364 relations: Acid, Actinide, Acute radiation syndrome, Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Alamogordo, New Mexico, Albert Stevens, Alkali, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Allotropes of plutonium, Allotropy, Alloy, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Aluminium, AMBIO, Americium, Americium-241, Annealing (metallurgy), Apollo 12, Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package, Aqueous solution, Argon, Arthur Wahl, Artificial cardiac pacemaker, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, B Reactor, Barium, Becquerel, Bernard Cohen (physicist), Beryllium, Beta decay, Bill Clinton, Biological half-life, Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Boiling point, Bone, Bone marrow, Boride, Borosilicate glass, Boulder, Colorado, Breeder reactor, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Burnup, Cadmium, Caesium, ..., Calcium, Cambridge, Cancer, Carbide, Carbon, Carbon tetrachloride, Carl J. Johnson, Cassini–Huygens, Cast iron, Cavendish Laboratory, Cecil Kelley criticality accident, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cerium, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chernobyl disaster, China, Chromium, Cigar Lake Mine, Cold War, Columbia River, Concrete, Coordination complex, Critical mass, Criticality accident, Crucible, Crystal structure, Curie, Curiosity (rover), Cyclotron, Decay chain, Decay heat, Decay product, Demon core, Density, Deuterium, Double beta decay, Ebb Cade, Edward Martell, Edwin McMillan, Egon Bretscher, Eileen Welsome, Electric arc furnace, Electric current, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrolysis, Electron configuration, Electronvolt, Emilio Segrè, Enriched uranium, Enrico Fermi, Equivalent dose, Europium, Explosive lens, Extinct radionuclide, Fast-neutron reactor, Fat Man, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federation of American Scientists, Fire, Fissile material, Fizzle (nuclear explosion), Four factor formula, Franklin Matthias, Fritz Strassmann, Gabon, Gadolinium, Galileo (spacecraft), Gallium, Gamma ray, George Herbert Jones Laboratory, Glenn T. Seaborg, Gobi Desert, Greek language, Gun-type fission weapon, Hafnium, Half-life, Halogen, Hanford Site, Harold Hodge, Harry Daghlian, Heat sink, Heavy fermion material, Helium, Hesperium, Hibakusha, Hippocratic Oath, Holmium, Hot particle, Human radiation experiments, Hydride, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydroiodic acid, Indium, Inert gas, Informed consent, Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Internal energy, International Atomic Energy Agency, Ion, Ionizing radiation, Isotope, Isotopes of neptunium, Japan, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Joseph W. Kennedy, Kate Brown (professor), Kelvin, Kilogram, Krypton, Las Vegas, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Leona Woods, Light-water reactor, Lise Meitner, List of civilian nuclear accidents, Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents, Lithium, Liver, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Louis Slotin, Lung cancer, Magnesium, Magnesium oxide, Manhattan Project, Mars rover, Mass number, Mayak, Medical ethics, Melting point, Metal, Metallurgical Laboratory, Modulated neutron initiator, Molybdenum, Monoclinic crystal system, MOX fuel, Mutation, MV Pacific Egret, Nagasaki, National Historic Landmark, Natural nuclear fission reactor, Neptune, Neptunium, Nerve agent, Neutron, Neutron capture, Neutron flux, Neutron moderator, Neutron reflector, Neutron source, Neutron star, Neutron temperature, New Horizons, Nicholas Kemmer, Nickel, Niobium, Nitride, Nitrogen, Norman Feather, Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents, Nuclear binding energy, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear disarmament, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear power, Nuclear power plant, Nuclear proliferation, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear reprocessing, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapon design, Nuclear weapon yield, Nuclear weapons testing, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Oklo, Otto Hahn, Otto Robert Frisch, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxygen, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Parts-per notation, Passenger airline, Perchloric acid, Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Phase transition, Photon, Physical Review, Pit (nuclear weapon), Pluto, Pluto (mythology), Plutonium hydride, Plutonium in the environment, Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement, Plutonium tetrafluoride, Plutonium(III) chloride, Plutonium(III) fluoride, Plutonium(IV) oxide, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239, Plutonium-240, Plutonium-241, Plutonium-242, Plutonium-244, Plutonium–gallium alloy, Polonium, Potassium, Primary cell, Primordial nuclide, Proton, PUREX, Pyrophoricity, R-process, Radioactive contamination, Radioactive decay, Radioactive waste, Radioisotope heater unit, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Radionuclide, Radium, Ralph Nader, Rare-earth element, Reactor-grade plutonium, Redox, Refractory metals, Rocky Flats Plant, Roentgen equivalent man, Royal Society of Chemistry, Rubidium, Russia, Sapienza University of Rome, Savannah River Site, Scandium, Science News, Scuba diving, Secular equilibrium, Self-diffusion, Shock wave, Sievert, Silicide, Silicon, Skeleton, Smyth Report, Sodium, South Carolina, Soviet Union, Spacecraft, Spent nuclear fuel, Spontaneous fission, Stainless steel, Steven Chu, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Stockpile, Strontium, Supernova, Surface tension, Tantalum, Tarnish, Thallium, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, The Plutonium Files, Thermal conductivity, Thermal energy, Thermonuclear weapon, Thin Man (nuclear bomb), Thorium, TNT equivalent, Tonne, Transuranium element, Trinity (nuclear test), Tube Alloys, Tungsten, Tungsten carbide, Unconventional superconductor, United States Atomic Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Navy, United States Secretary of Energy, University of California, Berkeley, University of Chicago, Uranium, Uranium-233, Uranium-234, Uranium-235, Uranium-236, Uranium-238, Uranus, Vacuum, Viscosity, Voyager program, Washington and Lee University, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Weapons-grade nuclear material, Welding, Wiley-Blackwell, Wired (magazine), World War II, X-10 Graphite Reactor, Xenon, Ytterbium, Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, Zinc, Zirconium. 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An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
The Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments was established in 1994 to investigate questions of the record of the United States government with respect to human radiation experiments.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
Alamogordo is the seat of Otero County, New Mexico, United States.
Albert Stevens (1887–1966), also known as patient CAL-1, was a victim of a human radiation experiment, and survived the highest known accumulated radiation dose in any human.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
Plutonium occurs in a variety of allotropes, even at ambient pressure.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published eight times a year by Springer Science+Business Media on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.
Americium-241 (241Am) is an isotope of americium.
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.
Apollo 12 was the sixth manned flight in the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon.
The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) comprised a set of scientific instruments placed by the astronauts at the landing site of each of the five Apollo missions to land on the Moon following Apollo 11 (Apollos 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17).
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Arthur Charles Wahl (September 8, 1917 – March 6, 2006) was an American chemist who, as a doctoral student of Glenn T. Seaborg at the University of California, Berkeley, first isolated plutonium in February 1941.
A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The B Reactor at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington, was the first large-scale nuclear reactor ever built.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.
Bernard Leonard Cohen (June 14, 1924 – March 17, 2012) was born in Pittsburgh,CV composed and posted currently, http://www.phyast.pitt.edu/~blc/Vita-Pub.htm Retrieved 23 March 2011 and was Professor Emeritus of Physics at the University of Pittsburgh.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future was appointed by President Obama to look into future options for existing and future nuclear waste, following the ending of work on the incomplete Yucca Mountain Repository.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
A boride is a compound between boron and a less electronegative element, for example silicon boride (SiB3 and SiB6).
Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.
Boulder is the home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, and the 11th most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Colorado.
A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates more fissile material than it consumes.
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a nontechnical academic journal, published by Taylor and Francis that covers global security and public policy issues related to the dangers posed by nuclear threats, weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and emerging technologies and biological hazards.
In nuclear power technology, burnup (also known as fuel utilization) is a measure of how much energy is extracted from a primary nuclear fuel source.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.
Carl Jean Johnson (July 2, 1929 – December 29, 1988), was a public health physician who opposed nuclear testing.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
The Cavendish Laboratory is the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge, and is part of the School of Physical Sciences.
A criticality accident occurred on December 30, 1958, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, in the United States.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
The Cigar Lake Mine is the largest high grade uranium deposit in the world, located in the uranium rich Athabasca Basin of northern Saskatchewan, Canada.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
A criticality accident is an uncontrolled nuclear fission chain reaction.
A crucible is a container that can withstand very high temperatures and is used for metal, glass, and pigment production as well as a number of modern laboratory processes.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
The curie (symbol Ci) is a non-SI unit of radioactivity originally defined in 1910.
Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.
Decay heat is the heat released as a result of radioactive decay.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
The demon core was a subcritical mass of plutonium measuring in diameter, which was involved in two criticality accidents.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
In nuclear physics, double beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which two protons are simultaneously transformed into two neutrons, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.
Ebb Cade (17 March 1890 – 13 April 1953) was a construction worker at Clinton Engineer Works at Oak Ridge, and an unwilling participant in the first human injection experiments with plutonium.
Edward A. Martell (1920? – July 12, 1995) was an American radiochemist for the US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado.
Edwin Mattison McMillan (September 18, 1907 – September 7, 1991) was an American physicist and Nobel laureate credited with being the first-ever to produce a transuranium element, neptunium.
Egon Bretscher (1901–1973) was a Swiss-born British chemist and nuclear physicist and Head of the Nuclear Physics Division from 1948 to 1966 at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, also known as Harwell Laboratory, in Harwell, United Kingdom.
Eileen Welsome (born March 12, 1951) is an American journalist and author.
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Emilio Gino Segrè (1 February 1905 – 22 April 1989) was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
Equivalent dose is a dose quantity H representing the stochastic health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.
An explosive lens—as used, for example, in nuclear weapons—is a highly specialized shaped charge.
An extinct radionuclide is a radionuclide that was formed by nucleosynthesis before the formation of the Solar System, about 4.6 billion years ago, and incorporated into it, but has since decayed to virtually zero abundance, due to having a half-life shorter than about 100 million years.
A fast-neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons, as opposed to thermal neutrons used in thermal-neutron reactors.
"Fat Man" was the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
A fizzle occurs when the detonation of a device for creating a nuclear explosion (such as a nuclear weapon) grossly fails to meet its expected yield.
The four-factor formula, also known as Fermi's four factor formula is used in nuclear engineering to determine the multiplication of a nuclear chain reaction in an infinite medium.
Franklin Thompson Matthias (13 March 1908 – 3 December 1993) was an American civil engineer who directed construction of the Hanford nuclear site, a key facility of the Manhattan Project during World War II.
Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann (Straßmann; 22 February 1902 – 22 April 1980) was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in early 1939, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons, results which, when confirmed, demonstrated the previously unknown phenomenon of nuclear fission.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.
Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
The George Herbert Jones Laboratory is an academic building at 5747 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, on the main campus of the University of Chicago.
Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
The Gobi Desert is a large desert region in Asia.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gun-type fission weapons are fission-based nuclear weapons whose design assembles their fissile material into a supercritical mass by the use of the "gun" method: shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear production complex operated by the United States federal government on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington.
Harold Carpenter Hodge (1904–1990) was a well-known toxicologist who published close to 300 papers and 5 books.
Haroutune Krikor "Harry" Daghlian Jr. (May 4, 1921 – September 15, 1945) was a physicist with the Manhattan Project which designed and produced the atomic bombs that were used in World War II.
A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels.
In solid-state physics, heavy fermion materials are a specific type of intermetallic compound, containing elements with 4f or 5f electrons in unfilled electron bands.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hesperium (also known as esperium; atomic symbol Es) was the name assigned to the element with atomic number 94, now known as plutonium.
is the Japanese word for the surviving victims of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The Hippocratic Oath is an oath historically taken by physicians.
Holmium is a chemical element with symbol Ho and atomic number 67.
A hot particle is a microscopic piece of radioactive material that can become lodged in living tissue and deliver a concentrated dose of radiation to a small area.
Since the discovery of ionizing radiation, a number of human radiation experiments have been performed to understand the effects of ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination on the human body, specifically with the element plutonium.
In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydroiodic acid (or hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (concentrated solution usually 48 - 57% HI).
Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.
Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person, or for disclosing personal information.
The Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (IEER) focuses on the environmental safety of nuclear weapons production, ozone layer depletion, and other issues relating to energy.
In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Neptunium (93Np) is usually considered an artificial element, although trace quantities are found in nature, so thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
Joseph William Kennedy (May 30, 1916 – May 5, 1957) was an American chemist who was a co-discoverer of plutonium, along with Glenn T. Seaborg, Edwin McMillan and Arthur Wahl.
Kate Brown is a Professor of History at University of Maryland, Baltimore County.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.
Las Vegas (Spanish for "The Meadows"), officially the City of Las Vegas and often known simply as Vegas, is the 28th-most populated city in the United States, the most populated city in the state of Nevada, and the county seat of Clark County.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952.
Leona Harriet Woods (August 9, 1919 – November 10, 1986), later known as Leona Woods Marshall and Leona Woods Marshall Libby, was an American physicist who helped build the first nuclear reactor and the first atomic bomb.
The light-water reactor (LWR) is a type of thermal-neutron reactor that uses normal water, as opposed to heavy water, as both its coolant and neutron moderator – furthermore a solid form of fissile elements is used as fuel.
Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.
This article lists notable civilian accidents involving fissile nuclear material or nuclear reactors.
These are lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
Louis Alexander Slotin (1 December 1910 – 30 May 1946) was a Canadian physicist and chemist who worked on the Manhattan Project.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
A Mars rover is an automated motor vehicle that propels itself across the surface of the planet Mars upon arrival.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
The Mayak Production Association (Производственное объединение «Маяк», from Маяк 'lighthouse') is one of the biggest nuclear facilities in the Russian Federation, housing a reprocessing plant.
Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
The Metallurgical Laboratory (or Met Lab) was a scientific laboratory at the University of Chicago that was established in February 1942 to study and use the newly discovered chemical element plutonium.
A modulated neutron initiator is a neutron source capable of producing a burst of neutrons on activation.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Mixed oxide fuel, commonly referred to as MOX fuel, is nuclear fuel that contains more than one oxide of fissile material, usually consisting of plutonium blended with natural uranium, reprocessed uranium, or depleted uranium.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Pacific Egret is an INF Class 3 nuclear waste carrier launched in January 2010.
() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance.
A natural nuclear fission reactor is a uranium deposit where self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions have occurred.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
Nerve agents, sometimes also called nerve gases, are a class of organic chemicals that disrupt the mechanisms by which nerves transfer messages to organs.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
The neutron flux is a scalar quantity used in nuclear physics and nuclear reactor physics.
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.
A neutron reflector is any material that reflects neutrons.
A neutron source is any device that emits neutrons, irrespective of the mechanism used to produce the neutrons.
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.
Prof Nicholas Kemmer, FRS FRSE (7 December 1911 – 21 October 1998), was a Russian-born nuclear physicist working in Britain, who played an integral and leading edge role in United Kingdom's nuclear programme, and was known as a mentor of Abdus Salam – a Nobel laureate in physics.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
In chemistry, a nitride is a compound of nitrogen where nitrogen has a formal oxidation state of 3-.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Norman Feather FRS FRSE PRSE (16 November 1904, Pecket Well, Yorkshire – 14 August 1978, Christie Hospital, Manchester), was an English nuclear physicist.
A nuclear and radiation accident is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "an event that has led to significant consequences to people, the environment or the facility." Examples include lethal effects to individuals, radioactive isotope to the environment, or reactor core melt." The prime example of a "major nuclear accident" is one in which a reactor core is damaged and significant amounts of radioactive isotopes are released, such as in the Chernobyl disaster in 1986.
Nuclear binding energy is the minimum energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component parts.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons.
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is an independent agency of the United States government tasked with protecting public health and safety related to nuclear energy.
Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy released when that particular nuclear weapon is detonated, usually expressed as a TNT equivalent (the standardized equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene which, if detonated, would produce the same energy discharge), either in kilotons (kt—thousands of tons of TNT), in megatons (Mt—millions of tons of TNT), or sometimes in terajoules (TJ).
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.
Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville.
Oklo is a region near the town of Franceville, in the Haut-Ogooué province of the Central African state of Gabon.
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.
Otto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979) was an Austrian-British physicist.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is one of the United States Department of Energy national laboratories, managed by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science.
The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
A passenger airline is an airline dedicated to the transport of passengers.
Perchloric acid is a mineral acid with the formula HClO4.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
The pit, named after the hard core found in fruits such as peaches and apricots, is the core of an implosion nuclear weapon – the fissile material and any neutron reflector or tamper bonded to it.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
Pluto (Latin: Plūtō; Πλούτων) was the ruler of the underworld in classical mythology.
Plutonium hydride is a non-stoichiometric chemical compound with the formula PuH2+x.
Since the mid-20th century, plutonium in the environment has been primarily produced by human activity.
The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement is an agreement between the United States and Russia signed in 2000.
Plutonium(IV) fluoride is a chemical compound with the formula (PuF4).
Plutonium(III) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula PuCl3.
Plutonium(III) fluoride or plutonium trifluoride is the chemical compound composed of plutonium and fluorine with the formula PuF3.
Plutonium(IV) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula PuO2.
Plutonium-238 (also known as Pu-238 or 238Pu) is a radioactive isotope of plutonium that has a half-life of 87.7 years.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
Plutonium-240 (/Pu-240) is an isotope of the actinide metal plutonium formed when plutonium-239 captures a neutron.
Plutonium-241 (Pu-241) is an isotope of plutonium formed when plutonium-240 captures a neutron.
Plutonium-242 is one of the isotopes of plutonium, the second longest-lived, with a half-life of 373,300 years.
Plutonium-244 (244Pu) is an isotope of plutonium that has a half-life of 80 million years.
Plutonium–gallium alloy (Pu–Ga) is an alloy of plutonium and gallium, used in nuclear weapon pits, the component of a nuclear weapon where the fission chain reaction is started.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
A primary cell is a battery that is designed to be used once and discarded, and not recharged with electricity and reused like a secondary cell (rechargeable battery).
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
PUREX is a chemical method used to purify fuel for nuclear reactors or nuclear weapons.
A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
Radioisotope heater units (RHU) are small devices that provide heat through radioactive decay.
A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American political activist, author, lecturer, and attorney, noted for his involvement in consumer protection, environmentalism and government reform causes.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
Reactor-grade plutonium/RGPu is the isotopic grade of plutonium that is found in spent nuclear fuel after the primary fuel, that of Uranium-235 that a nuclear power reactor uses, has (burnt up/burnup).
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Refractory metals are a class of metals that are extraordinarily resistant to heat and wear.
The Rocky Flats Plant was a former nuclear weapons production facility in the western United States, near Denver, Colorado.
The roentgen equivalent man (or rem) is an older, CGS unit of equivalent dose, effective dose, and committed dose which are measures of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Sapienza University of Rome (Italian: Sapienza – Università di Roma), also called simply Sapienza or the University of Rome, is a collegiate research university located in Rome, Italy.
The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a nuclear reservation in the United States in the state of South Carolina, located on land in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell counties adjacent to the Savannah River, southeast of Augusta, Georgia.
Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.
Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.
In nuclear physics, secular equilibrium is a situation in which the quantity of a radioactive isotope remains constant because its production rate (e.g., due to decay of a parent isotope) is equal to its decay rate.
According to IUPAC definition, self-diffusion coefficient is the diffusion coefficient D_i^* of species i when the chemical potential gradient equals zero.
In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.
The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
A silicide is a compound that has silicon with (usually) more electropositive elements.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
The Smyth Report is the common name of an administrative history written by American physicist Henry DeWolf Smyth about the Manhattan Project, the Allied effort to develop atomic bombs during World War II.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant).
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
Steven Chu in atomic physics and laser spectroscopy, including the first observation of parity non-conservation in atoms, excitation and precision spectroscopy of positronium, and the optical confinement and cooling of atoms.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international institute based in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.
A stockpile is a pile or storage location for bulk materials, forming part of the bulk material handling process.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
Tarnish is a thin layer of corrosion that forms over copper, brass, silver, aluminum, magnesium, neodymium and other similar metals as their outermost layer undergoes a chemical reaction.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
The Making of the Atomic Bomb is a contemporary history book written by the American journalist and historian Richard Rhodes, first published by Simon & Schuster in 1987.
The Plutonium Files: America's Secret Medical Experiments in the Cold War is a 1999 book by Eileen Welsome.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
"Thin Man" was the codename for a proposed plutonium gun-type nuclear bomb using plutonium-239 which the United States was developing during the Manhattan Project.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).
Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
Tube Alloys was a code name of the clandestine research and development programme, authorised by the United Kingdom, with participation from Canada, to develop nuclear weapons during the Second World War.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms.
Unconventional superconductors are materials that display superconductivity which does not conform to either the conventional BCS theory or Nikolay Bogolyubov's theory or its extensions.
The United States Atomic Energy Commission, commonly known as the AEC, was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by U.S. Congress to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States Secretary of Energy is the head of the U.S. Department of Energy, a member of the Cabinet of the United States, and fourteenth in the presidential line of succession.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle.
Uranium-234 is an isotope of uranium.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-236 is an isotope of uranium that is neither fissile with thermal neutrons, nor very good fertile material, but is generally considered a nuisance and long-lived radioactive waste.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.
Washington and Lee University (Washington and Lee or W&L) is a private liberal arts university in Lexington, Virginia, United States.
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, or WIPP, is the world's third deep geological repository (after closure of Germany's Repository for radioactive waste Morsleben and the Schacht Asse II Salt Mine) licensed to permanently dispose of transuranic radioactive waste for 10,000 years that is left from the research and production of nuclear weapons.
Weapons-grade nuclear material is any fissionable nuclear material that is pure enough to be used to make a nuclear weapon or has properties that make it particularly suitable for nuclear weapons use.
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, formerly known as the Clinton Pile and X-10 Pile, was the world's second artificial nuclear reactor (after Enrico Fermi's Chicago Pile-1), and the first designed and built for continuous operation.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.
The Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository, as designated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act amendments of 1987, is to be a deep geological repository storage facility within Yucca Mountain for spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste in the United States.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.