138 relations: Africa (Roman province), Annals (Tacitus), Archaeology, Asthma, Astronomy, Asturias, Aufidius Bassus, Augur, Augustinians, Author, Botany, Caligula, Campania, Caspian Sea, Castellammare di Stabia, Catullus, Chatti, Chauci, Cisalpine Gaul, Città di Castello, Cognomen, Cohort (military unit), Comasco dialect, Como, Como Cathedral, Conway Zirkle, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Domitian, Domus Aurea, Encyclopedia, Equites, Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79, Flavian dynasty, Friedrich Münzer, Gabès, Gallaecia, Gallia Belgica, Gallia Narbonensis, Gens, Geology, Germania (book), Germania Inferior, Germania Superior, Giorgio Vasari, Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, Gold mining, Grammar, Gulf of Naples, Henry Thomas Riley, Herculaneum, ..., Hispania Tarraconensis, History of art, History of Trier, Hushing, Imperator, Insubres, Isis (journal), Javelin, Jean Hardouin, John Bostock (physician), Julio-Claudian dynasty, Julius Caesar, Julius Pokorny, Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Las Médulas, Lawyer, Legatus, List of Roman civil wars and revolts, List of Roman governors of Germania Inferior, Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Lost work, Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus (consul 58), Meuse, Military tribune, Milonia Caesonia, Mineralogy, Miseno, Mount Vesuvius, Myocardial infarction, Natural history, Natural History (Pliny), Natural philosophy, Nero, Nero Claudius Drusus, Onofrio Panvinio, Phalera (military decoration), Philology, Pisonian conspiracy, Plinian eruption, Plinius (crater), Pliny the Younger, Plutarch, Pompeii, Pomponianus, Pomponius Secundus, Praetorian Guard, Praetorium, Prefect, Prina, Procurator (Ancient Rome), Projectile, Psylli, Pyroclastic surge, Quintus Aurelius Symmachus, Rectina, Rhetoric, Rhine, Rhotacism (sound change), Roman consul, Roman Empire, Roman Italy, Roman navy, Roman triumph, Rome, Ronald Syme, Seneca the Younger, Servilius Nonianus, Sestertius, Sextus Afranius Burrus, Stabiae, Suetonius, Tacitus, The Twelve Caesars, Tiberius, Titus, Treveri, True toad, Types of volcanic eruptions, Verona, Vespasian, Vistilia, Watermill, Witness, World Heritage site, Xanten, Year of the Four Emperors, Zoology. Expand index (88 more) » « Shrink index
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
The Annals (Annales) by Roman historian and senator Tacitus is a history of the Roman Empire from the reign of Tiberius to that of Nero, the years AD 14–68.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
Aufidius Bassus was a Roman historian who lived in the reign of Tiberius.
An augur was a priest and official in the classical Roman world.
The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders, dating back to the first millennium but formally created in the 13th century, and some Anglican religious orders, created in the 19th century, though technically there is no "Order of St.
An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is thus also a writer.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
Caligula (Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD) was Roman emperor from AD 37 to AD 41.
Campania is a region in Southern Italy.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Castellammare di Stabia is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Campania region, in Italy.
Gaius Valerius Catullus (c. 84 – c. 54 BC) was a Latin poet of the late Roman Republic who wrote chiefly in the neoteric style of poetry, which is about personal life rather than classical heroes.
The Chatti (also Chatthi or Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser.
The Chauci (Chauken, and identical or similar in other regional modern languages) were an ancient Germanic tribe living in the low-lying region between the Rivers Ems and Elbe, on both sides of the Weser and ranging as far inland as the upper Weser.
Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
Città di Castello is a city and comune ("Town of the Castle") in the province of Perugia, in the northern part of the Umbria.
A cognomen (Latin plural cognomina; from con- "together with" and (g)nomen "name") was the third name of a citizen of ancient Rome, under Roman naming conventions.
A cohort (from the Latin cohors, plural cohortes, see wikt:cohors for full inflection table) was a standard tactical military unit of a Roman legion, though the standard changed with time and situation, and was composed of between 360-800 soldiers.
Comasco is a dialect of Western Lombard language spoken in the city and suburbs of Como.
Como (Lombard: Còmm, Cómm or Cùmm; Novum Comum) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy.
Como Cathedral (Cattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta; Duomo di Como) is the Roman Catholic cathedral of the city of Como, Lombardy, Italy, and the seat of the Bishop of Como.
Conway Zirkle (October 28, 1895 – March 28, 1972), was an American botanist and historian of science.
The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions.
Domitian (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96 AD) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96.
The Domus Aurea (Latin, "Golden House") was a vast landscaped palace built by the Emperor Nero in the heart of ancient Rome after the great fire in 64 AD had destroyed a large part of the city and the aristocratic villas on the Palatine Hill.
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.
The equites (eques nom. singular; sometimes referred to as "knights" in modern times) constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class.
Mount Vesuvius, a stratovolcano in modern-day Italy, erupted in 79 AD in one of the most catastrophic volcanic eruptions in European history.
The Flavian dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 AD and 96 AD, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian (69–79), and his two sons Titus (79–81) and Domitian (81–96).
Friedrich Münzer (22 April 1868 – 20 October 1942) was a German classical scholar noted for the development of prosopography, particularly for his demonstrations of how family relationships in ancient Rome connected to political struggles.
Gabès (قابس), also spelled Cabès, Cabes, Kabes, Gabbs and Gaps, is the capital city of the Gabès Governorate in Tunisia.
Gallaecia or Callaecia, also known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province in the north-west of Hispania, approximately present-day Galicia, northern Portugal, Asturias and Leon and the later Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia.
Gallia Belgica ("Belgic Gaul") was a province of the Roman empire located in the north-eastern part of Roman Gaul, in what is today primarily Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
In ancient Rome, a gens, plural gentes, was a family consisting of all those individuals who shared the same nomen and claimed descent from a common ancestor.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germans (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.
Germania Inferior ("Lower Germany") was a Roman province located on the west bank of the Rhine.
Germania Superior ("Upper Germania") was an imperial province of the Roman Empire.
Giorgio Vasari (30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.
Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo (Peltuinum c. 7 – 67 AD) was a Roman general, brother-in-law of the emperor Caligula and father-in-law of Domitian.
Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
The Gulf of Naples, also called the Bay of Naples, is a roughly 15-kilometer-wide (9.3 mi) gulf located along the south-western coast of Italy (province of Naples, Campania region).
Henry Thomas Riley (1816–1878) was an English translator, lexicographer, and antiquary.
Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD.
Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania.
The history of art focuses on objects made by humans in visual form for aesthetic purposes.
Trier in Rhineland-Palatinate, whose history dates to the Roman Empire, is often claimed to be the oldest city in Germany.
Hushing is an ancient and historic mining method using a flood or torrent of water to reveal mineral veins.
The Latin word imperator derives from the stem of the verb imperare, meaning ‘to order, to command’.
The Insubres or Insubri were a Gaulish population settled in Insubria, in what is now the Italian region of Lombardy.
Isis is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.
A javelin is a light spear designed primarily to be thrown, historically as a ranged weapon, but today predominantly for sport.
Jean Hardouin (John Hardwin; Johannes Harduinus; 1646 – 3 September 1729), French classical scholar, was born at Quimper in Brittany.
John Bostock, Jr. MD FRS (baptised 29 June 1773, died 6 August 1846) was an English physician, scientist and geologist from Liverpool.
The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first Roman imperial dynasty, consisting of the first five emperors—Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero—or the family to which they belonged.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Julius Pokorny (12 June 1887 – 8 April 1970) was an Austrian-Czech linguist and scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter of Irish nationalism.
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
Las Médulas is a historic gold-mining site near the town of Ponferrada in the comarca of El Bierzo (province of León, Castile and León, Spain).
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
A legatus (anglicized as legate) was a high ranking Roman military officer in the Roman Army, equivalent to a modern high ranking general officer.
This is a list of civil wars and organized civil unrest in ancient Rome (753 BC – AD 476).
This is a list of Roman governors of Germania Inferior (and Germania Secunda from 395 until the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476).
The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architettori), also known as The Lives (Le Vite), is a series of artist biographies written by 16th-century Italian painter and architect Giorgio Vasari, which is considered "perhaps the most famous, and even today the most-read work of the older literature of art", "some of the Italian Renaissance's most influential writing on art", and "the first important book on art history".
Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378 – 1 December 1455), born Lorenzo di Bartolo, was a Florentine Italian artist of the Early Renaissance best known as the creator of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery, called by Michelangelo the Gates of Paradise.
A lost work is a document, literary work, or piece of multimedia produced some time in the past of which no surviving copies are known to exist.
Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus was a Roman Senator who lived in the Roman Empire in the 1st century.
The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.
A military tribune (Latin tribunus militum, "tribune of the soldiers", Greek chiliarchos, χιλίαρχος) was an officer of the Roman army who ranked below the legate and above the centurion.
Milonia Caesonia (d. AD 41) was a Roman empress, the fourth and last wife of the emperor Caligula.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
Miseno is one of the frazioni of the municipality of Bacoli in the Italian Province of Naples.
Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio; Vesuvio; Mons Vesuvius; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus (January 14, 38 BC – summer of 9 BC), born Decimus Claudius Drusus, also called Drusus Claudius Nero, Drusus, Drusus I, Nero Drusus, or Drusus the Elder was a Roman politician and military commander.
The erudite Augustinian Onofrio Panvinio or Onuphrius Panvinius (23 February 1529 – 7 April 1568) was an Italian historian and antiquary, who was librarian to Cardinal Alessandro Farnese.
A phalera was a gold, silver, or bronze sculpted disk worn on the breastplate during parades by Roman soldiers who had been awarded it as a kind of medal.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
The conspiracy of Gaius Calpurnius Piso in AD 65 was a major turning point in the reign of the Roman emperor Nero (reign 54–68).
Plinian eruptions or Vesuvian eruptions are volcanic eruptions marked by their similarity to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD, which destroyed the ancient Roman cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii.
Plinius is a prominent lunar impact crater on the border between Mare Serenitatis to the north and Mare Tranquilitatis to the south.
Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Roman senator Tascius Pomponianus Publius was at Stabiae during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79, he was stuck to the shore because he was not favoured by the wind, so was greeted by Pliny The Elder in order to help him escape the increasing danger.
Publius Pomponius Secundus was a distinguished statesman and poet in the reigns of Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius.
The Praetorian Guard (Latin: cohortes praetorianae) was an elite unit of the Imperial Roman army whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Roman emperors.
The Latin term praetorium — or prœtorium or pretorium — originally signified a general's tent within a Roman castra, castellum, or encampment.
Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, substantive adjectival form of praeficere: "put in front", i.e., in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area.
Prina may refer to.
Procurator (plural: Procuratores) was a title of certain officials (not magistrates) in ancient Rome who were in charge of the financial affairs of a province, or imperial governor of a minor province.
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.
The Psylli (Seli) were a native Libyan tribe inhabiting Ancient Libya.
A pyroclastic surge is a fluidized mass of turbulent gas and rock fragments that is ejected during some volcanic eruptions.
Quintus Aurelius Symmachus (c. 345 – 402) was a Roman statesman, orator, and man of letters.
Rectina was a friend of the Roman author Pliny the Elder.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Rhotacism or rhotacization is a sound change that converts one consonant (usually a voiced alveolar consonant:,,, or) to a rhotic consonant in a certain environment.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
"Italia" was the name of the Italian Peninsula during the Roman era.
The Roman navy (Classis, lit. "fleet") comprised the naval forces of the Ancient Roman state.
The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Sir Ronald Syme, (11 March 1903 – 4 September 1989) was a New Zealand-born historian and classicist.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
Marcus Servilius Nonianus (died in 59AD) was a Roman senator, best known as a historian.
The sestertius (plural sestertii), or sesterce (plural sesterces), was an ancient Roman coin.
Sextus Afranius Burrus (born AD 1 in Vasio, Gallia Narbonensis; died AD 62) was a prefect of the Praetorian Guard and was, together with Seneca the Younger, an advisor to the Roman emperor Nero, making him a very powerful man in the early years of Nero's reign.
Stabiae was an ancient Roman town near the modern town of Castellammare di Stabia and approximately 4.5 km southwest of Pompeii, which became famous for the magnificent Roman villas found there in recent times.
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. 69 – after 122 AD), was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
De vita Caesarum (Latin; literal translation: About the Life of the Caesars), commonly known as The Twelve Caesars, is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire written by Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
Titus (Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor from 79 to 81.
The Treveri or Treviri were a Belgic tribe who inhabited the lower valley of the Moselle from around 150 BCE, if not earlier, until their displacement by the Franks.
A true toad is any member of the family Bufonidae, in the order Anura (frogs and toads).
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
Vistilia was a Roman woman who lived in the 1st century and came from a family that held the praetorship.
A watermill or water mill is a mill that uses hydropower.
A witness is someone who has, who claims to have, or is thought, by someone with authority to compel testimony, to have knowledge relevant to an event or other matter of interest.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Xanten (Lower Franconian Santen) is a town in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Year of the Four Emperors, 69 AD, was a year in the history of the Roman Empire in which four emperors ruled in succession: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.