbon dates

Radiocarbon dating measurements produce ages in "radiocarbon years", which must be converted to calendar ages by a process called calibration.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.

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Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.

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A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural space large enough for a human to enter.

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Cave bear

The cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) was a species of bear that lived in Europe and Asia during the Pleistocene and became extinct about 24,000 years ago during the Last Glacial Maximum.

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The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.

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Charles Lyell

Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.

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A chronozone or chron is a slice of time that begins at a given identifiable event and ends at another.

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Circle of latitude

A circle of latitude on Earth is an abstract east–west circle connecting all locations around Earth (ignoring elevation) at a given latitude.

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Climate state

Climate state describes a state of climate on Earth and similar terrestrial planets based on a thermal energy budget, such as the greenhouse or icehouse climate state.

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A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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Cordilleran Ice Sheet

The Cordilleran ice sheet was a major ice sheet that periodically covered large parts of North America during glacial periods over the last ~2.6 million years.

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Core sample

A core sample is a cylindrical section of (usually) a naturally occurring substance.

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Cromerian Stage

The Cromerian Stage or Cromerian Complex, also called either the Cromerian, Cromerian interglacial, (Cromerium) or, rarely the Cromerian warm period (Kromer-Warmzeit or Cromer-Warmzeit), is a stage consisting of multiple glacial and interglacial periods in the Middle Pleistocene epoch.

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Deposition (geology)

Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.

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Diprotodon, meaning "two forward teeth", is the largest known marsupial to have ever lived.

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Dire wolf

The dire wolf (Canis dirus, "fearsome dog") is an extinct species of the genus Canis.

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Discoaster is a genus of extinct star-shaped marine algae, with calcareous exoskeletons of between 5-40 μm across that are abundant as nanofossils in tropical deep-ocean deposits of Neogene age.

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East Antarctic Ice Sheet

The East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) is one of two large ice sheets in Antarctica, and the largest on the entire planet.

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The Eburonian (Eburon or Eburonium), or, much less commonly, the Eburonian Stage, is a glacial complex in the Calabrian stage of the Pleistocene epoch and lies between the Tegelen and the Waalian interglacial.

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The Eemian (also called the last interglacial, Sangamonian, Ipswichian, Mikulin, Kaydaky, Valdivia or Riss-Würm) was the interglacial period which began about 130,000 years ago and ended about 115,000 years ago.

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El Niño

El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.

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Elephant bird

Elephant birds are members of the extinct family Aepyornithidae.

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Elster glaciation

The Elster glaciation (Elster-Kaltzeit, Elster-Glazial or Elster-Zeit) or, less commonly, the Elsterian glaciation—in the older and popular scientific literature also called the Elster Ice Age (Elster-Eiszeit)—is the oldest known ice age that resulted in the large-scale glaciation of North Germany.

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The Ensenadan age is a period of geologic time (1.2—0.8 Ma) within the Early Pleistocene epoch of the Quaternary used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.

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Epoch (geology)

In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age but shorter than a period.

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Era (geology)

A geologic era is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an eon into smaller units of time.

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Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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European land mammal age

The European Land Mammal Mega Zones (abbreviation: ELMMZ, more commonly known as European land mammal ages or ELMA) are zones in rock layers that have a specific assemblage of fossils (biozones) based on occurrences of fossil assemblages of European land mammals.

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Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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The Gelasian is an age in the international geologic timescale or a stage in chronostratigraphy, being the earliest or lowest subdivision of the Quaternary period/system and Pleistocene epoch/series.

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Genetics (journal)

Genetics is a monthly scientific journal publishing investigations bearing on heredity, genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology.

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Geologic time scale

The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.

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Geological period

A geological period is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place.

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Gigantopithecus (from the Ancient Greek γίγας gigas "giant", and πίθηκος pithekos "ape") is an extinct genus of ape that existed from perhaps nine million years to as recently as one hundred thousand years ago, in what is now India, Vietnam, China and Indonesia placing Gigantopithecus in the same time frame and geographical location as several hominin species.

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The Giraffidae are a family of ruminant artiodactyl mammals that share a common ancestor with cervids and bovids.

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Glacial period

A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.

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Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point

A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, abbreviated GSSP, is an internationally agreed upon reference point on a stratigraphic section which defines the lower boundary of a stage on the geologic time scale.

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Glyptodon (from Greek for "grooved or carved tooth" – Greek γλυπτός sculptured + ὀδοντ-, ὀδούς tooth) was a genus of large, armored mammals of the subfamily Glyptodontinae (glyptodonts or glyptodontines) – relatives of armadillos – that lived during the Pleistocene epoch.

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Gomphotheres are any members of the diverse, extinct taxonomic family Gomphotheriidae.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Great Salt Lake

The Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt water lake in the Western Hemisphere, and the eighth-largest terminal lake in the world.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Ground sloth

Ground sloths are a diverse group of extinct sloths, in the mammalian superorder Xenarthra.

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Gunz glaciation

The Gunz or Günz glaciation (Günz-Kaltzeit, also Günz-Glazial, Günz-Komplex or (obs.) Günz-Eiszeit), also sometimes the Günz, Gunzian glaciation or Günz glacial stage, is a glacial stage of the Pleistocene epoch.

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Haast's eagle

The Haast's eagle (Harpagornis moorei) is an extinct species of eagle that once lived in the South Island of New Zealand, commonly accepted to be the Pouakai of Maori legend.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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Holocene extinction

The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the Sixth extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch, mainly as a result of human activity.

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The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").

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Homo erectus

Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.

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Hoxnian Stage

The Hoxnian Stage is a middle Pleistocene stage (Pleistocene from 2.588 million (±.005) to 11,700 years BP) of the geological history of the British Isles.

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Human evolution

Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.

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Ice sheet

An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.

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Illinoian (stage)

The Illinoian Stage is the name used by Quaternary geologists in North America to designate the period c.191,000 to c.130,000 years ago, during the middle Pleistocene, when sediments comprising the Illinoian Glacial Lobe were deposited.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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International Commission on Stratigraphy

The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), sometimes referred to by the unofficial name "International Stratigraphic Commission" is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with stratigraphy, geological, and geochronological matters on a global scale.

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International Union of Geological Sciences

The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to international cooperation in the field of geology.

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Irish elk

The Irish elk (Megaloceros giganteus) also called the giant deer or Irish giant deer, is an extinct species of deer in the genus Megaloceros and is one of the largest deer that ever lived.

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The Irvingtonian North American Land Mammal Age on the geologic timescale is the North American faunal stage according to the North American Land Mammal Ages chronology (NALMA), typically set from 1,350,000 to 160,000 years BP, a period of.

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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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Kansan glaciation

The Kansan glaciation or Kansan glacial (see Pre-Illinoian) was a glacial stage and part of an early conceptual climatic and chronological framework composed of four glacial and interglacial stages.

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Lake Agassiz

Lake Agassiz was a very large glacial lake in central North America.

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Lake Bonneville

Lake Bonneville was a prehistoric pluvial lake that covered much of the eastern part of North America's Great Basin region.

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Last Glacial Maximum

In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.

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Last glacial period

The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.

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Late Pleistocene

The Late Pleistocene is a geochronological age of the Pleistocene Epoch and is associated with Upper Pleistocene or Tarantian stage Pleistocene series rocks.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Laurentide Ice Sheet

The Laurentide Ice Sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered millions of square kilometers, including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern United States, multiple times during the Quaternary glacial epochs— from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present.

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The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).

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Loess (from German Löss) is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment that is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust.

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The Lujanian age is a period of geologic time (0.8—0.011 Ma or 800—11 tya) within the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs of the Neogene used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.

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Machairodontinae is an extinct subfamily of carnivoran mammals of the family Felidae (true cats).

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Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

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Magnetostratigraphy is a geophysical correlation technique used to date sedimentary and volcanic sequences.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair.

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Marine isotope stage

Marine isotope stages (MIS), marine oxygen-isotope stages, or oxygen isotope stages (OIS), are alternating warm and cool periods in the Earth's paleoclimate, deduced from oxygen isotope data reflecting changes in temperature derived from data from deep sea core samples.

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Mark Lynas

Mark Lynas (born 1973) is a British author, journalist and environmental activist who focuses on climate change.

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Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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Mastodons (Greek: μαστός "breast" and ὀδούς, "tooth") are any species of extinct proboscideans in the genus Mammut (family Mammutidae), distantly related to elephants, that inhabited North and Central America during the late Miocene or late Pliocene up to their extinction at the end of the Pleistocene 10,000 to 11,000 years ago.

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The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.

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Megalania (Megalania prisca or Varanus priscus) is an extinct giant goanna or monitor lizard.

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Meiolania ("small roamer") is an extinct genus of basal turtle from the Middle Miocene to Holocene, with the last relict populations at New Caledonia which survived until 3,000 years ago.

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Middle Paleolithic

The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Middle Pleistocene

The Middle Pleistocene is an informal, unofficial subdivision of the Pleistocene Epoch, from 781,000 to 126,000 years ago.

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Milankovitch cycles

Milankovitch cycles describe the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years.

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Mindel glaciation

The Mindel glaciation (Mindel-Kaltzeit, also Mindel-Glazial, Mindel-Komplex or, colloquially, Mindel-Eiszeit) is the third oldest glacial stage in the Alps.

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The moa were nine species (in six genera) of flightless birds endemic to New Zealand.

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Mount Kenya

Mount Kenya is the highest mountain in Kenya and the second-highest in Africa, after Kilimanjaro.

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Mount Kilimanjaro

Mount Kilimanjaro or just Kilimanjaro, with its three volcanic cones, "Kibo", "Mawenzi", and "Shira", is a dormant volcano in Tanzania.

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National Geographic (U.S. TV channel)

National Geographic (formerly National Geographic Channel and also commercially abbreviated and trademarked as Nat Geo or Nat Geo TV) is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by National Geographic Partners, majority-owned by 21st Century Fox with the remainder owned by the National Geographic Society.

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National Museum of Natural History

The National Museum of Natural History is a natural-history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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North American land mammal age

The North American land mammal ages (NALMA) establishes a geologic timescale for North American fauna beginning during the Late Cretaceous and continuing through to the present.

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Northern Europe

Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.

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The Oldowan (or Mode I) is the earliest widespread stone tool archaeological industry (style) in prehistory.

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Online Etymology Dictionary

The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.

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An overtone is any frequency greater than the fundamental frequency of a sound.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oxygen isotope ratio cycle

Oxygen isotope ratio cycles are cyclical variations in the ratio of the abundance of oxygen with an atomic mass of 18 to the abundance of oxygen with an atomic mass of 16 present in some substances, such as polar ice or calcite in ocean core samples, measured with the isotope fractionation.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Paranthropus (from Greek παρα, para "beside"; άνθρωπος, ánthropos "human") is a genus of extinct hominins that lived between 2.6 and 1.1 million years ago.

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Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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Pleistocene megafauna

Pleistocene megafauna is the set of large animals that lived on Earth during the Pleistocene epoch and became extinct during the Quaternary extinction event.

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The term Plio-Pleistocene refers to an informally described geological pseudo-period, which begins about 5 million years ago (mya) and, drawing forward, combines the time ranges of the formally defined Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs—marking from about 5 mya to about 12 kya.

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The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.

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A poikilotherm is an animal whose internal temperature varies considerably.

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The Pre-Illinoian Stage is used by Quaternary geologists for the early and middle Pleistocene glacial and interglacial periods of geologic time in North America from ~2.5–0.2 Ma (million years ago).

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Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).

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Quinkana is an extinct genus of mekosuchine crocodylians that lived in Australia from about 24 million to about 40,000 years ago.

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The Rancholabrean North American Land Mammal Age on the geologic timescale is the North American faunal stage according to the North American Land Mammal Ages chronology (NALMA), typically set from less than 240,000 years to 11,000 years BP, a period of.

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Riss glaciation

The Riss glaciation, Riss Glaciation, Riss ice age, Riss Ice Age, Riss glacial or Riss Glacial (Riß-Kaltzeit, Riß-Glazial, Riß-Komplex or (obsolete) Riß-Eiszeit) is the second youngest glaciation of the Pleistocene epoch in the traditional, quadripartite glacial classification of the Alps.

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Rwenzori Mountains

The Rwenzori Mountains, previously called the "Ruwenzori Range" (spelling changed around 1980 to conform more closely with the local name Rwenjura), is a mountain range of eastern equatorial Africa, located on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

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Saale glaciation

The Saale glaciation or Saale Glaciation, sometimes referred to as the Saalian glaciation, Saale cold period (Saale-Kaltzeit), Saale complex (Saale-Komplex) or Saale glacial stage (Saale-Glazial, colloquially also the Saale-Eiszeit or Saale-Zeit), covers the middle of the three large glaciations in Northern Europe and the northern parts of Eastern, Central and Western Europe by the Scandinavian Inland Ice Sheet between the older Elster glaciation and the younger Weichselian glaciation.

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The Sangamonian Stage (or Sangamon interglacial) is the term used in North America to designate the last interglacial.

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Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.

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Short-faced bear

The short-faced bears (Arctodus spp.) is an extinct bear genus that inhabited North America during the Pleistocene epoch from about 1.8 Mya until 11,000 years ago.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Sivatherium ("Shiva's beast") is an extinct genus of giraffid that ranged throughout Africa to the Indian Subcontinent.

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Smilodon is an extinct genus of machairodont felid.

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Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

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South American land mammal age

The South American land mammal ages (SALMA) establish a geologic timescale for prehistoric South American fauna beginning 64.5 Ma during the Paleocene and continuing through to the Late Pleistocene (0.011 Ma).

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Southern California

Southern California (colloquially known as SoCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's southernmost counties.

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Stage (stratigraphy)

In chronostratigraphy, a stage is a succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale, which usually represents millions of years of deposition.

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A stratotype or type section is a geological term that names the physical location or outcrop of a particular reference exposure of a stratigraphic sequence or stratigraphic boundary.

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Submergent coastline

Submergent coastlines are stretches along the coast that have been inundated by the sea by a relative rise in sea levels from either isostacy or eustacy.

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Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.

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The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.

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Timeline of glaciation

There have been five or six major ice ages in the history of Earth over the past 3 billion years.

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Trade winds

The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.

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Travertine is a form of limestone deposited by mineral springs, especially hot springs.

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The Uquian age is a period of geologic time (3.0—1.5 Ma) within the Pliocene epoch of the Neogene used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.

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A waveform is the shape and form of a signal such as a wave moving in a physical medium or an abstract representation.

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Würm glaciation

The Würm glaciation (Würm-Kaltzeit or Würm-Glazial or Würm stage, colloquially often also Würmeiszeit oder Würmzeit; c.f. ice age), in the literature usually just referred to as the Würm, often spelt "Wurm", was the last glacial period in the Alpine region.

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Weichselian glaciation

"Weichselian glaciation" is the local name of the last glacial period and its associated glaciation in Northern Europe.

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White-tailed deer

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia.

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Wisconsin glaciation

The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex.

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Wolstonian Stage

The Wolstonian Stage is a middle Pleistocene stage of the geological history of earth that precedes the Ipswichian Stage (Eemian Stage in Europe) and follows the Hoxnian Stage in the British Isles.

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Wood mouse

The wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) is a common murid rodent from Europe and northwestern Africa.

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Woolly rhinoceros

The woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) is an extinct species of rhinoceros that was common throughout Europe and northern Asia during the Pleistocene epoch and survived the last glacial period.

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Yarmouthian (stage)

The Yarmouthian stage and the Yarmouth Interglacial were part of a now obsolete geologic timescale of the early Quaternary of North America.

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A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.

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Younger Dryas

The Younger Dryas (c. 12,900 to c. 11,700 years BP) was a return to glacial conditions which temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming after the Last Glacial Maximum started receding around 20,000 BP.

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300,000 BP, Archaeolithic, Glacial epoch, PLeitocene, Pleist., Pleistocene Age, Pleistocene Epoch, Pleistocene Series, Pleistocene age, Pleistocene epoch, Pleistocene era.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleistocene

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