116 relations: Acid-fastness, Adenosine deaminase, Albumin, Amylase, Antibody, Atmosphere of Earth, Autoimmunity, Bacterial pneumonia, Bleomycin, Blood, Boerhaave syndrome, Breast cancer, Breathing, Cancer, Capillary, Cell biology, Central venous catheter, Chest radiograph, Chest tube, Chyle, Chylothorax, Cirrhosis, Confidence interval, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Costodiaphragmatic recess, CT scan, Cytokine, Cytopathology, Diuretic, Doxycycline, Drug-induced lupus erythematosus, Egophony, Empyema, Eosinophilic, Exudate, Fibrothorax, Fremitus, Fungus, Glucose, Gram stain, Gravity, Heart failure, Hemothorax, Hydrothorax, Hypoalbuminemia, Hypoxia (medical), Iatrogenesis, Interferon gamma, International unit, Kinyoun stain, ..., Lactate dehydrogenase, Likelihood ratios in diagnostic testing, Lipid, Liver transplantation, Lung, Lung cancer, Lung infarction, Lung transplantation, Lying (position), Lymphoma, Malignant pleural effusion, Medical history, Medical sign, Medical ultrasound, Meigs' syndrome, Mesothelioma, Micrograph, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Myxedema, Nephrotic syndrome, Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, Ovarian tumor, Pancreatic fistula, Pancreatitis, Parapneumonic effusion, Peritoneal dialysis, PH, Physical examination, Platelet, Pleural cavity, Pleural empyema, Pleural friction rub, Pleurisy, Pleurodesis, Pneumonia, Pneumothorax, Polymerase chain reaction, Protein, Pulmonary embolism, Pulmonary pleurae, Pulmonology, Pus, Radiation therapy, Red blood cell, Respiratory sounds, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatoid pleuritis, Serous fluid, Serum albumin, Starling equation, Subpulmonic effusion, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Talc, Tetracycline, Thoracentesis, Thoracoscopy, Thrombus, Trachea, Transudate, Tuberculosis, Urine, Urinothorax, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Virus, White blood cell, Ziehl–Neelsen stain. Expand index (66 more) » « Shrink index
Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells, as well as some sub-cellular structures, specifically their resistance to decolorization by acids during laboratory staining procedures.
Adenosine deaminase (also known as adenosine aminohydrolase, or ADA) is an enzyme involved in purine metabolism.
The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.
An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
Bacterial pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by bacterial infection.
Bleomycin is a medication used to treat cancer. This includes Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical cancer among others. Typically used with other cancer medications, it can be given intravenously, by injection into a muscle or under the skin. It may also be administered inside the chest to help prevent the recurrence of a fluid around the lung due to cancer; however talc is better for this. Common side effects include fever, weight loss, vomiting, and rash. A severe type of anaphylaxis may occur. It may also cause inflammation of the lungs that can result in lung scarring. Chest X-rays every couple of weeks are recommended to check for this. Bleomycin may cause harm to the baby if used during pregnancy. It is believed to primarily work by preventing the making of DNA. Bleomycin was discovered in 1962. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 14 USD and 78 USD a dose. It is made by the bacterium Streptomyces verticillus.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Esophageal rupture is a rupture of the esophageal wall.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
A central venous catheter (CVC), also known as a central line, central venous line, or central venous access catheter, is a catheter placed into a large vein.
A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.
A chest tube (chest drain, thoracic catheter, tube thoracostomy, or intercostal drain) is a flexible plastic tube that is inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space or mediastinum.
Chyle (from the Greek word χυλός chylos, "juice") is a milky bodily fluid consisting of lymph and emulsified fats, or free fatty acids (FFAs).
A chylothorax (or chyle leak) is a type of pleural effusion.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
In statistics, a confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval estimate, computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter.
Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.
The costodiaphragmatic recess, also called the costophrenic recess or phrenicocostal sinus, is a potential space in the pleural cavity, at the posterior-most tips of the cavity, located at the junction of the costal pleura and diaphragmatic pleura (in the costophrenic angle).
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Cytopathology (from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Doxycycline is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of a number of types of infections caused by bacteria and protozoa.
Drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DIL or DILE) is an autoimmune disorder (similar to systemic lupus erythematosus) caused by chronic use of certain drugs.
Egophony (British English, aegophony) is an increased resonance of voice sounds heard when auscultating the lungs, often caused by lung consolidation and fibrosis.
An empyema (from Greek ἐμπύημα, "abscess") is a collection or gathering of pus within a naturally existing anatomical cavity.
Eosinophilic (Greek suffix -phil-, meaning loves eosin) refers to the staining of certain tissues, cells, or organelles after they have been washed with eosin, a dye.
An exudate is a fluid emitted by an organism through pores or a wound, a process known as exuding.
Fibrothorax is a medical condition characterised by scarring (fibrosis) of the pleural space surrounding the lungs that is severe enough to cause reduced movement of the lung and ribcage.
Fremitus is a vibration transmitted through the body.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative).
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
A hemothorax is a type of pleural effusion in which blood accumulates in the pleural cavity.
Hydrothorax is a type of pleural effusion in which transudate accumulates in the pleural cavity.
Hypoalbuminemia (or hypoalbuminaemia) is a medical sign in which the level of albumin in the blood is abnormally low.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
Iatrogenesis (from the Greek for "brought forth by the healer") refers to any effect on a person resulting from any activity of one or more persons acting as healthcare professionals or promoting products or services as beneficial to health that does not support a goal of the person affected.
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.
In pharmacology, the international unit is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances.
The Kinyoun method, or Kinyoun stain, is an acid-fast procedure used to stain any species of the genus Mycobacterium, Nocardia and Cryptosporidium species.
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells (animals, plants, and prokaryotes).
In evidence-based medicine, likelihood ratios are used for assessing the value of performing a diagnostic test.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with the healthy liver from another person (allograft).
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Lung infarction, also known as pulmonary infarction, occurs when an artery to the lung becomes blocked and part of the lung dies.
Lung transplantation or pulmonary transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a patient's diseased lungs are partially or totally replaced by lungs which come from a donor.
Lying, also called recumbency or prostration, or decubitus in medicine (from the Latin verb decumbere ′to lie down′), is a type of human position in which the body is more or less horizontal and supported along its length by the surface underneath.
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Malignant pleural effusion is a condition in which cancer causes an abnormal amount of fluid to collect between the thin layers of tissue (pleura) lining the outside of the lung and the wall of the chest cavity.
The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.
A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician, before or during a physical examination of a patient.
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
In medicine, Meigs' syndrome, also Meigs syndrome or Demons-Meigs syndrome, is the triad of ascites, pleural effusion, and benign ovarian tumor (ovarian fibroma, fibrothecoma, Brenner tumour, and occasionally granulosa cell tumour).
Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that develops from the thin layer of tissue that covers many of the internal organs (known as the mesothelium).
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis.
Myxedema or myxoedema is a term used synonymously with severe hypothyroidism.
Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage.
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a medical condition that can occur in some women who take fertility medication to stimulate egg growth, and in other women in very rare cases.
Ovarian tumors, or ovarian neoplasms, are tumors arising from the ovary.
A pancreatic fistula is an abnormal communication between the pancreas and other organs due to leakage of pancreatic secretions from damaged pancreatic ducts.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.
A parapneumonic effusion is a type of pleural effusion that arises as a result of a pneumonia, lung abscess, or bronchiectasis.
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a type of dialysis that uses the peritoneum in a person's abdomen as the membrane through which fluid and dissolved substances are exchanged with the blood.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
The pleural cavity is the thin fluid-filled space between the two pulmonary pleurae (known as visceral and parietal) of each lung.
Pleural empyema is a collection of pus in the pleural cavity caused by microorganisms, usually bacteria.
A pleural friction rub, or simply pleural rub, is an audible medical sign present in some patients with pleurisy and other conditions affecting the chest cavity.
Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity (pleurae).
Pleurodesis is a medical procedure in which the pleural space is artificially obliterated.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
A pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
The pulmonary pleurae (sing. pleura) are the two pleurae of the invaginated sac surrounding each lung and attaching to the thoracic cavity.
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Respiratory sounds, breath sounds, or lung sounds refer to the specific sounds generated by the movement of air through the respiratory system. These may be easily audible or identified through auscultation of the respiratory system through the lung fields with a stethoscope as well as from the spectral chacteristics of lung sounds. These include normal breath sounds and adventitious or "added" sounds such as rales, wheezes, pleural friction rubs, stertor and stridor. Description and classification of the sounds usually involve auscultation of the inspiratory and expiratory phases of the breath cycle, noting both the pitch (typically described as low, medium or high) and intensity (soft, medium, loud or very loud) of the sounds heard.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Rheumatoid pleuritis, a form of pleural effusion, is an uncommon complication of rheumatoid arthritis, occurring in 2-3% of patients (Walker and Wright, 1967; Naylor, 1990).
In physiology, the term serous fluid or serosal fluid (originating from the Medieval Latin word serosus, from Latin serum) is any of various body fluids resembling serum, that are typically pale yellow and transparent and of a benign nature.
Serum albumin, often referred to simply as blood albumin, is an albumin (a type of globular protein) found in vertebrate blood.
The Starling equation for fluid filtration is named for the British physiologist Ernest Starling, who is also recognised for the Frank–Starling law of the heart.
A subpulmonic effusion is excess fluid that collects at the base of the lung, in the space between the pleura and diaphragm.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.
Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections.
Thoracentesis, also known as thoracocentesis (from the Greek θώραξ thōrax "chest, thorax"—GEN thōrakos—and κέντησις kentēsis "pricking, puncture") or pleural tap (from the Greek πλευρά pleura or πλευρόν pleuron "side, rib"), is an invasive procedure to remove fluid or air from the pleural space for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Thoracoscopy is a medical procedure involving internal examination, biopsy, and/or resection of disease or masses within the pleural cavity and thoracic cavity.
A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
Transudate is extravascular fluid with low protein content and a low specific gravity (The University of Utah • Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library; WebPath images Levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or a Rivalta test can be used to distinguish transudate from exudate. Their main role in nature is to protect elements of the skin and other subcutaneous substances against the contact effects of external climate and the environment and other substances – it also plays a role in integumental hygiene.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Urinothorax (pl. urinothoraces) means urine in the fluid-filled cavity that surrounds the lungs.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates the formation of blood vessels.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The Ziehl–Neelsen stain, also known as the acid-fast stain, was first described by two German doctors: the bacteriologist Franz Ziehl (1859–1926) and the pathologist Friedrich Neelsen (1854–1898).