Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Faster access than browser!


Index Pliocene

The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP. [1]

170 relations: Absolute magnitude, Africa, Agriotherium, Alaska, Albanerpetontidae, Alligator, American alligator, Anadara, Antelope, Aporrhais, Arctotherium, Armadillo, Atlantic Ocean, Australopithecine, Beestonian stage, Before Present, Blancan, Borophaginae, Bramertonian Stage, Camel, Carnivore, Cattle, Caviomorpha, Cenozoic, Chalicothere, Chapadmalalan, Charles Lyell, China, Civet, Cladocora, Coal forest, Coati, Coral, Cretaceous, Crocodile, Cyprus, Dasyuromorphia, Deciduous, Deer, Dentalium (genus), Desert, Dinosaur, Diprotodon, Dog, Elephant, Eocene, Epoch (geology), Eurasia, Europe, Florida, ..., Gastropoda, Gelasian, Geologic time scale, Giraffe, Glacier, Glyptodont, Gomphothere, Grassland, Great American Interchange, Great Britain, Greenland ice sheet, Ground sloth, Hemphillian, Henry Watson Fowler, Herbivore, Hesperotestudo, Holmesina, Hominini, Horse, Hyena, Hyrax, Ice rafting, India, International Commission on Stratigraphy, Isotope, Isthmus of Panama, Kangaroo, Lettered olive, Limpet, List of fossil sites, Litopterna, Local Bubble, Macraucheniidae, Madtsoiidae, Mastodon, Mediterranean Sea, Megalodon, Megatherium, Meridiungulata, Merycoidodontoidea, Mesozoic, Messinian salinity crisis, Miocene, Mollusca, Monotreme, Montehermosan, Mustelidae, Nannippus, National Museum of Natural History, Neogene, Netherlands, North American land mammal age, Notoungulata, Oligocene, Online Etymology Dictionary, Opossum, Oxygen, Oyster, Pacific Ocean, Paleocene, Paleozoic, Paratethys, Pastonian Stage, Petaloconchus intortus, Philology, Phorusrhacidae, Physical Review Letters, Piacenzian, Pinniped, Pinophyta, Plate tectonics, Platypus, Pleistocene, Pre-Pastonian Stage, Primate, Protoceratidae, Rattlesnake, Red Crag Formation, Rhinoceros, Rodent, Saber-toothed cat, Savanna, Scorpius–Centaurus Association, Sea ice, Sea lion, Sirenia, Smithsonian Institution, Snake, South America, South American land mammal age, Sparassodonta, Spectacled bear, Spondylus, Stage (stratigraphy), Stegodon, Stellar classification, Stellar kinematics, Stratum, Suidae, Supernova, Synapsid, Tennessee, Tethys Ocean, Thylacine, Thylacoleo, Titanis, Toxodontidae, Tremarctinae, Trilobite, Tundra, Turritella, Tusk shell, Ungulate, University of Cambridge, Uquian, Venomous snake, Weasel, William Whewell, Wombat, Zanclean. Expand index (120 more) »

Absolute magnitude

Absolute magnitude is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale.

New!!: Pliocene and Absolute magnitude · See more »


Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

New!!: Pliocene and Africa · See more »


Agriotherium is an extinct genus of bears whose fossils are found Miocene through Pleistocene-aged strata of North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia, living from ~13.6–2.5 Ma, existing for approximately.

New!!: Pliocene and Agriotherium · See more »


Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.

New!!: Pliocene and Alaska · See more »


The Albanerpetontidae are an extinct family of superficially salamander-like batrachians.

New!!: Pliocene and Albanerpetontidae · See more »


An alligator is a crocodilian in the genus Alligator of the family Alligatoridae.

New!!: Pliocene and Alligator · See more »

American alligator

The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), sometimes referred to colloquially as a gator or common alligator, is a large crocodilian reptile endemic to the southeastern United States.

New!!: Pliocene and American alligator · See more »


Anadara is a genus of saltwater bivalves, ark clams, in the family Arcidae.

New!!: Pliocene and Anadara · See more »


An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.

New!!: Pliocene and Antelope · See more »


Aporrhais is a genus of medium-sized sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Aporrhaidae and the superfamily Stromboidea.

New!!: Pliocene and Aporrhais · See more »


Arctotherium is an extinct genus of South American short-faced bears within Ursidae of the Pleistocene.

New!!: Pliocene and Arctotherium · See more »


Armadillos are New World placental mammals in the order Cingulata with a leathery armour shell.

New!!: Pliocene and Armadillo · See more »

Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

New!!: Pliocene and Atlantic Ocean · See more »


Australopithecines are generally all species in the related Australopithecus and Paranthropus genera, and it typically includes Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus.

New!!: Pliocene and Australopithecine · See more »

Beestonian stage

The Beestonian Stage is the name for an early Pleistocene stage used in the British Isles.

New!!: Pliocene and Beestonian stage · See more »

Before Present

Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.

New!!: Pliocene and Before Present · See more »


The Blancan North American Stage on the geologic timescale is the North American faunal stage according to the North American Land Mammal Ages chronology (NALMA), typically set from 4,750,000 to 1,806,000 years BP, a period of.

New!!: Pliocene and Blancan · See more »


The subfamily Borophaginae is an extinct group of canids called "bone-crushing dogs" that were endemic to North America during the Oligocene to Pliocene and lived roughly 36—2.5 million years ago and existing for about.

New!!: Pliocene and Borophaginae · See more »

Bramertonian Stage

The Bramertonian Stage is the name for an early Pleistocene biostratigraphic stage in the British Isles.

New!!: Pliocene and Bramertonian Stage · See more »


A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.

New!!: Pliocene and Camel · See more »


A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.

New!!: Pliocene and Carnivore · See more »


Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

New!!: Pliocene and Cattle · See more »


Caviomorpha is the rodent infraorder or parvorder that unites all New World hystricognaths.

New!!: Pliocene and Caviomorpha · See more »


The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.

New!!: Pliocene and Cenozoic · See more »


Chalicotheres (from Greek chalix, "gravel" + therion, "beast") is an extinct group of herbivorous, odd-toed ungulate (or perissodactyl) mammals spread throughout North America, Eurasia, and Africa from the Middle Eocene until the Early Pleistocene, existing from 46.2 mya to just 781,000 years ago.

New!!: Pliocene and Chalicothere · See more »


The Chapadmalalan age is a period of geologic time (4.0—3.0 Ma) within the Pliocene epoch of the Neogene used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.

New!!: Pliocene and Chapadmalalan · See more »

Charles Lyell

Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.

New!!: Pliocene and Charles Lyell · See more »


China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

New!!: Pliocene and China · See more »


A civet is a small, lithe-bodied, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests.

New!!: Pliocene and Civet · See more »


Cladocora is a genus of corals in the order of stony corals.

New!!: Pliocene and Cladocora · See more »

Coal forest

Coal forests were the vast swathes of wetlands that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) and Permian times.

New!!: Pliocene and Coal forest · See more »


The coati, genera Nasua and Nasuella, also known as the coatimundi, is a member of the raccoon family (Procyonidae), a diurnal mammal native to South America, Central America, and south-western North America.

New!!: Pliocene and Coati · See more »


Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

New!!: Pliocene and Coral · See more »


The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

New!!: Pliocene and Cretaceous · See more »


Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.

New!!: Pliocene and Crocodile · See more »


Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

New!!: Pliocene and Cyprus · See more »


The order Dasyuromorphia (meaning "hairy tail") comprises most of the Australian carnivorous marsupials, including quolls, dunnarts, the numbat, the Tasmanian devil, and the thylacine.

New!!: Pliocene and Dasyuromorphia · See more »


In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.

New!!: Pliocene and Deciduous · See more »


Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.

New!!: Pliocene and Deer · See more »

Dentalium (genus)

Dentalium is a large genus of tooth shells or tusk shells, marine scaphopod molluscs in the family Dentaliidae.

New!!: Pliocene and Dentalium (genus) · See more »


A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

New!!: Pliocene and Desert · See more »


Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.

New!!: Pliocene and Dinosaur · See more »


Diprotodon, meaning "two forward teeth", is the largest known marsupial to have ever lived.

New!!: Pliocene and Diprotodon · See more »


The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.

New!!: Pliocene and Dog · See more »


Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.

New!!: Pliocene and Elephant · See more »


The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.

New!!: Pliocene and Eocene · See more »

Epoch (geology)

In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age but shorter than a period.

New!!: Pliocene and Epoch (geology) · See more »


Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

New!!: Pliocene and Eurasia · See more »


Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

New!!: Pliocene and Europe · See more »


Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.

New!!: Pliocene and Florida · See more »


The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.

New!!: Pliocene and Gastropoda · See more »


The Gelasian is an age in the international geologic timescale or a stage in chronostratigraphy, being the earliest or lowest subdivision of the Quaternary period/system and Pleistocene epoch/series.

New!!: Pliocene and Gelasian · See more »

Geologic time scale

The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.

New!!: Pliocene and Geologic time scale · See more »


The giraffe (Giraffa) is a genus of African even-toed ungulate mammals, the tallest living terrestrial animals and the largest ruminants.

New!!: Pliocene and Giraffe · See more »


A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

New!!: Pliocene and Glacier · See more »


Glyptodontinae (glyptodonts or glyptodontines) are an extinct subfamily of large, heavily armored armadillos which developed in South America and spread to North America.

New!!: Pliocene and Glyptodont · See more »


Gomphotheres are any members of the diverse, extinct taxonomic family Gomphotheriidae.

New!!: Pliocene and Gomphothere · See more »


Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.

New!!: Pliocene and Grassland · See more »

Great American Interchange

The Great American Interchange was an important late Cenozoic paleozoogeographic event in which land and freshwater fauna migrated from North America via Central America to South America and vice versa, as the volcanic Isthmus of Panama rose up from the sea floor and bridged the formerly separated continents.

New!!: Pliocene and Great American Interchange · See more »

Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

New!!: Pliocene and Great Britain · See more »

Greenland ice sheet

The Greenland ice sheet (Grønlands indlandsis, Sermersuaq) is a vast body of ice covering, roughly 80% of the surface of Greenland.

New!!: Pliocene and Greenland ice sheet · See more »

Ground sloth

Ground sloths are a diverse group of extinct sloths, in the mammalian superorder Xenarthra.

New!!: Pliocene and Ground sloth · See more »


The Hemphillian North American Stage on the geologic timescale is the North American faunal stage according to the North American Land Mammal Ages chronology (NALMA), typically set from 10,300,000 to 4,900,000 years BP, a period of.

New!!: Pliocene and Hemphillian · See more »

Henry Watson Fowler

Henry Watson Fowler (10 March 1858 – 26 December 1933) was an English schoolmaster, lexicographer and commentator on the usage of the English language.

New!!: Pliocene and Henry Watson Fowler · See more »


A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.

New!!: Pliocene and Herbivore · See more »


Hesperotestudo ("Western turtle") is an extinct genus of tortoise that lived from the Miocene to the Pleistocene.

New!!: Pliocene and Hesperotestudo · See more »


Holmesina is a genus of pampathere, an extinct group of armadillo-like creatures that were distantly related to extant armadillos.

New!!: Pliocene and Holmesina · See more »


The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").

New!!: Pliocene and Hominini · See more »


The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.

New!!: Pliocene and Horse · See more »


Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.

New!!: Pliocene and Hyena · See more »


Hyraxes (from the Greek ὕραξ, hýrax, "shrewmouse"), also called dassies, are small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea.

New!!: Pliocene and Hyrax · See more »

Ice rafting

Ice rafting is the transport of various materials by ice.

New!!: Pliocene and Ice rafting · See more »


India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

New!!: Pliocene and India · See more »

International Commission on Stratigraphy

The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), sometimes referred to by the unofficial name "International Stratigraphic Commission" is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with stratigraphy, geological, and geochronological matters on a global scale.

New!!: Pliocene and International Commission on Stratigraphy · See more »


Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

New!!: Pliocene and Isotope · See more »

Isthmus of Panama

The Isthmus of Panama (Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (Istmo de Darién), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.

New!!: Pliocene and Isthmus of Panama · See more »


The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning "large foot").

New!!: Pliocene and Kangaroo · See more »

Lettered olive

The lettered olive, Oliva sayana, is a species of large predatory sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Olividae, the olive shells, olive snails, or olives.

New!!: Pliocene and Lettered olive · See more »


Limpets are aquatic snails with a shell that is broadly conical in shape and a strong, muscular foot.

New!!: Pliocene and Limpet · See more »

List of fossil sites

This list of fossil sites is a worldwide list of localities known well for the presence of fossils.

New!!: Pliocene and List of fossil sites · See more »


Litopterna (from λῑτή πτέρνα "smooth heel") is an extinct order of fossil hoofed mammals (ungulates) from the Cenozoic period that displayed toe reduction – three-toed forms developed; there was even a one-toed horselike form.

New!!: Pliocene and Litopterna · See more »

Local Bubble

The Local Bubble, or Local Cavity, is a relative cavity in the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Orion Arm of the Milky Way.

New!!: Pliocene and Local Bubble · See more »


Macraucheniidae is a family in the extinct South American ungulate order Litopterna, with similarities to the camel and rhinoceros.

New!!: Pliocene and Macraucheniidae · See more »


Madtsoiidae is an extinct family of mostly Gondwanan snakes with a fossil record extending from early Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) to late Pleistocene strata located in South America, Africa, India, Australia and Southern Europe.

New!!: Pliocene and Madtsoiidae · See more »


Mastodons (Greek: μαστός "breast" and ὀδούς, "tooth") are any species of extinct proboscideans in the genus Mammut (family Mammutidae), distantly related to elephants, that inhabited North and Central America during the late Miocene or late Pliocene up to their extinction at the end of the Pleistocene 10,000 to 11,000 years ago.

New!!: Pliocene and Mastodon · See more »

Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

New!!: Pliocene and Mediterranean Sea · See more »


Megalodon (Carcharocles megalodon), meaning "big tooth", is an extinct species of shark that lived approximately 23 to 2.6 million years ago (mya), during the Early Miocene to the end of the Pliocene.

New!!: Pliocene and Megalodon · See more »


Megatherium (from the Greek mega, meaning "great", and therion, "beast") was a genus of elephant-sized ground sloths endemic to South America, sometimes called the giant ground sloth, that lived from the Early Pliocene through the end of the Pleistocene.

New!!: Pliocene and Megatherium · See more »


Meridiungulata is an extinct clade with the rank of cohort or superorder, containing the South American ungulates Pyrotheria (possibly including Xenungulata), Astrapotheria, Notoungulata and Litopterna.

New!!: Pliocene and Meridiungulata · See more »


Merycoidodontoidea, sometimes called "oreodonts," or "ruminating hogs", is an extinct superfamily of prehistoric cud-chewing artiodactyls with short faces and fang-like canine teeth.

New!!: Pliocene and Merycoidodontoidea · See more »


The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.

New!!: Pliocene and Mesozoic · See more »

Messinian salinity crisis

The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), also referred to as the Messinian Event, and in its latest stage as the Lago Mare event, was a geological event during which the Mediterranean Sea went into a cycle of partly or nearly complete desiccation throughout the latter part of the Messinian age of the Miocene epoch, from 5.96 to 5.33 Ma (million years ago).

New!!: Pliocene and Messinian salinity crisis · See more »


The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).

New!!: Pliocene and Miocene · See more »


Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

New!!: Pliocene and Mollusca · See more »


Monotremes are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).

New!!: Pliocene and Monotreme · See more »


The Montehermosan age is a period of geologic time (6.8—4.0 Ma) within the Miocene and Pliocene epochs of the Neogene used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.

New!!: Pliocene and Montehermosan · See more »


The Mustelidae (from Latin mustela, weasel) are a family of carnivorous mammals, including weasels, badgers, otters, martens, mink, and wolverines, among others.

New!!: Pliocene and Mustelidae · See more »


Nannippus is an extinct genus of horse endemic to North America during the Miocene through Pliocene, ~13.3—3.3 Ma, living approximately.

New!!: Pliocene and Nannippus · See more »

National Museum of Natural History

The National Museum of Natural History is a natural-history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States.

New!!: Pliocene and National Museum of Natural History · See more »


The Neogene (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period Mya.

New!!: Pliocene and Neogene · See more »


The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

New!!: Pliocene and Netherlands · See more »

North American land mammal age

The North American land mammal ages (NALMA) establishes a geologic timescale for North American fauna beginning during the Late Cretaceous and continuing through to the present.

New!!: Pliocene and North American land mammal age · See more »


Notoungulata is an extinct order of hoofed, sometimes heavy-bodied mammalian ungulates that inhabited South America during the Paleocene to the mid-Holocene, living from approximately 57 Ma to 5,000 years ago.

New!!: Pliocene and Notoungulata · See more »


The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.

New!!: Pliocene and Oligocene · See more »

Online Etymology Dictionary

The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.

New!!: Pliocene and Online Etymology Dictionary · See more »


The opossum is a marsupial of the order Didelphimorphia endemic to the Americas.

New!!: Pliocene and Opossum · See more »


Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

New!!: Pliocene and Oxygen · See more »


Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.

New!!: Pliocene and Oyster · See more »

Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

New!!: Pliocene and Pacific Ocean · See more »


The Paleocene or Palaeocene, the "old recent", is a geological epoch that lasted from about.

New!!: Pliocene and Paleocene · See more »


The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.

New!!: Pliocene and Paleozoic · See more »


The Paratethys ocean, Paratethys sea or just Paratethys was a large shallow sea that stretched from the region north of the Alps over Central Europe to the Aral Sea in Central Asia.

New!!: Pliocene and Paratethys · See more »

Pastonian Stage

The Pastonian interglacial, now called the Pastonian Stage (from Paston, Norfolk), is the name for an early or middle Pleistocene stage used in the British Isles.

New!!: Pliocene and Pastonian Stage · See more »

Petaloconchus intortus

Petaloconchus intortus is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Vermetidae, the worm snails or worm shells.

New!!: Pliocene and Petaloconchus intortus · See more »


Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.

New!!: Pliocene and Philology · See more »


Phorusrhacids, colloquially known as terror birds, are an extinct clade of large carnivorous flightless birds that were the largest species of apex predators in South America during the Cenozoic era; their temporal range covers from 62 to 1.8 million years (Ma) ago.

New!!: Pliocene and Phorusrhacidae · See more »

Physical Review Letters

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.

New!!: Pliocene and Physical Review Letters · See more »


The Piacenzian is in the international geologic time scale the upper stage or latest age of the Pliocene.

New!!: Pliocene and Piacenzian · See more »


Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.

New!!: Pliocene and Pinniped · See more »


The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.

New!!: Pliocene and Pinophyta · See more »

Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

New!!: Pliocene and Plate tectonics · See more »


The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus, is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania.

New!!: Pliocene and Platypus · See more »


The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.

New!!: Pliocene and Pleistocene · See more »

Pre-Pastonian Stage

The Pre-Pastonian Stage or Baventian Stage (from Easton Bavents in Suffolk), is the name for an early Pleistocene stage used in the British Isles.

New!!: Pliocene and Pre-Pastonian Stage · See more »


A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

New!!: Pliocene and Primate · See more »


Protoceratidae is an extinct family of herbivorous North American artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates) that lived during the Eocene through Pliocene at around 46.2—4.9 Mya, existing for about 41 million years.

New!!: Pliocene and Protoceratidae · See more »


Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus of the subfamily Crotalinae (the pit vipers).

New!!: Pliocene and Rattlesnake · See more »

Red Crag Formation

The Red Crag Formation outcrops in south-eastern Suffolk and north-eastern Essex.

New!!: Pliocene and Red Crag Formation · See more »


A rhinoceros, commonly abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species.

New!!: Pliocene and Rhinoceros · See more »


Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

New!!: Pliocene and Rodent · See more »

Saber-toothed cat

A saber-toothed cat (alternatively spelled sabre-toothed cat) is any member of various extinct groups of predatory mammals that were characterized by long, curved saber-shaped canine teeth.

New!!: Pliocene and Saber-toothed cat · See more »


A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.

New!!: Pliocene and Savanna · See more »

Scorpius–Centaurus Association

The Scorpius–Centaurus Association (sometimes called Sco–Cen or Sco OB2) is the nearest OB association to the Sun.

New!!: Pliocene and Scorpius–Centaurus Association · See more »

Sea ice

Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.

New!!: Pliocene and Sea ice · See more »

Sea lion

Sea lions are sea mammals characterized by external ear flaps, long foreflippers, the ability to walk on all fours, short, thick hair, and a big chest and belly.

New!!: Pliocene and Sea lion · See more »


The Sirenia, commonly referred to as sea cows or sirenians, are an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit swamps, rivers, estuaries, marine wetlands, and coastal marine waters.

New!!: Pliocene and Sirenia · See more »

Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

New!!: Pliocene and Smithsonian Institution · See more »


Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.

New!!: Pliocene and Snake · See more »

South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

New!!: Pliocene and South America · See more »

South American land mammal age

The South American land mammal ages (SALMA) establish a geologic timescale for prehistoric South American fauna beginning 64.5 Ma during the Paleocene and continuing through to the Late Pleistocene (0.011 Ma).

New!!: Pliocene and South American land mammal age · See more »


Sparassodonta is an extinct order of carnivorous metatherian mammals native to South America.

New!!: Pliocene and Sparassodonta · See more »

Spectacled bear

The spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), also known as the Andean bear or Andean short-faced bear and locally as jukumari (Aymara), ukumari (Quechua) or ukuku, is the last remaining short-faced bear (subfamily Tremarctinae).

New!!: Pliocene and Spectacled bear · See more »


Spondylus is a genus of bivalve molluscs, the only genus in the family Spondylidae.

New!!: Pliocene and Spondylus · See more »

Stage (stratigraphy)

In chronostratigraphy, a stage is a succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale, which usually represents millions of years of deposition.

New!!: Pliocene and Stage (stratigraphy) · See more »


Stegodon (meaning "roofed tooth" from the Greek words στέγειν stegein 'to cover' and ὀδούς odous 'tooth', because of the distinctive ridges on the animal's molars) is a genus of the extinct subfamily Stegodontinae of the order Proboscidea.

New!!: Pliocene and Stegodon · See more »

Stellar classification

In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.

New!!: Pliocene and Stellar classification · See more »

Stellar kinematics

In astronomy, stellar kinematics is the observational study or measurement of the kinematics or motions of stars through space.

New!!: Pliocene and Stellar kinematics · See more »


In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.

New!!: Pliocene and Stratum · See more »


Suidae is a family of artiodactyl mammals which are commonly called pigs, hogs or boars.

New!!: Pliocene and Suidae · See more »


A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

New!!: Pliocene and Supernova · See more »


Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.

New!!: Pliocene and Synapsid · See more »


Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.

New!!: Pliocene and Tennessee · See more »

Tethys Ocean

The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.

New!!: Pliocene and Tethys Ocean · See more »


The thylacine (or, also; Thylacinus cynocephalus) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times.

New!!: Pliocene and Thylacine · See more »


Thylacoleo ("pouch lion") is an extinct genus of carnivorous marsupials that lived in Australia from the late Pliocene to the late Pleistocene (2 million to 46 thousand years ago).

New!!: Pliocene and Thylacoleo · See more »


Titanis walleri is a large extinct flightless carnivorous bird of the family Phorusrhacidae, endemic to North America from the Hempillian to the late Blancan stage of the Pliocene living 4.9—1.8 Ma, and died out during the Gelasian Age of the earliest Pleistocene, existing approximately.

New!!: Pliocene and Titanis · See more »


Toxodontidae is an extinct family of notoungulate mammals known from the Oligocene to the Holocene (5,000 BP) of South America, with one genus, Mixotoxodon, also known from the Pleistocene of Central America and southwestern North America (Texas).

New!!: Pliocene and Toxodontidae · See more »


The Tremarctinae or short-faced bears is a subfamily of Ursidae that contains one living representative, the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus) of South America, and several extinct species from four genera: the Florida spectacled bear (Tremarctos floridanus), the North American short-faced bears of genera Plionarctos (P. edensis and P. harroldorum) and Arctodus (A. pristinus and A. simus), and the South American giant short-faced bears of Arctotherium (including A. angustidens, A. vetustum, A. bonariense, A. wingei, and A. tarijense).

New!!: Pliocene and Tremarctinae · See more »


Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.

New!!: Pliocene and Trilobite · See more »


In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.

New!!: Pliocene and Tundra · See more »


Turritella is a genus of medium-sized sea snails with an operculum, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Turritellidae.

New!!: Pliocene and Turritella · See more »

Tusk shell

The tusk shells or tooth shells, often referred to by the more-technical term scaphopods (Greek, "boat-footed"), are members of a class of shelled marine mollusc with worldwide distribution, and are the only class of exclusively infaunal marine molluscs.

New!!: Pliocene and Tusk shell · See more »


Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.

New!!: Pliocene and Ungulate · See more »

University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

New!!: Pliocene and University of Cambridge · See more »


The Uquian age is a period of geologic time (3.0—1.5 Ma) within the Pliocene epoch of the Neogene used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.

New!!: Pliocene and Uquian · See more »

Venomous snake

Venomous snakes are species of the suborder Serpentes that are capable of producing venom, which is used primarily for immobilizing prey and defense mostly via mechanical injection by fangs.

New!!: Pliocene and Venomous snake · See more »


A weasel is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae.

New!!: Pliocene and Weasel · See more »

William Whewell

William Whewell (24 May 1794 – 6 March 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science.

New!!: Pliocene and William Whewell · See more »


Wombats are short-legged, muscular quadrupedal marsupials that are native to Australia.

New!!: Pliocene and Wombat · See more »


The Zanclean is the lowest stage or earliest age on the geologic time scale of the Pliocene.

New!!: Pliocene and Zanclean · See more »

Redirects here:

2.4 million years ago, PLiocene, Pleiocene, Pliocence, Pliocene Epoch, Pliocene Era, Pliocene epoch, Pliocene era, Upper Pliocene.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pliocene

Hey! We are on Facebook now! »