170 relations: Absolute magnitude, Africa, Agriotherium, Alaska, Albanerpetontidae, Alligator, American alligator, Anadara, Antelope, Aporrhais, Arctotherium, Armadillo, Atlantic Ocean, Australopithecine, Beestonian stage, Before Present, Blancan, Borophaginae, Bramertonian Stage, Camel, Carnivore, Cattle, Caviomorpha, Cenozoic, Chalicothere, Chapadmalalan, Charles Lyell, China, Civet, Cladocora, Coal forest, Coati, Coral, Cretaceous, Crocodile, Cyprus, Dasyuromorphia, Deciduous, Deer, Dentalium (genus), Desert, Dinosaur, Diprotodon, Dog, Elephant, Eocene, Epoch (geology), Eurasia, Europe, Florida, ..., Gastropoda, Gelasian, Geologic time scale, Giraffe, Glacier, Glyptodont, Gomphothere, Grassland, Great American Interchange, Great Britain, Greenland ice sheet, Ground sloth, Hemphillian, Henry Watson Fowler, Herbivore, Hesperotestudo, Holmesina, Hominini, Horse, Hyena, Hyrax, Ice rafting, India, International Commission on Stratigraphy, Isotope, Isthmus of Panama, Kangaroo, Lettered olive, Limpet, List of fossil sites, Litopterna, Local Bubble, Macraucheniidae, Madtsoiidae, Mastodon, Mediterranean Sea, Megalodon, Megatherium, Meridiungulata, Merycoidodontoidea, Mesozoic, Messinian salinity crisis, Miocene, Mollusca, Monotreme, Montehermosan, Mustelidae, Nannippus, National Museum of Natural History, Neogene, Netherlands, North American land mammal age, Notoungulata, Oligocene, Online Etymology Dictionary, Opossum, Oxygen, Oyster, Pacific Ocean, Paleocene, Paleozoic, Paratethys, Pastonian Stage, Petaloconchus intortus, Philology, Phorusrhacidae, Physical Review Letters, Piacenzian, Pinniped, Pinophyta, Plate tectonics, Platypus, Pleistocene, Pre-Pastonian Stage, Primate, Protoceratidae, Rattlesnake, Red Crag Formation, Rhinoceros, Rodent, Saber-toothed cat, Savanna, Scorpius–Centaurus Association, Sea ice, Sea lion, Sirenia, Smithsonian Institution, Snake, South America, South American land mammal age, Sparassodonta, Spectacled bear, Spondylus, Stage (stratigraphy), Stegodon, Stellar classification, Stellar kinematics, Stratum, Suidae, Supernova, Synapsid, Tennessee, Tethys Ocean, Thylacine, Thylacoleo, Titanis, Toxodontidae, Tremarctinae, Trilobite, Tundra, Turritella, Tusk shell, Ungulate, University of Cambridge, Uquian, Venomous snake, Weasel, William Whewell, Wombat, Zanclean. Expand index (120 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute magnitude is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Agriotherium is an extinct genus of bears whose fossils are found Miocene through Pleistocene-aged strata of North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia, living from ~13.6–2.5 Ma, existing for approximately.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Albanerpetontidae are an extinct family of superficially salamander-like batrachians.
An alligator is a crocodilian in the genus Alligator of the family Alligatoridae.
The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), sometimes referred to colloquially as a gator or common alligator, is a large crocodilian reptile endemic to the southeastern United States.
Anadara is a genus of saltwater bivalves, ark clams, in the family Arcidae.
An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.
Aporrhais is a genus of medium-sized sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Aporrhaidae and the superfamily Stromboidea.
Arctotherium is an extinct genus of South American short-faced bears within Ursidae of the Pleistocene.
Armadillos are New World placental mammals in the order Cingulata with a leathery armour shell.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Australopithecines are generally all species in the related Australopithecus and Paranthropus genera, and it typically includes Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus.
The Beestonian Stage is the name for an early Pleistocene stage used in the British Isles.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
The Blancan North American Stage on the geologic timescale is the North American faunal stage according to the North American Land Mammal Ages chronology (NALMA), typically set from 4,750,000 to 1,806,000 years BP, a period of.
The subfamily Borophaginae is an extinct group of canids called "bone-crushing dogs" that were endemic to North America during the Oligocene to Pliocene and lived roughly 36—2.5 million years ago and existing for about.
The Bramertonian Stage is the name for an early Pleistocene biostratigraphic stage in the British Isles.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Caviomorpha is the rodent infraorder or parvorder that unites all New World hystricognaths.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
Chalicotheres (from Greek chalix, "gravel" + therion, "beast") is an extinct group of herbivorous, odd-toed ungulate (or perissodactyl) mammals spread throughout North America, Eurasia, and Africa from the Middle Eocene until the Early Pleistocene, existing from 46.2 mya to just 781,000 years ago.
The Chapadmalalan age is a period of geologic time (4.0—3.0 Ma) within the Pliocene epoch of the Neogene used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.
Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A civet is a small, lithe-bodied, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests.
Cladocora is a genus of corals in the order of stony corals.
Coal forests were the vast swathes of wetlands that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) and Permian times.
The coati, genera Nasua and Nasuella, also known as the coatimundi, is a member of the raccoon family (Procyonidae), a diurnal mammal native to South America, Central America, and south-western North America.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The order Dasyuromorphia (meaning "hairy tail") comprises most of the Australian carnivorous marsupials, including quolls, dunnarts, the numbat, the Tasmanian devil, and the thylacine.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
Dentalium is a large genus of tooth shells or tusk shells, marine scaphopod molluscs in the family Dentaliidae.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
Diprotodon, meaning "two forward teeth", is the largest known marsupial to have ever lived.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age but shorter than a period.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.
The Gelasian is an age in the international geologic timescale or a stage in chronostratigraphy, being the earliest or lowest subdivision of the Quaternary period/system and Pleistocene epoch/series.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
The giraffe (Giraffa) is a genus of African even-toed ungulate mammals, the tallest living terrestrial animals and the largest ruminants.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Glyptodontinae (glyptodonts or glyptodontines) are an extinct subfamily of large, heavily armored armadillos which developed in South America and spread to North America.
Gomphotheres are any members of the diverse, extinct taxonomic family Gomphotheriidae.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
The Great American Interchange was an important late Cenozoic paleozoogeographic event in which land and freshwater fauna migrated from North America via Central America to South America and vice versa, as the volcanic Isthmus of Panama rose up from the sea floor and bridged the formerly separated continents.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Greenland ice sheet (Grønlands indlandsis, Sermersuaq) is a vast body of ice covering, roughly 80% of the surface of Greenland.
Ground sloths are a diverse group of extinct sloths, in the mammalian superorder Xenarthra.
The Hemphillian North American Stage on the geologic timescale is the North American faunal stage according to the North American Land Mammal Ages chronology (NALMA), typically set from 10,300,000 to 4,900,000 years BP, a period of.
Henry Watson Fowler (10 March 1858 – 26 December 1933) was an English schoolmaster, lexicographer and commentator on the usage of the English language.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
Hesperotestudo ("Western turtle") is an extinct genus of tortoise that lived from the Miocene to the Pleistocene.
Holmesina is a genus of pampathere, an extinct group of armadillo-like creatures that were distantly related to extant armadillos.
The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.
Hyraxes (from the Greek ὕραξ, hýrax, "shrewmouse"), also called dassies, are small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea.
Ice rafting is the transport of various materials by ice.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), sometimes referred to by the unofficial name "International Stratigraphic Commission" is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with stratigraphy, geological, and geochronological matters on a global scale.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
The Isthmus of Panama (Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (Istmo de Darién), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.
The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning "large foot").
The lettered olive, Oliva sayana, is a species of large predatory sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Olividae, the olive shells, olive snails, or olives.
Limpets are aquatic snails with a shell that is broadly conical in shape and a strong, muscular foot.
This list of fossil sites is a worldwide list of localities known well for the presence of fossils.
Litopterna (from λῑτή πτέρνα "smooth heel") is an extinct order of fossil hoofed mammals (ungulates) from the Cenozoic period that displayed toe reduction – three-toed forms developed; there was even a one-toed horselike form.
The Local Bubble, or Local Cavity, is a relative cavity in the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Orion Arm of the Milky Way.
Macraucheniidae is a family in the extinct South American ungulate order Litopterna, with similarities to the camel and rhinoceros.
Madtsoiidae is an extinct family of mostly Gondwanan snakes with a fossil record extending from early Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) to late Pleistocene strata located in South America, Africa, India, Australia and Southern Europe.
Mastodons (Greek: μαστός "breast" and ὀδούς, "tooth") are any species of extinct proboscideans in the genus Mammut (family Mammutidae), distantly related to elephants, that inhabited North and Central America during the late Miocene or late Pliocene up to their extinction at the end of the Pleistocene 10,000 to 11,000 years ago.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Megalodon (Carcharocles megalodon), meaning "big tooth", is an extinct species of shark that lived approximately 23 to 2.6 million years ago (mya), during the Early Miocene to the end of the Pliocene.
Megatherium (from the Greek mega, meaning "great", and therion, "beast") was a genus of elephant-sized ground sloths endemic to South America, sometimes called the giant ground sloth, that lived from the Early Pliocene through the end of the Pleistocene.
Meridiungulata is an extinct clade with the rank of cohort or superorder, containing the South American ungulates Pyrotheria (possibly including Xenungulata), Astrapotheria, Notoungulata and Litopterna.
Merycoidodontoidea, sometimes called "oreodonts," or "ruminating hogs", is an extinct superfamily of prehistoric cud-chewing artiodactyls with short faces and fang-like canine teeth.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), also referred to as the Messinian Event, and in its latest stage as the Lago Mare event, was a geological event during which the Mediterranean Sea went into a cycle of partly or nearly complete desiccation throughout the latter part of the Messinian age of the Miocene epoch, from 5.96 to 5.33 Ma (million years ago).
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monotremes are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).
The Montehermosan age is a period of geologic time (6.8—4.0 Ma) within the Miocene and Pliocene epochs of the Neogene used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.
The Mustelidae (from Latin mustela, weasel) are a family of carnivorous mammals, including weasels, badgers, otters, martens, mink, and wolverines, among others.
Nannippus is an extinct genus of horse endemic to North America during the Miocene through Pliocene, ~13.3—3.3 Ma, living approximately.
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural-history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States.
The Neogene (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period Mya.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The North American land mammal ages (NALMA) establishes a geologic timescale for North American fauna beginning during the Late Cretaceous and continuing through to the present.
Notoungulata is an extinct order of hoofed, sometimes heavy-bodied mammalian ungulates that inhabited South America during the Paleocene to the mid-Holocene, living from approximately 57 Ma to 5,000 years ago.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
The opossum is a marsupial of the order Didelphimorphia endemic to the Americas.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Paleocene or Palaeocene, the "old recent", is a geological epoch that lasted from about.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The Paratethys ocean, Paratethys sea or just Paratethys was a large shallow sea that stretched from the region north of the Alps over Central Europe to the Aral Sea in Central Asia.
The Pastonian interglacial, now called the Pastonian Stage (from Paston, Norfolk), is the name for an early or middle Pleistocene stage used in the British Isles.
Petaloconchus intortus is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Vermetidae, the worm snails or worm shells.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Phorusrhacids, colloquially known as terror birds, are an extinct clade of large carnivorous flightless birds that were the largest species of apex predators in South America during the Cenozoic era; their temporal range covers from 62 to 1.8 million years (Ma) ago.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
The Piacenzian is in the international geologic time scale the upper stage or latest age of the Pliocene.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus, is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
The Pre-Pastonian Stage or Baventian Stage (from Easton Bavents in Suffolk), is the name for an early Pleistocene stage used in the British Isles.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Protoceratidae is an extinct family of herbivorous North American artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates) that lived during the Eocene through Pliocene at around 46.2—4.9 Mya, existing for about 41 million years.
Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus of the subfamily Crotalinae (the pit vipers).
The Red Crag Formation outcrops in south-eastern Suffolk and north-eastern Essex.
A rhinoceros, commonly abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
A saber-toothed cat (alternatively spelled sabre-toothed cat) is any member of various extinct groups of predatory mammals that were characterized by long, curved saber-shaped canine teeth.
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
The Scorpius–Centaurus Association (sometimes called Sco–Cen or Sco OB2) is the nearest OB association to the Sun.
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
Sea lions are sea mammals characterized by external ear flaps, long foreflippers, the ability to walk on all fours, short, thick hair, and a big chest and belly.
The Sirenia, commonly referred to as sea cows or sirenians, are an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit swamps, rivers, estuaries, marine wetlands, and coastal marine waters.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The South American land mammal ages (SALMA) establish a geologic timescale for prehistoric South American fauna beginning 64.5 Ma during the Paleocene and continuing through to the Late Pleistocene (0.011 Ma).
Sparassodonta is an extinct order of carnivorous metatherian mammals native to South America.
The spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), also known as the Andean bear or Andean short-faced bear and locally as jukumari (Aymara), ukumari (Quechua) or ukuku, is the last remaining short-faced bear (subfamily Tremarctinae).
Spondylus is a genus of bivalve molluscs, the only genus in the family Spondylidae.
In chronostratigraphy, a stage is a succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale, which usually represents millions of years of deposition.
Stegodon (meaning "roofed tooth" from the Greek words στέγειν stegein 'to cover' and ὀδούς odous 'tooth', because of the distinctive ridges on the animal's molars) is a genus of the extinct subfamily Stegodontinae of the order Proboscidea.
In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.
In astronomy, stellar kinematics is the observational study or measurement of the kinematics or motions of stars through space.
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
Suidae is a family of artiodactyl mammals which are commonly called pigs, hogs or boars.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.
The thylacine (or, also; Thylacinus cynocephalus) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times.
Thylacoleo ("pouch lion") is an extinct genus of carnivorous marsupials that lived in Australia from the late Pliocene to the late Pleistocene (2 million to 46 thousand years ago).
Titanis walleri is a large extinct flightless carnivorous bird of the family Phorusrhacidae, endemic to North America from the Hempillian to the late Blancan stage of the Pliocene living 4.9—1.8 Ma, and died out during the Gelasian Age of the earliest Pleistocene, existing approximately.
Toxodontidae is an extinct family of notoungulate mammals known from the Oligocene to the Holocene (5,000 BP) of South America, with one genus, Mixotoxodon, also known from the Pleistocene of Central America and southwestern North America (Texas).
The Tremarctinae or short-faced bears is a subfamily of Ursidae that contains one living representative, the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus) of South America, and several extinct species from four genera: the Florida spectacled bear (Tremarctos floridanus), the North American short-faced bears of genera Plionarctos (P. edensis and P. harroldorum) and Arctodus (A. pristinus and A. simus), and the South American giant short-faced bears of Arctotherium (including A. angustidens, A. vetustum, A. bonariense, A. wingei, and A. tarijense).
Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Turritella is a genus of medium-sized sea snails with an operculum, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Turritellidae.
The tusk shells or tooth shells, often referred to by the more-technical term scaphopods (Greek, "boat-footed"), are members of a class of shelled marine mollusc with worldwide distribution, and are the only class of exclusively infaunal marine molluscs.
Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The Uquian age is a period of geologic time (3.0—1.5 Ma) within the Pliocene epoch of the Neogene used more specifically with South American Land Mammal Ages.
Venomous snakes are species of the suborder Serpentes that are capable of producing venom, which is used primarily for immobilizing prey and defense mostly via mechanical injection by fangs.
A weasel is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae.
William Whewell (24 May 1794 – 6 March 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science.
Wombats are short-legged, muscular quadrupedal marsupials that are native to Australia.
The Zanclean is the lowest stage or earliest age on the geologic time scale of the Pliocene.