65 relations: Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Actinide, Air force, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Beta decay, Boosted fission weapon, Breeder reactor, Burnup, CANDU reactor, Critical mass, Electron, Electron capture, Electronvolt, Enriched uranium, Fast-neutron reactor, Fissile material, Fizzle (nuclear explosion), Gamma ray, Half-life, Heavy metals, Integral fast reactor, International Atomic Energy Agency, Isotope, Isotope separation, Isotopes of americium, Isotopes of curium, Isotopes of neptunium, Isotopes of uranium, Mole (unit), MOX fuel, Natural uranium, Neutrino, Neutron, Neutron capture, Neutron radiation, Neutron temperature, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear power plant, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear reprocessing, Nuclear weapon, Parlance, Plutonium, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-240, Plutonium-242, ..., Pressurized heavy-water reactor, RBMK, Reactor-grade plutonium, Research reactor, Sovereign state, Spent nuclear fuel, Spontaneous fission, Submarine, Thermonuclear weapon, United States Navy, Uranium-233, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, W80 (nuclear warhead), Weapons-grade nuclear material. Expand index (15 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
An air force, also known in some countries as an aerospace force or air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military branch that primarily conducts aerial warfare.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A boosted fission weapon usually refers to a type of nuclear bomb that uses a small amount of fusion fuel to increase the rate, and thus yield, of a fission reaction.
A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates more fissile material than it consumes.
In nuclear power technology, burnup (also known as fuel utilization) is a measure of how much energy is extracted from a primary nuclear fuel source.
The CANDU, for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used to generate electric power.
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
A fast-neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons, as opposed to thermal neutrons used in thermal-neutron reactors.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
A fizzle occurs when the detonation of a device for creating a nuclear explosion (such as a nuclear weapon) grossly fails to meet its expected yield.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
The integral fast reactor (IFR, originally advanced liquid-metal reactor) is a design for a nuclear reactor using fast neutrons and no neutron moderator (a "fast" reactor).
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes.
Americium (95Am) is an artificial element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Curium (96Cm) is an artificial element with an atomic number of 96.
Neptunium (93Np) is usually considered an artificial element, although trace quantities are found in nature, so thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Uranium (92U) is a naturally occurring radioactive element that has no stable isotopes but two primordial isotopes (uranium-238 and uranium-235) that have long half-life and are found in appreciable quantity in the Earth's crust, along with the decay product uranium-234.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Mixed oxide fuel, commonly referred to as MOX fuel, is nuclear fuel that contains more than one oxide of fissile material, usually consisting of plutonium blended with natural uranium, reprocessed uranium, or depleted uranium.
Natural uranium (NU, Unat) refers to uranium with the same isotopic ratio as found in nature.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
Neutron radiation is a form of ionizing radiation that presents as free neutrons.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium-238 (also known as Pu-238 or 238Pu) is a radioactive isotope of plutonium that has a half-life of 87.7 years.
Plutonium-240 (/Pu-240) is an isotope of the actinide metal plutonium formed when plutonium-239 captures a neutron.
Plutonium-242 is one of the isotopes of plutonium, the second longest-lived, with a half-life of 373,300 years.
A pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) is a nuclear reactor, commonly using natural uranium as its fuel, that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and neutron moderator.
The RBMK (Реактор Большой Мощности Канальный Reaktor Bolshoy Moshchnosti Kanalnyy, “High Power Channel-type Reactor”) is a class of graphite-moderated nuclear power reactor designed and built by the Soviet Union.
Reactor-grade plutonium/RGPu is the isotopic grade of plutonium that is found in spent nuclear fuel after the primary fuel, that of Uranium-235 that a nuclear power reactor uses, has (burnt up/burnup).
Research reactors are nuclear reactors that serve primarily as a neutron source.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant).
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
The W80 is a relatively small thermonuclear warhead (fission-fusion or, more descriptively, a multi-staged device, in this case the most common two-stage configuration; the Teller-Ulam Design, or a Primary and Secondary Physics-Package detonated weapon) deployed by the U.S. enduring stockpile with a variable yield of of TNT.
Weapons-grade nuclear material is any fissionable nuclear material that is pure enough to be used to make a nuclear weapon or has properties that make it particularly suitable for nuclear weapons use.