107 relations: African clawed frog, Algae, Allele, Alternation of generations, Amphibian, Ancient Greek, Aneuploidy, Ant, Archaea, August Weismann, Autosome, Back-formation, Bee, Biological life cycle, Bombyx mori, Cell (biology), Cellular differentiation, Chimera (genetics), Chromosomal polymorphism, Chromosome, Common wheat, De Witte's clawed frog, Deinococcus radiodurans, Desiccation, Dikaryon, DNA, Doubled haploidy, Down syndrome, Eduard Strasburger, Egg, Egg cell, Einkorn wheat, Elaiosome, Endoreduplication, Endosperm, Ensembl Genomes, Entamoeba, Eukaryote, Eusociality, Father, Fern, Fungus, Gamete, Gene, Genome, Genome size, Germ cell, Germ plasm, Germline, Golden viscacha rat, ..., Greek language, Halobacterium salinarum, Haplodiploidy, Haploidisation, HIV, Homologous chromosome, Homologous recombination, Human fertilization, Human foamy virus, Human genome, Human T-lymphotropic virus, Hybrid (biology), Insect, Ionizing radiation, Jack jumper ant, Journal of Ecology, Karyotype, Meiosis, Mitosis, Monosomy, Moss, Mother, Nature Publishing Group, Ophioglossum, Plains viscacha rat, Plant, Ploidy, Polyploid, Polytene chromosome, Potato, Prokaryote, Pseudoautosomal region, Reptile, Retrovirus, Salivary gland, Sex chromosome, Somatic (biology), Somatic cell, Speciation, Sperm, Syncytium, Tissue (biology), Triangle of U, Triploid syndrome, Trisomy, Trophoblast, Tuple, Turner syndrome, Uganda clawed frog, Vegetative reproduction, Wasp, Western clawed frog, Wiley-Blackwell, William Henry Lang, Xenopus, Zygote, 2R hypothesis. Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, also known as the xenopus, African clawed toad, African claw-toed frog or the platanna) is a species of African aquatic frog of the family Pipidae.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis) is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct sexual haploid and asexual diploid stages.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, for example a human cell having 45 or 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
August Friedrich Leopold Weismann (17 January 1834 – 5 November 1914) was a German evolutionary biologist.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
In etymology, back-formation is the process of creating a new lexeme by removing actual or supposed affixes.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar or imago of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
A genetic chimerism or chimera (also spelled chimaera) is a single organism composed of cells with distinct genotypes.
In genetics, chromosomal polymorphism is a condition where one species contains members with varying chromosome counts or shapes.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), also known as bread wheat, is a cultivated wheat species.
De Witte's clawed frog, Xenopus wittei, is a species of frog in the Pipidae family found in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Uganda, and possibly Burundi.
Deinococcus radiodurans is an extremophilic bacterium, one of the most radiation-resistant organisms known.
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.
The dikaryon is a nuclear feature which is unique to some fungi.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A doubled haploid (DH) is a genotype formed when haploid cells undergo chromosome doubling.
Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.
Eduard Adolf Strasburger (1 February 1844 – 18 May 1912) was a Polish-German professor and one of the most famous botanists of the 19th century.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
Einkorn wheat (from German Einkorn, literally "single grain") can refer either to the wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum, or to the domesticated form, Triticum monococcum.
Elaiosomes (Greek élaion "oil" and sóma "body") are fleshy structures that are attached to the seeds of many plant species.
Endoreduplication (also referred to as endoreplication or endocycling) is replication of the nuclear genome in the absence of mitosis, which leads to elevated nuclear gene content and polyploidy.
The endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization.
Ensembl Genomes is a scientific project to provide genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species.
Entamoeba is a genus of Amoebozoa found as internal parasites or commensals of animals.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Eusociality (from Greek εὖ eu "good" and social), the highest level of organization of animal sociality, is defined by the following characteristics: cooperative brood care (including care of offspring from other individuals), overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labor into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.
A father is the male parent of a child.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genome size is the total amount of DNA contained within one copy of a single genome.
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.
Germ plasm is August Weismann's 19th century concept (German: Keimplasma) that heritable information is transmitted only by germ cells in the gonads (ovaries and testes), not by somatic cells.
In biology and genetics, the germline in a multicellular organism is the population of its bodily cells that are so differentiated or segregated that in the usual processes of reproduction they may pass on their genetic material to the progeny.
The golden viscacha rat or golden vizcacha rat (Pipanacoctomys aureus) is the single species of the genus Pipanacoctomys of the rodent family Octodontidae.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Halobacterium salinarum is an extremely halophilic marine Gram-negative obligate aerobic archaeon.
Haplodiploidy is a sex-determination system in which males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, and females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid.
Haploidisation is the process of halving the chromosomal content of a cell, creating a haploid cell.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A couple of homologous chromosomes, or homologs, are a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosome that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
Human fertilization is the union of a human egg and sperm, usually occurring in the ampulla of the fallopian tube.
Human foamy virus (HFV) is a retrovirus and specifically belongs to the genus Spumavirus.
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
The human T-lymphotropic virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, or human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus (HTLV) family of viruses are a group of human retroviruses that are known to cause a type of cancer called adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and a demyelinating disease called HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
The Myrmecia pilosula, commonly known as the jack jumper, jumping jack, hopper ant, or jumper ant, is a species of venomous ant native to Australia.
The Journal of Ecology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of the ecology of plants.
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
Monosomy is a form of aneuploidy with the presence of only one chromosome from a pair.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
A mother is the female parent of a child.
Nature Publishing Group is a division of the international scientific publishing company Springer Nature that publishes academic journals, magazines, online databases, and services in science and medicine.
Ophioglossum, the adder's-tongue ferns, is a genus of about 25–30 species of ferns in the family Ophioglossaceae, of the order Ophioglossales.
The plains viscacha rat, plains vizcacha rat, red viscacha rat, or red vizcacha rat (Tympanoctomys barrerae) is a species of rodent in the family Octodontidae native to Argentina.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.
Polytene chromosomes are large chromosomes which have thousands of DNA strands.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
The pseudoautosomal regions, PAR1, PAR2, are homologous sequences of nucleotides on the X and Y chromosomes.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.
The term somatic is often used in biology to refer to the cells of the body in contrast to the germ line cells which usually give rise to the gametes (ovum or sperm).
A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
A syncytium or symplasm (plural syncytia; from Greek: σύν (syn).
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
The triangle of U is a theory about the evolution and relationships among members of the plant genus Brassica.
Triploid syndrome, also called triploidy, is an extremely rare chromosomal disorder, in which a fetus has three copies of every chromosome instead of the normal two.
A trisomy is a type of polysomy in which there are three instances of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two.
Trophoblasts (from Greek trephein: to feed, and blastos: germinator) are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta.
In mathematics, a tuple is a finite ordered list (sequence) of elements.
Turner syndrome (TS), also known as 45,X or 45,X0, is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome.
The Uganda clawed frog (Xenopus ruwenzoriensis) is a species of frog in the family Pipidae found in Uganda and possibly the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
The western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) is a species of frog in the family Pipidae, also known as tropical clawed frog.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Prof William Henry Lang FRS FRSE FLS LLD (12 May 1874–29 August 1960) was a British botanist.
Xenopus (Gk., ξενος, xenos.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.
The 2R hypothesis or Ohno's hypothesis, first proposed by Susumu Ohno in 1970,Ohno, Susumu (1970).
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