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Plymouth is a city on the south coast of Devon, England, about south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London, between the mouths of the rivers Plym to the east and Tamar to the west where they join Plymouth Sound. Plymouth's early history extends to the Bronze Age, when a first settlement emerged at Mount Batten. This settlement continued as a trading post for the Roman Empire, until it was surpassed by the more prosperous village of Sutton, now called Plymouth. In 1620, the Pilgrim Fathers departed Plymouth for the New World and established Plymouth Colony – the second English settlement in what is now the United States of America. During the English Civil War the town was held by the Parliamentarians and was besieged between 1642 and 1646. Throughout the Industrial Revolution, Plymouth grew as a commercial shipping port, handling imports and passengers from the Americas, and exporting local minerals (tin, copper, lime, china clay and arsenic) while the neighbouring town of Devonport became a strategic Royal Naval shipbuilding and dockyard town. In 1914 three neighbouring independent towns, viz., the county borough of Plymouth, the county borough of Devonport, and the urban district of East Stonehouse were merged to form a single County Borough. The combined town took the name of Plymouth which, in 1928, achieved city status. The city's naval importance later led to its targeting and partial destruction during World War II, an act known as the Plymouth Blitz. After the war the city centre was completely rebuilt and subsequent expansion led to the incorporation of Plympton and Plymstock along with other outlying suburbs in 1967. Today the city is home to around 250,000 people, making it the 30th most populous built-up area in the United Kingdom. It is governed locally by Plymouth City Council and is represented nationally by three MPs. Plymouth's economy remains strongly influenced by shipbuilding and seafaring including ferry links to France (Roscoff and St Malo) and Spain (Santander), but has tended toward a service-based economy since the 1990s. It has the ninth largest university in the United Kingdom by number of students, the University of Plymouth, and the largest operational naval base in Western Europe – HMNB Devonport. [1]

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A38 road

The A38, part of which is also known as the Devon Expressway, is a major A-class trunk road in England.

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The Admiralty was the organization responsible for the command of the Royal Navy in the Kingdom of England, and later in Great Britain, and until 1964 in the United Kingdom.

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Air Southwest

Air Southwest was a British airline founded by Sutton Harbour Holdings in 2003.

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Algae (or; singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of eukaryotes that are not necessarily closely related and are thus polyphyletic.

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Alison Seabeck

Alison Jane Seabeck (née Ward; born 20 January 1954) is an English Labour Party politician.

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America's Cup World Series

The America's Cup World Series is a series of match/fleet race regattas founded in the lead up to the 2013 America's Cup.

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American football

American football (referred to as football in the United States and Canada, also known as gridiron elsewhere) is a sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.

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AMM (group)

AMM is a British free improvisation group that was founded in London, England, in 1965.

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Ammunition (commonly shortened to ammo) is propellant and projectile, or broadly anything that can be used in combat including bombs, missiles, warheads, landmines, naval mines, and anti-personnel mines.

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Angela Rippon

Angela Mary Rippon OBE (born 12 October 1944)"Angela Rippon," Contemporary Authors Online, Detroit: Gale, (2008) Gale Biography In Context is an English television journalist, newsreader, writer and presenter.

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Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures.

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Anglosphere refers to a set of English-speaking nations with a similar cultural heritage, based upon populations originating from the nations of the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland), and which today maintain close political and military cooperation.

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The Antarctic is a polar region, specifically the region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.

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Appellation d'origine contrôlée

The appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC), which translates as "controlled designation of origin", is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut national des appellations d'origine, now called Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité (INAO).

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An arena is an enclosed area, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theater, musical performances, or sporting events.

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Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also, lit. "The Jews of Germany"), are a Jewish ethnic division who coalesced as a distinct community of Jews in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the 1st millennium.

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Atlantic 85-class lifeboat

The Atlantic 85 is part of the B-class of lifeboats that serve the shores of the United Kingdom and Ireland as a part of the RNLI inshore fleet.

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Atlantic slave trade

The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 16th through to the 19th centuries.

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The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental or innovative, particularly with respect to art, culture, and politics.

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Avenue (landscape)

In landscaping, an avenue or allée is traditionally a straight route with a line of trees or large shrubs running along each side, which is used, as its French source venir ("to come") indicates, to emphasize the "coming to," or arrival at a landscape or architectural feature.

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Azores High

The Azores High (Anticiclone dos Açores) (also known as North Atlantic (Subtropical) High/Anticyclone or for short, NASH, the Bermuda-Azores High, or the Bermuda High/Anticyclone in the United States) is a large subtropical semi-permanent centre of high atmospheric pressure typically found south of the Azores in the Atlantic Ocean, at the Horse latitudes.

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Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith (fa Bahá'iyyat, بهائية Bahá'iyya In English, "Bahá'í" is pronounced with two syllables according to the on the Bahá'í World News Service Website (Bahá'í: Ba-HIGH). In Persian, بهائی is pronounced with three syllables. The exact realization of the English pronunciation varies. The Oxford English Dictionary has, Merriam-Webster has, and the Random House Dictionary has, all with three syllables. See and – A Guide to Pronunciation part 1 and 2, for more pronunciation instructions.) is a monotheistic religion which emphasizes the spiritual unity of all humankind.

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Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of Christian denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).

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Barbican, Plymouth

The Barbican is the name given to the western and northern sides of the old harbour area of Plymouth, Devon, England.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.

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BBC Online

BBC Online is the brand name and home for the BBC's UK online service.

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BBC Radio Devon

BBC Radio Devon is the BBC Local Radio service for the English county of Devon.

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BBC South West

BBC South West is the BBC English Region serving Cornwall, Devon, Isles of Scilly, southern and western Somerset, western Dorset and Channel Islands.

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Benjamin Haydon

Benjamin Robert Haydon (26 January 1786 – 22 June 1846) was an English painter who specialised in grand historical pictures, although he also painted a few contemporary subjects and portraits.

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Beryl Cook

Beryl Cook, OBE (10 September 192628 May 2008) was an English artist best known for her original and instantly recognisable paintings.

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Biochemical engineering

Biochemical engineering/ biotechnology engineering/bioprocess engineering is a branch of chemical engineering that mainly deals with the design and construction of unit processes that involve biological organisms or molecules, such as bioreactors.

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A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.

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Black British

Black British are British people of Black and African origins or heritage, including those of African-Caribbean (sometimes called "Afro-Caribbean") background, and may include people with mixed ancestry.

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In military science, a blockhouse is a small, isolated fort in the form of a single building.

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Boots UK

Boots UK Limited (formerly Boots the Chemist), trading as Boots, is a pharmacy chain in the United Kingdom and Ireland, with outlets in most high streets, shopping centres and airport terminals.

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A boulevard (French, from Bolwerk – bulwark, meaning bastion), often abbreviated Blvd, is a type of large road, usually running through a city.

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Brest, France

Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany in northwestern France.

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The Bretons are an ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.

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Britannia was the Roman and Greek term for the geographical region of Great Britain which was inhabited by the Britons and is the name given to the female personification of the island.

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British Asian

British Asians (also referred as South Asians in the United Kingdom, Asian British people or Asian Britons), are persons of Asian descent who resides in the United Kingdom.

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British Basketball League

The British Basketball League, often abbreviated to the BBL, is the premier men's professional basketball league in the United Kingdom.

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British Chinese

British Chinese (also known as Chinese British, Chinese Britons) (Chinese: 華僑, 华侨, Yīngguó Huáqiáo) are people of Chineseparticularly Han Chineseancestry who reside in the United Kingdom, constituting the second or third largest group of overseas Chinese in Europe apart from the Chinese diaspora in France and the overseas Chinese community in Russia.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.

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British Firework Championships

The British Firework Championships or National Firework Championships is an annual competition held in Plymouth, Devon, England, every August where judges review fireworks displays from professional fireworks companies and select the best examples.

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British Olympic Association

The British Olympic Association (BOA) is the National Olympic Committee for the United Kingdom.

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British Summer Time

During British Summer Time (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC+0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less.

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Brittany Ferries

Brittany Ferries is a French ferry company that runs ships between France and England, France and Ireland, France and Spain, and England and Spain.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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Burrator Reservoir

Burrator Reservoir is a reservoir on the south side of Dartmoor in the English county of Devon.

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Business improvement district

A business improvement district (BID) is a defined area within which businesses are required to pay an additional tax (or levy) in order to fund projects within the district's boundaries.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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Cattedown is an inner city suburb of Plymouth, Devon.

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The city of Plymouth, Devon, England is bounded by Dartmoor to the north, the Hamoaze to the west, the open expanse of water called Plymouth Sound to the south and the river Plym to the east.

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Cavalier was a name first used by Parliamentarians as a term of abuse for the wealthier male Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679).

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Cawsand and Kingsand are twin villages in southeast Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.

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Central Park, Plymouth

Plymouth's Central Park is a large centralised park situated to the north of Plymouth city centre in south west Devon, England, stretching north from the railway station to Pounds House, Peverell and west from Ford Park Cemetery to the A386 (Outland Road and Alma Road).

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Ceremonial counties of England

The ceremonial counties of England are areas to which a Lord Lieutenant is appointed.

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Charles Church, Plymouth

Charles Church is the second most ancient parish church in Plymouth, Devon in England.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory.

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Charles II of England

Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

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Charlie Chaplin

Sir Charles Spencer "Charlie" Chaplin, (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the silent era.

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Chris Axworthy

Christopher S. Axworthy, (born March 10, 1947, Plymouth, United KingdomRoberts, David. Why Chris Axworthy feels at home. The Globe and Mail. October 30, 1999. p. A22) is a Canadian politician.

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A city is a large and permanent human settlement.

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City College Plymouth

City College Plymouth is a tertiary institution and further education college in South West England having two main sites: the Goschen Centre in Keyham and the Kings Road Centre in Devonport, both in Plymouth, Devon.

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City status in the United Kingdom

City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities:, there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom – 51 in England, six in Wales, seven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland.

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Civic center

A civic center or civic centre is a prominent land area within a community that is constructed to be its focal point or center.

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Civil parishes in England

In England, a civil parish is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority.

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Classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom

A number of different systems of classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom exist.

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Clear and Present Danger (film)

Clear and Present Danger is a 1994 spy action thriller film directed by Phillip Noyce, based on Tom Clancy's book of the same name.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Cobblestones are stones that were frequently used in the pavement of early streets.

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Combined cycle

In electric power generation a combined cycle is an assembly of heat engines that work in tandem from the same source of heat, converting it into mechanical energy, which in turn usually drives electrical generators.

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Commander-in-Chief, Western Approaches

Commander-in-Chief, Western Approaches was the commander of a major operational command of the Royal Navy during World War II.

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Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.

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Constituent country

Constituent country is a term sometimes used in contexts in which a country makes up a part of a larger political entity, such as a sovereign state.

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Continuous Plankton Recorder

The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey is one of the longest running marine biological monitoring programmes in the world.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

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Cornish Main Line

The Cornish Main Line is a railway line in Cornwall in the United Kingdom.

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Cornwall (or; Kernow) is a ceremonial county and unitary authority area of England within the United Kingdom.

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Cosmo Jarvis

Harrison Cosmo Krikoryan Jarvis (born 1 September 1989), better known by his stage name Cosmo Jarvis, is an American-born English singer-songwriter, actor and filmmaker.

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Council house

A council house is a form of public or social housing built by local Municipalities.

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County borough

County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (excluding Scotland), to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council control.

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County court

A county court is a court based in or with a jurisdiction covering one or more counties, which are administrative divisions (subnational entities) within a country, not to be confused with the medieval system of county courts held by the High Sheriff of each county.

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Cremyll is a small coastal village in south-east Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.

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CrossCountry is a train operating company in the United Kingdom owned by Arriva UK Trains operating the New Cross Country franchise.

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Crown Court

The Crown Court of England and Wales is, together with the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal, one of the constituent parts of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.

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Crown Prosecution Service

The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) is the principal public prosecuting agency for conducting criminal prosecutions in England and Wales.

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Crownhill is an area of northern Plymouth, in the English county of Devon.

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Crownhill Fort

Crownhill Fort is a Royal Commission Fort built in the 1860s in Crownhill as part of Lord Palmerston's ring of land defences for Plymouth.

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Dartmoor is an area of moorland in south Devon, England.

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David Mackay (architect)

David Mackay (25 December 1933 in Eastbourne, Sussex – 12 November 2014, Barcelona) was a British architect and partner in MBM, an architecture firm based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

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David McKee

David McKee (born 2 January 1935) is a British writer and illustrator, chiefly of children's books and animations.

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Dawlish is a town and civil parish in Teignbridge on the south coast of Devon in England, from the county town of Exeter.

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Dawn French

Dawn Roma French (born 11 October 1957) is an English actress, writer, and comedian, best known for starring in and writing for the comedy sketch show French and Saunders with comedy partner Jennifer Saunders and for playing the lead role as Geraldine Granger in the sitcom The Vicar of Dibley.

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Demonym (δῆμος dẽmos 'people, tribe', ὄνομα ónoma 'name') is a recently created word that denotes terms that are used to identify natives or residents of a certain or specific place and which are derived from the name of that place.

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Derriford Hospital

Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust runs Derriford Hospital a large teaching hospital in Plymouth, England.

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Devon (archaically known as Devonshire) is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.

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Devon and Cornwall Police

Devon and Cornwall Police or Devon and Cornwall Constabulary, is the territorial police force responsible for policing the counties of Devon and Cornwall in England, including the unitary authorities of Plymouth, Torbay and the Isles of Scilly.

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Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service

Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering the counties of Devon and Somerset, including the unitary authorities of Plymouth and Torbay, in South West England.

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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic Era spanning from the end of the Silurian Period, about Mya (million years ago), to the beginning of the Carboniferous Period, about.

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Devonport High School for Boys

Devonport High School for Boys is a grammar school and academy, for boys aged 11 to 18, in Plymouth, Devon, England.

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Devonport High School for Girls

Devonport High School for Girls is a selective girls' state grammar school with academy status (ages 11–18) in Plymouth, England.

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Devonport Leat

The Devonport Leat was a leat constructed in the 1790s to carry fresh drinking water from the high ground of Dartmoor to the expanding dockyards at Devonport, Devon, England.

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Devonport Park

Devonport Park is a public park located in Devonport, Devon.

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Devonport, Plymouth

Devonport, formerly named Plymouth Dock or just Dock, is a district of Plymouth in the English county of Devon, although it was, at one time, the more important settlement.

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Diving Diseases Research Centre

DDRC Healthcare is a British hyperbaric medical organisation located near Derriford Hospital in Plymouth, Devon.

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Domesday Book

Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.

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Donald Moffat

Donald Moffat (born 26 December 1930) is an English actor, long based in the United States.

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Donald Sinden

Sir Donald Alfred Sinden CBE FRSA (9 October 1923 – 12 September 2014) was an English actor in theatre, film, television and radio as well as an author.

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Drake Circus Shopping Centre

Drake Circus Shopping Centre is a covered shopping mall in the centre of Plymouth, England, which opened in October 2006.

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Drake's Island

Drake's Island is a island lying in Plymouth Sound, the stretch of water south of the city of Plymouth, Devon, England.

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Drake's Leat

Drake's Leat, also known as Plymouth Leat, was a watercourse constructed in the late 16th century to tap the River Meavy on Dartmoor, England in order to supply Plymouth with water.

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Dysentery is an inflammation of the intestine causing diarrhea with blood.

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Eddystone Lighthouse

The Eddystone Lighthouse is on the dangerous Eddystone Rocks, south of Rame Head, England, United Kingdom.

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Efford is a large, mostly post-war, eastern suburb of Plymouth in the county of Devon, England.

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Elburton Villa F.C.

Elburton Villa Football Club is a football club based in Plymouth, England.

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English Civil War

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") in the Kingdom of England over, principally, the manner of its government.

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English Heritage

English Heritage (officially the English Heritage Trust) is a registered charity that looks after the National Heritage Collection.

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English people

The English are a nation and ethnic group native to England, who speak the English language.

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European Parliament

The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).

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Exeter is a historic city in Devon, England.

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Exeter International Airport

Exeter International Airport is an airport located at Clyst Honiton in the District of East Devon close to the city of Exeter and within the county of Devon, South West England.

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Exeter to Plymouth railway of the LSWR

The Exeter to Plymouth railway of the London and South Western Railway (LSWR) was the westernmost part of a route competing with that of the Great Western Railway (GWR) and its 'associated companies' from London and Exeter to Plymouth in Devon, England.

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First South West

First South West is a bus company operating services in the English counties of Somerset and Cornwall.

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Football League Two

Football League Two (often referred to as League Two for short or Sky Bet League 2 for sponsorship reasons) is the third-highest division of The Football League and fourth-highest division overall in the English football league system.

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Ford Park Cemetery

Ford Park Cemetery is a cemetery in central Plymouth, England, established by the Plymouth, Stonehouse & Devonport Cemetery Company in 1846 and opened in 1848.

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Foundation degree

A foundation degree is a vocational qualification in higher education, introduced by the government of the United Kingdom in September 2001, which is available in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

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Francis Drake

Sir Francis Drake, vice admiral (– 27 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan era.

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Frank Bickerton

Francis "Frank" Howard Bickerton (1889–1954) was a treasure-hunter, Antarctic explorer, soldier, aeronaut, entrepreneur, big-game hunter and movie-maker.

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Free improvisation

Free improvisation or free music is improvised music without any rules beyond the logic or inclination of the musician(s) involved.

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Further and Higher Education Act 1992

The Further and Higher Education Act 1992 made changes in the funding and administration of further education and higher education within England and Wales with consequential effects on associated matters in Scotland which had previously been governed by the same legislation as England and Wales.

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Garden city movement

The garden city movement is a method of urban planning that was initiated in 1898 by Sir Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom.

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Gary Streeter

Gary Nicholas Streeter (born 2 October 1955 in Gosport) is a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom.

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Gdynia (Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Geography (Ptolemy)

The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazeteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.

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Georgian architecture

Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1830.

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Gilbert & George

Gilbert Prousch, sometimes referred to as Gilbert Proesch (born 17 September 1943 in San Martin de Tor, Italy) and George Passmore (born 8 January 1942 in Plymouth, United Kingdom) are two artists who work together as a collaborative duo called Gilbert & George.

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Gin is a spirit which derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries (Juniperus communis).

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Grade I listed buildings in Plymouth

There are over 9,000 Grade I listed buildings in England.

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Grade II* listed buildings in Plymouth

There are over 20,000 Grade II* listed buildings in England.

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Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Great Western Railway (train operating company)

Great Western Railway (GWR) is a British train operating company owned by FirstGroup.

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Greenbank, Plymouth

Greenbank is part of the city of Plymouth in the county of Devon, England.

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Greenwich Mean Time

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.

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Gross value added

Gross value added (GVA) is the measure of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry or sector of an economy, in economics.

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Guano (via Spanish, ultimately from the Quechua wanu) is the excrement of seabirds, cave-dwelling bats, pinnipeds, or (in English usage) birds in general.

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The Hamoaze is an estuarine stretch of the tidal River Tamar, between its confluence with the River Lynher and Plymouth Sound, England.

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Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974

The Health and Safety at Work etc.

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Heart Plymouth

Heart Plymouth (formerly Plymouth Sound) was an Independent Local Radio station broadcasting to Plymouth in Devon, England.

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Hemsley Fraser

Hemsley Fraser is a learning and development company, with offices in the UK (London and Plymouth), the USA (Washington DC) and Australia (Brighton).

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Henning Larsen

Henning Larsen, Hon. FAIA (20 August 1925 – 22 June 2013) was a Danish architect.

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Henry VI of England

Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453.

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Her Majesty's Courts Service

Her Majesty's Courts Service (HMCS) was an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice (MoJ) and was responsible for the administration of the civil, family and criminal courts in England and Wales.

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Higher Education Statistics Agency

The Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) is the official agency for the collection, analysis and dissemination of quantitative information about higher education in the United Kingdom.

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Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city, a port, or similar).

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HMNB Devonport

Her Majesty's Naval Base, Devonport (HMNB Devonport), is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy (the others being HMNB Clyde and HMNB Portsmouth).

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Home Park

Home Park is an all-seater football stadium in the Central Park area of Plymouth, England, and is the home of Football League Two club Plymouth Argyle.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens (Latin: "wise man") is the binomial nomenclature (also known as the scientific name) for the human species.

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Hong Kong Observatory

The Hong Kong Observatory is a department of the Hong Kong government.

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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism, empiricism) over established doctrine or faith (fideism).

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Hundred (county division)

A hundred was an administrative division which was geographically part of a larger region; it was formerly used in England, Wales, South Australia, some parts of the United States, Denmark, Southern Schleswig, Sweden, Finland, Estonia and Norway.

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Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, rulers of the Kingdom of France, for control of the latter kingdom.

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Incendiary device

Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the period generally occurring after the Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron.

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ITV Wales & West

ITV Wales and West, previously known as HTV, refers to the Independent Television franchise area until 31 December 2013, licensed to a broadcaster by the regulator Ofcom.

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ITV West Country

ITV West Country, formerly known as ITV Westcountry and ITV West was (until 31 December 2013) a non-franchise ITV regional station covering South West England and incorporating the ITV West ('East') and ITV Westcountry regions.

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ITV Westcountry

ITV West Country, formerly known as Westcountry Television and Carlton Westcountry, is the ITV franchise holder for the South West of England, covering Cornwall, Devon, Isles of Scilly, southern and western Somerset and western Dorset.

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Jacobean architecture

The Jacobean style is the second phase of Renaissance architecture in England, following the Elizabethan style.

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Janner is an English regional nickname associated with Plymouth both as a noun and as an adjective for the local accent and colloquialisms.

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John (given name)

John is a masculine given name in the English language.

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John Foulston

John Foulston (1772 – 30 December 1841) was an English architect who was a pupil of Thomas Hardwick and set up a practice in London in 1796.

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John Hawkins (naval commander)

Admiral Sir John Hawkins (also spelled as Hawkyns) (1532 – 12 November 1595) was an English naval commander and administrator, merchant, navigator, shipbuilder, privateer and slave trader.

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John Rennie the Elder

John Rennie (7 June 1761 – 4 October 1821) was a Scottish civil engineer who designed many bridges, canals, and docks.

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John Smeaton

John Smeaton, FRS, (8 June 1724 – 28 October 1792) was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses.

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John Surman

John Douglas Surman (born 30 August 1944) is an English jazz saxophone, bass clarinet and synthesizer player, and composer of free jazz and modal jazz, often using themes from folk music as a basis.

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Joshua Reynolds

Sir Joshua Reynolds (16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an influential eighteenth-century English painter, specialising in portraits.

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Judi Trott

Judi Trott (born 11 November 1962 in Plymouth) is an English actress, best known for her portrayal of the Lady Marion of Leaford in the popular 1980s series Robin of Sherwood.

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Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.

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Köppen climate classification

Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Keith Rowe

Keith Rowe (born 16 March 1940 in Plymouth, England) is an English free improvisation tabletop guitarist and painter.

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Keyham, Devon

Keyham is a Victorian-built area of Plymouth in the English county of Devon.

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King Rollo

King Rollo was a children's character created by David McKee in 1979, starring in a series of books, animations (narrated by Ray Brooks), and a comic strip in the magazine Buttons.

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Kingsand (Porthruw) and Cawsand are twin villages in southeast Cornwall, United Kingdom.

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Kingsbridge is a market town and tourist hub in the South Hams district of Devon, England, with a population of about 5,800, increasing to 6,116 at the 2011 census.

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Labour Party (UK)

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

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Landmark Trust

The Landmark Trust is a British building conservation charity, founded in 1965 by Sir John and Lady Smith, that rescues buildings of historic interest or architectural merit and then makes them available for holiday rental.

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Langage Power Station

Langage Power Station is a combined-cycle power plant near the city of Plymouth in Devon, England.

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A leat (also lete or leet, or millstream) is the name, common in the south and west of England and in Wales (Lade in Scotland), for an artificial watercourse or aqueduct dug into the ground, especially one supplying water to a watermill or its mill pond.

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Lime (material)

Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic material in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides predominate.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Lipson is a ward in the city of Plymouth, England.

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List of English districts by population

List of the 326 districts of England (English Municipalities) by population, reported in June 2015 as the 2014 mid-year estimates from the Office for National Statistics.

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List of sovereign states

This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

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List of United Kingdom Parliament constituencies

There are 650 constituencies in the United Kingdom, each electing a single Member of Parliament to the House of Commons at least every five years.

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List of universities in the United Kingdom by enrollment

This is a list of universities and other higher education institutions in the United Kingdom by size of student population.

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List of urban areas in the United Kingdom

List of urban areas in the United Kingdom is a list of the most populous urban areas as at the 2011 census, as defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), although the basis for the sourced list (used for its ready availability of the data) is Citypopulation.de.

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List of wards in Plymouth

The city and unitary authority of Plymouth has 20 electoral wards.

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Listed building

A listed building, in the United Kingdom, is one that has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest.

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Local Government Act 1972

The Local Government Act 1972 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom that reformed local government in England and Wales on 1 April 1974.

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Local Government Commission for England (1992)

The Local Government Commission for England was the body responsible for reviewing the structure of local government in England from 1992 to 2002.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Lord Mayor

The lord mayor is the title of the mayor of a major city, with special recognition.

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Low-pressure area

A low-pressure area, low or depression, is a region where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations.

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The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the German Wehrmacht during World War II.

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Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969), a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President (1961–1963).

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M.I.M.E.O. (or MIMEO) is an experimental electroacoustic free improvisation group formed in 1997 on the initiative of several independent concert promoters in Europe.

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M5 motorway

The M5 is a motorway in England.

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Magistrates' court (England and Wales)

In England and Wales, a magistrates' court is a lower court, where all the criminal proceedings start.

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Manadon is an area in Plymouth, Devon, England.

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Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (MBA) is a learned society with a scientific laboratory that undertakes research in marine biology.

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Mayflower Steps

The Mayflower Steps are close to the site in the Barbican area of Plymouth, south-west England, from which the Pilgrim Fathers are believed to have finally left England aboard the Mayflower, before crossing the Atlantic Ocean to settle in North America on 6 September 1620.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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Met Office

The Met Office (officially the Meteorological Office until 2000) is the United Kingdom's national weather service.

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Methodist Church of Great Britain

The Methodist Church (also called yr Eglwys Fethodistaidd in Welsh) is the largest Wesleyan Methodist body and fourth largest Christian denomination in the United Kingdom, with congregations across Great Britain (although more limited in Scotland).

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Michael Foot

Michael Mackintosh Foot FRSL (23 July 1913 – 3 March 2010) was a British Labour Party politician and man of letters who was a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1945 to 1955 and from 1960 until 1992.

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Milehouse is a late Victorian and 1930s suburb of Plymouth.

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Millbay, also known as Millbay Docks, is an area of dockland in Plymouth, Devon, England.

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Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)

The Ministry of Defence (MoD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government, and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.

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Mixed (United Kingdom ethnicity category)

Mixed is an ethnicity category that has been used by the United Kingdom's Office for National Statistics since the 1991 Census.

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Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Motorcycle speedway

Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit.

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Mount Batten

Mount Batten is a 24-metre-tall outcrop of rock on a 600-metre peninsula in Plymouth Sound, Devon, England, named after William Batten.

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Mr Benn

Mr Benn is a character created by David McKee who appears in several children's books, and an animated television series of the same name originally transmitted by the BBC in 1971 and 1972.

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MV Armorique

The MV Armorique is a passenger and freight ferry built for Brittany Ferries by STX Europe in Finland at a cost of £81 million (€110 million).

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MV Bretagne

MV Bretagne is a ferry operated by Brittany Ferries.

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MV Pont-Aven

M/V Pont-Aven is a cruiseferry operated by Brittany Ferries.

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Nancy Astor, Viscountess Astor

Nancy Witcher Langhorne Astor, Viscountess Astor, CH (19 May 1879 – 2 May 1964) was the first female Member of Parliament to take her seat.

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National Grid (Great Britain)

The National Grid is the high-voltage electric power transmission network in Great Britain, connecting power stations and major substations and ensuring that electricity generated anywhere in England, Scotland and Wales can be used to satisfy demand elsewhere.

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National Health Service

The four publicly funded health care systems in the countries of the United Kingdom are referred to as the National Health Service (NHS).

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National Health Service (England)

The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded healthcare system for England.

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National Marine Aquarium, Plymouth

The National Marine Aquarium is a marine aquarium on reclaimed land in the city of Plymouth, England, in Sutton Harbour, next to the Barbican and fishmarket.

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National Rail


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National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty

The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as the National Trust, is a conservation organisation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

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Natural England

Natural England is the non-departmental public body of the UK government responsible for ensuring that England's natural environment, including its land, flora and fauna, freshwater and marine environments, geology and soils, are protected and improved.

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Neoclassical architecture

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.

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Network Rail

Network Rail is the owner and infrastructure manager of most of the rail network in England, Scotland and Wales, having taken over from previous owner Railtrack in 2002.

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New World

The New World is one of the names used for the Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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Newquay Cornwall Airport

Newquay Cornwall Airport is the main commercial airport for Cornwall, in South West England, UK, located at Mawgan in Pydar northeast of Newquay on Cornwall's north coast.

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NHS trust

A National Health Service trust is a division within the English NHS generally serving either a geographical area (commonly the nominal service area of a hospital) or a specialised function (such as an ambulance service).

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Non-League football

Non-League football is football in England played at a level below that of the Premier League and the three divisions of The Football League.

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Normandy landings

The Normandy landings (codenamed Operation Neptune) were the landing operations on 6 June 1944 (termed D-Day) of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.

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Novorossiysk (p) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia.

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Nuclear submarine

A nuclear submarine is a submarine powered by a nuclear reactor.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic climate (also known as marine, west coast and maritime) is the climate typical of the west coasts at the middle latitudes of most continents, and generally features warm (but not hot) summers and cool (but not cold) winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range.

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Office for National Statistics

The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.

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Office of Public Sector Information

The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Oldest synagogues in the world

The designation oldest synagogue in the world requires careful definition.

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Oliver Colvile

Oliver Newton Colvile (born 26 August 1959) is the current Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) for Plymouth Sutton & Devonport; he won the seat from the Labour candidate Linda Gilroy at the 2010 General Election.

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Open University

The Open University (OU) is a public distance learning and research university, and one of the biggest universities in the UK for undergraduate education.

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Ordnance datum

In the British Isles, an ordnance datum or OD is a vertical datum used by an ordnance survey as the basis for deriving altitudes on maps.

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Ordnance Survey

Ordnance Survey (OS) is the national mapping agency for Great Britain and is one of the world's largest producers of maps.

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Palace Theatre, Plymouth

The Palace Theatre is a disused theatre in Union Street, Plymouth, Devon in south west England.

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Palmerston Forts

The Palmerston Forts are a group of forts and associated structures, around the coast of Britain.

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A pannier is a basket, bag, box, or similar container, carried in pairs either slung over the back of a beast of burden, or attached to the sides of a bicycle or motorcycle.

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Park and ride

Park-and-ride (or incentive parking) facilities are car parks with public transport connections that allow commuters and other people headed to city centres to leave their vehicles and transfer to a bus, rail system (rapid transit, light rail, or commuter rail), or carpool for the remainder of the journey.

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A parkway is a broad, landscaped highway thoroughfare.

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Parliament of England

The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the UK Parliament or the British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories.

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Patrick Abercrombie

Sir Leslie Patrick Abercrombie (6 June 1879, Ashton upon Mersey – 23 March 1957, Aston Tirrold, Didcot, Berkshire (now in Oxfordshire)) was an English town planner.

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Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry

Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry (PCMD) was a Medical and Dental school in England, run in partnership with the University of Exeter, the University of Plymouth and the.

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A phosphate (PO43−) as an inorganic chemical is a salt of phosphoric acid.

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Pilgrim Fathers

Pilgrims is a name commonly applied to early settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts, United States, with the men commonly called Pilgrim Fathers.

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Pipe rolls

The Pipe rolls, sometimes called the Great rolls,Brown Governance pp.

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Pirate FM

Pirate FM is one of the Independent Local Radio stations for Cornwall, playing a range of music from the 1960s to the present day.

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PL postcode area

The PL postcode area, also known as the Plymouth postcode area, is a group of postcode districts around Bodmin, Boscastle, Callington, Calstock, Camelford, Delabole, Fowey, Gunnislake, Ivybridge, Launceston, Lifton, Liskeard, Looe, Lostwithiel, Padstow, Par, Plymouth, Port Isaac, Saltash, St Austell, Tavistock, Tintagel, Torpoint, Wadebridge and Yelverton in England.

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Plymouth Admirals

The Plymouth Admirals were an American Football team who competed in the British American Football League (BAFL) up until 2010.

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Plymouth Albion R.F.C.

Plymouth Albion Rugby Football Club are a rugby union club who play in Plymouth, England.

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Plymouth Argyle F.C.

Plymouth Argyle Football Club is an English professional football club, based in Plymouth, Devon, that plays in Football League Two.

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Plymouth Arts Centre

Plymouth Arts Centre is a centre for contemporary art, independent cinema and creative learning based in the Barbican area of Plymouth, UK.

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Plymouth Blitz

The Plymouth Blitz was a series of bombing raids carried out by the Nazi German Luftwaffe on the English city of Plymouth in the Second World War.

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Plymouth Breakwater

Plymouth Breakwater is a stone breakwater protecting Plymouth Sound and the anchorages near Plymouth, Devon, England.

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Plymouth Brethren

The Plymouth Brethren are a conservative, low church, nonconformist, Evangelical Christian movement, whose history can be traced to Dublin, Ireland, in the late 1820s, originating from Anglicanism.

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Plymouth City Airport

Plymouth City Airport is a 'mothballed' airport located within the City of Plymouth north northeast of the city centre in Devon, England at Roborough.

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Plymouth City Council

Plymouth City Council is the unitary authority for Plymouth, Devon.

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Plymouth City Council election, 2012

Elections to Plymouth City Council took place on 3 May 2012, the same day as other United Kingdom local elections, 2012.

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Plymouth City Museum and Art Gallery

Plymouth City Museum and Art Gallery in the Drake Circus area of Plymouth, Devon, England is the largest museum and art gallery in the city.

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Plymouth Citybus

Plymouth Citybus Plymouth Citybus Limited is a bus operator in Plymouth.

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Plymouth College

Plymouth College is a co-educational independent school in Plymouth, Devon, England, for day and boarding pupils from the ages of 3 to 18.

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Plymouth College of Art

Plymouth College of Art - formerly called Plymouth College of Art and Design - is a specialist arts college located in Plymouth, England.

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Plymouth Colony

Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth, or Plymouth Bay Colony) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691.

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Plymouth Cricket Club

Plymouth Cricket Club is a cricket club who have four teams playing in the Devon Cricket League.

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Plymouth Devils

The Plymouth Devils are a speedway team in the British Premier League.

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Plymouth Gin

Plymouth Gin is a Protected Geographical Indication that pertains to any gin distilled in Plymouth, England.

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Plymouth Gin Distillery

The Plymouth Gin Distillery in The Barbican, Plymouth, England has been in operation since 1793 and used to be a significant manufacturer of gin in the UK.

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Plymouth High School for Girls

Plymouth High School for Girls (PHSG) is a girls' grammar school founded in 1874.

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Plymouth Hoe

Plymouth Hoe, referred to locally as the Hoe, is a large south facing open public space in the English coastal city of Plymouth.

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Plymouth Marine Laboratory

Plymouth Marine Laboratory (sometimes referred to as PML) in the city of Plymouth, England is an independent collaborative centre of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).

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Plymouth Minster

The Minster Church of St Andrew, also known as St Andrew's Church, Plymouth is an Anglican church in Plymouth.

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Plymouth Moor View (UK Parliament constituency)

Plymouth, Moor View is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Plymouth Naval Memorial

The Plymouth Naval Memorial is a war memorial in Devon, England to British and Commonwealth sailors who were lost in the World Wars.

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Plymouth Parkway F.C.

Plymouth Parkway Football Club is a football club based in Plymouth, Devon, England.

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Plymouth Pavilions

Plymouth Pavilions is an entertainment and sports complex in Plymouth, Devon, England.

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Plymouth Raiders

Plymouth Raiders is a professional basketball team based in Plymouth, England.

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Plymouth railway station

Plymouth railway station serves the city of Plymouth, Devon, England.

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Plymouth Sound

Plymouth Sound, or locally just The Sound, is a bay on the English Channel at Plymouth in England.

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Plymouth Sound, Shores and Cliffs

Plymouth Sound, Shores and Cliffs is a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) around the Plymouth Sound, a large area of water where the River Plym and Tamar meet.

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Plymouth Sutton (UK Parliament constituency)

Plymouth, Sutton was, from 1918 until 2010, a borough constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Plymouth Sutton and Devonport (UK Parliament constituency)

Plymouth, Sutton and Devonport is a borough constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Plymouth Synagogue

The Plymouth Synagogue is a synagogue in the city of Plymouth, England.

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Plymouth University

Plymouth University is a public university in the South West of England, with over 26,900 students and is 15th largest in the United Kingdom by total number of students (including the Open University).

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Plymouth, Massachusetts

Plymouth /ˈplɪməθ/ (historically known as Plimouth and Plimoth) is a town in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, United States.

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Plympton, or Plympton Maurice or Plympton St Maurice or Plympton St Mary or Plympton Erle, in south-western Devon, is a populous, north-eastern suburb of the city of Plymouth of which it officially became part, along with Plymstock, in 1967.

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Plymstock is a civil parish and commuter suburb of Plymouth in the English county of Devon.

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Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.

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Postcodes in the United Kingdom

Postal codes used in the United Kingdom are known as postcodes (originally postal codes).

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Pound sterling

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known simply as the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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Prefabricated home

Prefabricated homes, often referred to as prefab homes or simply prefabs, are specialist dwelling types of prefabricated building, which are manufactured off-site in advance, usually in standard sections that can be easily shipped and assembled.

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Premier League (speedway)

The Premier League is the second tier of speedway in the United Kingdom and governed by The Speedway Control Bureau (SCB), in conjunction with the British Speedway Promoters' Association (BSPA).

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Prepared guitar

A prepared guitar is a guitar that has had its timbre altered by placing various objects on or between the instrument's strings, including other extended techniques.

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Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, literally the "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico"), is a United States territory located in the northeastern Caribbean.

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Radio Plymouth

Radio Plymouth is an independent commercial radio station broadcasting from the Devon city of Plymouth.

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Regions of England

In England, the region is the highest tier of sub-national division used by Her Majesty's Government.

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Restoration (England)

The Restoration of the English monarchy began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.

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River Meavy

The river Meavy is a river in Dartmoor in Devon in south-west England.

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River Plym

The River Plym is a river in Devon, England.

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River Tamar

The Tamar (Dowr Tamar) is a river in south west England, that forms most of the border between Devon (to the east) and Cornwall (to the west).

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Robert Adam

Robert Adam (3 July 1728 – 3 March 1792) was a Scottish neoclassical architect, interior designer and furniture designer.

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Robert Falcon Scott

Captain Robert Falcon Scott, CVO, RN (6 June 1868 – 29 March 1912) was an English Royal Navy officer and explorer who led two expeditions to the Antarctic regions: the Discovery Expedition, 1901–04, and the ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition, 1910–13.

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Robert Lenkiewicz

Robert Oscar Lenkiewicz (31 December 1941 – 5 August 2002) was one of South West England's most celebrated artists of modern times.

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Roborough is a village in the South Hams of Devon, England.

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Roborough Hundred

The hundred of Roborough was the name of one of thirty two ancient administrative units of Devon, England.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Ron Goodwin

Ronald Alfred "Ron" Goodwin (17 February 19258 January 2003) was an English composer and conductor known for his film music.

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Roscoff is a commune in the Finistère département of Brittany in northwestern France.

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Rough Guides

Rough Guides Ltd is a travel guidebook and reference publisher, owned by Penguin Random House.

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Roundhead was the name given to the supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War.

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Royal Academy of Arts

The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London.

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Royal Australian Air Force

The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), formed March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force.

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Royal Citadel, Plymouth

The Royal Citadel in Plymouth, Devon, England, was built in the late 1660s to the design of Sir Bernard de Gomme.

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Royal Marines

The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the United Kingdom's amphibious light infantry force, forming part of the Naval Service, along with the Royal Navy.

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Royal National Lifeboat Institution

The Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) is the largest charity that saves lives at sea around the coasts of the UK, Ireland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man as well as on some inland waterways.

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Royal Naval Engineering College

The Royal Naval Engineering College was a specialist establishment for the training of Royal Navy engineers.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's principal naval warfare force.

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Rugby union

Rugby union, or simply rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.

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Saint-Malo (Gallo: Saent-Malô) is a walled port city in Brittany in northwestern France on the English Channel.

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Saltash (Essa) is a town and civil parish in southeast Cornwall, England, UK.

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Saltash Bells

Saltash Bells is a solo album by the English saxophonist John Surman, recorded in 2009 and released on the ECM label in 2012.

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Saltram House

Saltram House is a George II era mansion located in Plympton, Plymouth, England.

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San Sebastián

San Sebastián (Saint-Sébastien) or Donostia is a coastal city and municipality located in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain.

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Santander, Spain

The port city of Santander is the capital of the autonomous community and historical region of Cantabria situated on the north coast of Spain.

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Scapa Flow

Scapa Flow viewed from its eastern end Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray,S.

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Severn-class lifeboat

At long, the Severn-class is the largest lifeboat operated by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI).

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Sharron Davies

Sharron Elizabeth Davies MBE (born 1 November 1962) is a retired swimmer from the United Kingdom.

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Shellfish is a culinary and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.

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Short Sunderland

The Short S.25 Sunderland was a British flying boat patrol bomber developed for the Royal Air Force (RAF) by Short Brothers.

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Sir Richard Grenville, 1st Baronet

Sir Richard Grenville, 1st Baronet (or Granville) (1600–1658) was a Cornish Royalist leader during the English Civil War.

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Site of Special Scientific Interest

A Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) (Area of Special Scientific Interest or ASSI in Northern Ireland) is a conservation designation denoting a protected area in the United Kingdom.

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Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism.

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Smeaton's Tower

Smeaton's Tower is the third and most notable Eddystone Lighthouse.

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Sodium nitrate

Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.

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South Devon Railway sea wall

The South Devon Railway sea wall is situated on the south coast of Devon in England.

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South West Devon (UK Parliament constituency)

South West Devon is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 1997 by Gary Streeter, a Conservative.

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South West England

South West England is one of nine official regions of England.

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South West England (European Parliament constituency)

South West England (Dychow-houlsedhas Pou an Zouzn), sometimes known as South West England and Gibraltar is a constituency of the European Parliament.

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South West of England Regional Development Agency

The South West of England Regional Development Agency (SWRDA) was one of the nine Regional Development Agencies set up by government in 1999.

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South West Peninsula League

The South West Peninsula League is a league of football clubs in England, which was formed in 2007 from the merger of the Devon County League and the South Western League.

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South West Water

South West Water provides drinking water and waste water services throughout Cornwall and Devon and in small areas of Dorset and Somerset.

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South Western Ambulance Service

The South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust (SWASFT) is the organisation responsible for providing ambulance services for the National Health Service (NHS) across South West England (the counties and unitary authorities of Bristol, Bath and North East Somerset, Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Gloucestershire, North Somerset, the Isles of Scilly, Somerset, South Gloucestershire and Wiltshire).

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Spanish Armada

The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada, literally "Great and Most Fortunate Navy") was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in August 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.

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Stirling Prize

The Royal Institute of British Architects Stirling Prize is a British prize for excellence in architecture.

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Stoke, Plymouth

Stoke, also referred to by its earlier name of Stoke Damerel, is a parish, that was once part of the historical Devonport, England; this was prior to 1914.

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Stonehouse, Plymouth

East Stonehouse was one of three towns that were amalgamated into modern-day Plymouth.

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In ecology, sustainability is the capacity to endure; it is how biological systems remain diverse and productive indefinitely.

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Tamar Bridge

The Tamar Bridge is a major road bridge at Saltash and Plymouth in southwest England carrying traffic between Cornwall and Devon over the River Tamar.

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Tamar Science Park

Tamar Science Park Plymouth Science Park is a science and technology park located in Plymouth, in southern England.

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Tamar Valley Line

The Tamar Valley Line is a railway line from Plymouth, Devon, to Gunnislake, Cornwall, in England, UK, also known as the Gunnislake Branch Line.

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Tavistock, Devon

Tavistock is an ancient stannary and market town within West Devon, England.

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Teacher education

Teacher education refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school and wider community.

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The Brickfields

The Brickfields is a sports stadium in Devonport, England.

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The Crown

In jurisprudence in the Commonwealth realms, the Crown dependencies, and any of a realm's provincial or state sub-divisions, the Crown is the state in all its aspects.

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The Football Association

The Football Association, also known simply as The FA, is the governing body of football in England, and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man.

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The Herald (Plymouth)

The Herald is Local World's Plymouth-based newspaper, serving Plymouth and the surrounding communities of West Devon, South East Cornwall and parts of the South Hams.

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The National Archives (United Kingdom)

The National Archives (TNA) is an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice of the United Kingdom.

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The Plymouth Athenaeum

The Plymouth Athenaeum, located in Plymouth, England, is a society dedicated to the promotion of learning in the fields of science, technology, literature and art.

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The Right Stuff (film)

The Right Stuff is a 1983 American drama film that was adapted from Tom Wolfe's best-selling 1979 book of the same name about the Navy, Marine and Air Force test pilots who were involved in aeronautical research at Edwards Air Force Base, California, as well as the seven military pilots who were selected to be the astronauts for Project Mercury, the first manned spaceflight by the United States.

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Theatre Royal, Plymouth

The Theatre Royal, in Plymouth, Devon, England is "the largest and best attended regional producing theatre in the UK and the leading promoter of theatre in the south west", according to Arts Council England.

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Three Towns

The Three Towns is a term used to refer to the neighbouring towns of Plymouth, Devonport and East Stonehouse in the county of Devon, England.

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Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (for stannum) and atomic number 50.

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Tinside Pool

Tinside Pool is a unique 1935 Art Deco lido in the city of Plymouth in south-west England.

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Tom Daley

Thomas Robert "Tom" Daley (born 21 May 1994) is an English diver and television personality.

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Torpoint (Penntorr) is a civil parish and town on the Rame Peninsula in southeast Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.

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Torpoint Ferry

The Torpoint Ferry is a car and pedestrian chain ferry, connecting the A374 road which crosses the Hamoaze, a stretch of water at the mouth of the River Tamar, between Devonport in Plymouth and Torpoint in Cornwall.

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Trematon Castle

Trematon Castle is situated near Saltash in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.

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Trevor Francis

Trevor John Francis (born 19 April 1954 in Plymouth, England), is a former footballer who won the European Cup with Nottingham Forest and played for England 52 times.

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Tungsten, also known as wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W and atomic number 74.

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Turner Prize

The Turner Prize, named after the painter J. M. W. Turner, is an annual prize presented to a British visual artist under the age of 50.

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Twin towns and sister cities

Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal and social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

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Union Street, Plymouth

Union Street in Plymouth, Devon, is a long straight street connecting the city centre to Devonport, the site of Plymouth's naval base and docks.

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Unitarianism is a Christian theological movement named for the affirmation that God is one entity, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism, which defines God as three persons in one being.

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Unitary authority

A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are usually performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national government.

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United Kingdom Census 2001

A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001.

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United Kingdom Census 2011

A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years.

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United Kingdom general election, 2015

The United Kingdom general election of 2015 was held on 7 May 2015 to elect the 56th Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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University of Exeter

The University of Exeter is a public research university located in Exeter, South West England, United Kingdom.

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University of Pennsylvania Press

The University of Pennsylvania Press (or Penn Press) is a university press affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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University of Southampton

The University of Southampton (occasionally abbreviated as Soton) is a public research university located in Southampton, England.

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University of St Mark & St John

The University of St Mark & St John is based in the coastal city of Plymouth, England.

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Upper Paleolithic

The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Urban district (Great Britain and Ireland)

In England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and the Republic of Ireland, an urban district was a type of local government district that covered an urbanised area.

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Vagrancy (people)

A vagrant or a vagabond is a person, often in poverty, who wanders from place to place without a home or regular employment or income.

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Victoria Park, Millbridge, Plymouth

Victoria Park in Millbridge in Plymouth is a small recreational area.

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Vue Cinemas

Vue Entertainment (stylised as vue), formerly SBC International Cinemas, is a cinema company operating in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.

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Waldorf Astor, 2nd Viscount Astor

Waldorf Astor, 2nd Viscount Astor DL (19 May 1879 – 30 September 1952) was an American-born English politician and newspaper proprietor.

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Ward (electoral subdivision)

A ward is a subdivision of a local authority area, typically used for electoral purposes.

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Wayback Machine

The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet created by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization, based in San Francisco, California.

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Wayne Sleep

Wayne Philip Colin Sleep OBE (born 17 July 1948) is a British dancer, director, choreographer, actor and panellist.

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West Dart River

The West Dart River is one of the two main tributaries of the River Dart in Devon, England.

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Western Morning News

The Western Morning News is a daily regional newspaper founded in 1860, and covering Devon, Cornwall and parts of Somerset and Dorset.

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Western Power Distribution

Western Power Distribution is the trading identity of four electricity distribution companies - WPD South West (operating in South West England), WPD South Wales (operating in South Wales) and WPD Midlands (operating in East Midlands and West Midlands).

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Weston Mill, Plymouth

Weston Mill is a district in the ward of Ham, which is part of the City of Plymouth, Devon, England.

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White people

White people is a racial classification specifier, depending on context used for people of Caucasian ancestry.

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Whitsand Bay

Whitsand Bay, situated in south east Cornwall, England, United Kingdom runs from Rame Head in the east to Portwrinkle in the west.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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William Cookworthy

He was born of Quaker parents in Kingsbridge, Devon on 12 April 1705.

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William Elford Leach

William Elford Leach, MD, FRS (2 February 1791 – 25 August 1836) was an English zoologist and marine biologist.

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William Henry Wills (journalist)

William Henry Wills JP (13 January 1810 – 1 September 1880) was a British journalist, playwright, a newspaper editor and a close friend and confidant of the author Charles Dickens, who entrusted Wills with the task of forwarding his letters to his mistress Ellen Ternan.

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Winter of 2009–10 in Europe

The winter of 2009–2010 in Europe was unusually cold.

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World War I

World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.

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Zoning describes the control by authority of the use of land, and of the buildings thereon.

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29th Commando Regiment Royal Artillery

29 Commando Regiment is the Commando-trained unit of the British Army's Royal Artillery.

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42 Commando

42 commando is a subordinate unit within 3 Commando Brigade, the principal Commando formation, under the Operational Command of Commander in Chief Fleet.

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Redirects here:

Bretonside Bus Station, City of Plymouth, County Borough of Plymouth, Derriford, Derriford, Devon, England Plymouth, Knackersknowle, Old Plymouth, Pennycross, Pennycross Primary School, Pennycross primary, Pleimuiden, Plymoth, Plymouth (city, England), Plymouth (district), Plymouth Black Friary, Plymouth Borough Council, Plymouth Devon, Plymouth Dock, Plymouth England, Plymouth Grey Friary, Plymouth UA, Plymouth White Friary, Plymouth, Devon, Plymouth, Devonshire, Plymouth, England, Plymouth, United Kingdom, The weather in Plymouth, West Park, Plymouth.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plymouth

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