294 relations: Acute bronchitis, Acute interstitial pneumonitis, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Adenoviridae, Agranulocyte, Air pollution, Albert Fraenkel (1848–1916), Alcoholism, Altered level of consciousness, Amantadine, Aminoglycoside, Amniotic fluid, Amoxicillin, Anaerobic organism, Analgesic, Antibiotic, Antibody, Antigen, Antimicrobial resistance, Antiviral drug, Arthralgia, Ascaris lumbricoides, Aspiration pneumonia, Asplenia, Asthma, Atelectasis, Auscultation, Autoimmune disease, Avian influenza, Azithromycin, Bacteria, Blood culture, Blood pressure, Blood test, British Thoracic Society, Bronchiectasis, Bronchiolitis obliterans, Bronchoalveolar lavage, Bronchopulmonary segment, Bronchus, C-reactive protein, Carbapenem, Carl Friedländer, Cefazolin, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Cephalosporin, Cervical lymphadenopathy, Chemical pneumonitis, Chemotherapy, ..., Chest pain, Chest physiotherapy, Chest radiograph, Chest tube, Chills, Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chronic condition, Chronic kidney disease, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Clarithromycin, Clindamycin, Coccidioides immitis, Coccidioidomycosis, Colonisation (biology), Community-acquired pneumonia, Complement system, Complete blood count, Coronavirus, Corticosteroid, Cough, Cough medicine, Coxiella burnetii, Crackles, Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, CT scan, CURB-65, Cyanosis, Cystic fibrosis, Cytokine, Cytomegalovirus, Decortication, Desquamative interstitial pneumonia, Developed country, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Dialysis, Diarrhea, Diffuse alveolar damage, Doxycycline, Drug resistance, Edwin Klebs, Electrocardiography, Electrolyte, Empiric therapy, Empyema, Eosinophilic, Eosinophilic pneumonia, Erythromycin, Feces, Feeding tube, FER (gene), Fever, Fungal pneumonia, Fungus, Glottis, Gram stain, Gram-negative bacteria, H2 antagonist, Haemophilus influenzae, Hand washing, Hans Christian Gram, Health care, Heart failure, Heat and moisture exchanger, Hemoptysis, Herpes simplex virus, Hippocrates, Histoplasmosis, HIV/AIDS, Home care, Hospital, Hospital-acquired infection, Hospital-acquired pneumonia, Human parainfluenza viruses, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Humidifier, Hypotension, Hypoxemia, Immunodeficiency, Immunosuppression, Immunosuppressive drug, Infant, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Inflammation, Influenza, Influenza A virus, Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, Influenza vaccine, Influenza-like illness, Influenzavirus B, Inhalation, Intensive care unit, Interstitial lung disease, Interventional radiology, Intravenous therapy, Β-lactam antibiotic, John Bunyan, Klebsiella, Legionella, Legionella pneumophila, Legionnaires' disease, List of causes of death by rate, Liver disease, Liver function tests, Lobar pneumonia, Lung, Lung abscess, Lung cancer, Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, Macrolide, Macrophage, Maimonides, Malnutrition, Measles vaccine, Mechanical ventilation, Meconium, Medical ultrasound, Medication, Metastasis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Metronidazole, Microbiological culture, Microorganism, Middle Ages, Mississippi embayment, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mucokinetics, Multiple drug resistance, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Myocardial infarction, Nasopharyngeal swab, Neuraminidase inhibitor, Neutrophil, Non-specific interstitial pneumonia, North America, Nursing home care, Obesity, Occult, Ogg, Opportunistic infection, Organ (anatomy), Organ transplantation, Orthohantavirus, Orthomyxoviridae, Oseltamivir, Otitis media, Oxygen saturation (medicine), Oxygen therapy, Paragonimus westermani, Parapneumonic effusion, Parasitism, Parenchyma, Penicillin, Peramivir, Percussion (medicine), Pertussis vaccine, Phlegm, Physical examination, Plasmodium malariae, Pleural cavity, Pleural effusion, Pleural empyema, Pleurisy, Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Pneumococcal pneumonia, Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, Pneumocystis jirovecii, Pneumocystis pneumonia, Pneumonia, Pneumonia severity index, Pneumonitis, Polymerase chain reaction, Procalcitonin, Proton-pump inhibitor, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pulmonary alveolus, Pulmonary aspiration, Pulmonary consolidation, Pulmonary edema, Pulmonary embolism, Pulmonology, Pulse, Pulse oximetry, Quinolone antibiotic, Rapid influenza diagnostic test, Respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease, Respiratory rate, Rhinovirus, Rimantadine, Saunders (imprint), Sensitivity and specificity, Sepsis, Severe acute respiratory syndrome, Shortness of breath, Smoking, Smoking cessation, Southwestern United States, Sputum, Sputum culture, Staphylococcus aureus, Stethoscope, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Stroke, Strongyloides stercoralis, Superinfection, Surgery, Surgical mask, Tachycardia, Tachypnea, Thoracentesis, TLR6, Toxoplasma gondii, Tracheal intubation, Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, Tuberculosis, Upper respiratory tract infection, Usual interstitial pneumonia, Vaccination, Vaccine, Vancomycin, Varicella vaccine, Ventilator-associated pneumonia, Viral culture, Viral pneumonia, Virulence, Virus, Vital signs, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vocal resonation, Volume expander, Wheeze, White blood cell, William Osler, World Health Organization, World Pneumonia Day, Zanamivir, Zinc. 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Acute bronchitis, also known as a chest cold, is short-term inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) of the lungs.
Acute interstitial pneumonitis (also known as acute interstitial pneumonia or Hamman–Rich syndrome) is a rare, severe lung disease that usually affects otherwise healthy individuals.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical condition occurring in critically ill or critically wounded patients characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs.
Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.
Agranulocytes, also known as mononuclear leukocytes, are white blood cells with a one-lobed nucleus.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Albert Fraenkel (10 March 1848, Frankfurt/Oder – 6 July 1916, Berlin) was a German physician.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.
Amantadine (trade name Symmetrel, by Endo Pharmaceuticals) is a medication that has U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for use both as an antiviral and an antiparkinsonian medication.
Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial therapeutic agents that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar); the term can also refer more generally to any organic molecule that contains aminosugar substructures.
The amniotic fluid is the protective liquid contained by the amniotic sac of a gravid Amniote.
Amoxicillin, also spelled amoxycillin, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain; it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in particular arthritis) or an allergic reaction to medication.
Ascaris lumbricoides is the "large roundworm" of humans, growing to a length of up to.
Aspiration pneumonia is a type of lung infection that is due to a relatively large amount of material from the stomach or mouth entering the lungs.
Asplenia refers to the absence of normal spleen function and is associated with some serious infection risks.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Atelectasis is the collapse or closure of a lung resulting in reduced or absent gas exchange.
Auscultation (based on the Latin verb auscultare "to listen") is listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Avian influenza—known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds.
Azithromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Blood culture is a microbiological culture of blood.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
The British Thoracic Society (BTS) was formed in 1982 by the amalgamation of the British Thoracic Association and the Thoracic Society.
Bronchiectasis is a disease in which there is permanent enlargement of parts of the airways of the lung.
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), informally known as popcorn lung, is a disease that results in obstruction of the smallest airways of the lungs (bronchioles) due to inflammation.
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL; informally, "bronchoalveolar washing") is a medical procedure in which a bronchoscope is passed through the mouth or nose into the lungs and fluid is squirted into a small part of the lung and then collected for examination.
A bronchopulmonary segment is a portion of lung supplied by a specific tertiary bronchus (also called a segmental bronchus) and arteries.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation.
Carbapenems are a class of highly effective antibiotic agents commonly used for the treatment of severe or high-risk bacterial infections.
Carl Friedländer (19 November 1847, Brieg (Brzeg), Silesia – 13 May 1887, Meran (Merano), County of Tyrol) was a German pathologist and microbiologist who helped discover the bacterial cause of pneumonia in 1882.
Cefazolin, also known as cefazoline and cephazolin, is an antibiotic used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), previously known as the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), is a federal agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) that administers the Medicare program and works in partnership with state governments to administer Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and health insurance portability standards.
The cephalosporins (sg.) are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".
93-231700-6 service name number Cervical lymphadenopathy refers to lymphadenopathy of the cervical lymph nodes (the glands in the neck).
Chemical pneumonitis is inflammation of the lung caused by aspirating or inhaling irritants.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.
Chest physiotherapy (CPT) is the treatments generally performed by physical therapists and respiratory therapists, whereby breathing is improved by the indirect removal of mucus from the breathing passages of a patient.
A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.
A chest tube (chest drain, thoracic catheter, tube thoracostomy, or intercostal drain) is a flexible plastic tube that is inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space or mediastinum.
Chills is a feeling of coldness occurring during a high fever, but sometimes is also a common symptom which occurs alone in specific people.
Chlamydia psittaci is a lethal intracellular bacterial species that may cause endemic avian chlamydiosis, epizootic outbreaks in mammals, and respiratory psittacosis in humans.
Chlamydia trachomatis, commonly known as chlamydia, is one of four bacterial species in the genus Chlamydia.
Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a species of Chlamydophila, an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects humans and is a major cause of pneumonia.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Clarithromycin, sold under the brand name Biaxin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections.
Clindamycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Coccidioides immitis is a pathogenic fungus that resides in the soil in certain parts of the southwestern United States, northern Mexico, and a few other areas in the Western Hemisphere.
Coccidioidomycosis, commonly known as "cocci", "Valley fever", as well as "California fever", "desert rheumatism", and "San Joaquin Valley fever", is a mammalian fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii.
Colonisation or colonization is the process in biology by which a species spreads to new areas.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia (any of several lung diseases) contracted by a person with little contact with the healthcare system.
The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
Coronaviruses are species of virus belonging to the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.
Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen, and is the causative agent of Q fever.
Crackles, crepitations, or rales are the clicking, rattling, or crackling noises that may be made by one or both lungs of a human with a respiratory disease during inhalation.
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast and an obligate aerobe that can live in both plants and animals.
Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) also known as bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP, not to be confused with bronchiolitis obliterans) is a form of non-infectious pneumonia; more specifically, COP is an inflammation of the bronchioles (bronchiolitis) and surrounding tissue in the lungs.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
CURB-65, also known as the CURB criteria, is a clinical prediction rule that has been validated for predicting mortality in community-acquired pneumonia and infection of any site.
Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, "cell", and megalo-, "large") is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae.
Decortication is a medical procedure involving the surgical removal of the surface layer, membrane, or fibrous cover of an organ.
Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia featuring elevated levels of macrophages.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Diffuse alveolar damage is a histological pattern in lung disease.
Doxycycline is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of a number of types of infections caused by bacteria and protozoa.
Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.
Theodor Albrecht Edwin Klebs (6 February 1834 – 23 October 1913) was a German-Swiss pathologist.
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Empiric therapy or empirical therapy is therapy based on experience and, more specifically, therapy begun on the basis of a clinical educated guess in the absence of complete or perfect information.
An empyema (from Greek ἐμπύημα, "abscess") is a collection or gathering of pus within a naturally existing anatomical cavity.
Eosinophilic (Greek suffix -phil-, meaning loves eosin) refers to the staining of certain tissues, cells, or organelles after they have been washed with eosin, a dye.
Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is a disease in which an eosinophil, a type of white blood cell, accumulates in the lung.
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
A feeding tube is a medical device used to provide nutrition to people who cannot obtain nutrition by mouth, are unable to swallow safely, or need nutritional supplementation.
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase FER is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FER gene.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Fungal pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by fungi.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds (the rima glottidis).
Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative).
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
H2 antagonists, sometimes referred to as H2RA and also called H2 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach.
Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
Hand washing, also known as hand hygiene, is the act of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and microorganisms.
Hans Christian Joachim Gram (September 13, 1853 – November 14, 1938) was a Danish bacteriologist noted for his development of the Gram stain.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Heat and exchange moisturizers (HME) are devices used in mechanically ventilated patients intended to help prevent complications due to "drying of the respiratory mucosa, such as mucus plugging and endotracheal tube (ETT) occlusion." HMEs are one type of commercial humidification system, which also include non-heated-wire humidifiers and heated-wire humidifiers.
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Histoplasmosis (also known as "Cave disease", "Darling's disease", "Ohio valley disease", "reticuloendotheliosis", "spelunker's lung" and "caver's disease") is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Home care (also referred to as domiciliary care, social care, or in-home care) is supportive care provided in the home.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48–72 hours after being admitted.
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are the viruses that cause human parainfluenza.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a syncytial virus that causes respiratory tract infections.
A humidifier is a device that increases humidity (moisture) in a single room or an entire building.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Hypoxemia (or hypoxaemia in British English) is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Influenza A virus causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of influenza virus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses.
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species.
Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by Influenza viruses.
Influenza-like illness (ILI), also known as acute respiratory infection (ARI) and flu-like syndrome/symptoms, is a medical diagnosis of possible influenza or other illness causing a set of common symptoms.
Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae.
Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
Intensive care unit An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive treatment medicine.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD), or diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), is a group of lung diseases affecting the interstitium (the tissue and space around the air sacs of the lungs).
Interventional radiology (IR), sometimes known as vascular and interventional radiology (VIR), is a medical specialty which provides minimally invasive image-guided diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
β-lactam antibiotics (beta-lactam antibiotics) are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics, consisting of all antibiotic agents that contain a beta-lactam ring in their molecular structures.
John Bunyan (baptised November 30, 1628August 31, 1688) was an English writer and Puritan preacher best remembered as the author of the Christian allegory The Pilgrim's Progress.
Klebsiella is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, rod-shaped bacteria with a prominent polysaccharide-based capsule.
The genus Legionella is a pathogenic group of Gram-negative bacteria that includes the species L. pneumophila, causing legionellosis (all illnesses caused by Legionella) including a pneumonia-type illness called Legionnaires' disease and a mild flu-like illness called Pontiac fever.
Legionella pneumophila is a thin, aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, nonspore-forming, Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella.
Legionnaires' disease is a form of atypical pneumonia caused by any type of Legionella bacteria.
The following is a list of the causes of human deaths worldwide for the year 2002, arranged by their associated mortality rates.
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.
Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.
Lobar pneumonia is a form of pneumonia that affects a large and continuous area of the lobe of a lung.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lung abscess is a type of liquefactive necrosis of the lung tissue and formation of cavities (more than 2 cm) containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (also called lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis or LIP) is a syndrome secondary to autoimmune and other lymphoproliferative disorders.
The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Measles vaccine is a vaccine that prevents measles.
Mechanical ventilation is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means is used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by an anesthesiologist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, physician, physician assistant, respiratory therapist, paramedic, EMT, or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows. Mechanical ventilation is termed "invasive" if it involves any instrument penetrating the trachea through the mouth, such as an endotracheal tube or the skin, such as a tracheostomy tube. There are two main types: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs. There are many modes of mechanical ventilation, and their nomenclature has been revised over the decades as the technology has continually developed.
Meconium is the earliest stool of a mammalian infant.
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) refers to a group of gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
Metronidazole, marketed under the brand name Flagyl among others, is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication.
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Mississippi Embayment is a physiographic feature in the south-central United States, part of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain.
Moraxella catarrhalis is a fastidious, nonmotile, Gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive diplococcus that can cause infections of the respiratory system, middle ear, eye, central nervous system, and joints of humans.
Mucokinetics are a class of drugs which aid in the clearance of mucus from the airways, lungs, bronchi, and trachea.
Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium in the class Mollicutes.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
A nasopharyngeal swab and the similar technique nasopharyngeal aspirate are methods of collecting a sample from the back of the nose and throat.
Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are a class of drugs which block the neuraminidase enzyme.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (also known as Non-specific interstitial pneumonitis) (NSIP) is a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Nursing homes are a type of residential care that provide around-the-clock nursing care for elderly people.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa) that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available, such as a host with a weakened immune system, an altered microbiota (such as a disrupted gut microbiota), or breached integumentary barriers.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
Orthohantaviruses (or hantaviruses) are single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA viruses in the Hantaviridae family of the order Bunyavirales, which normally infect rodents where they do not cause disease.
The Orthomyxoviruses (ὀρθός, orthós, Greek for "straight"; μύξα, mýxa, Greek for "mucus") are a family of RNA viruses that includes seven genera: Influenza virus A, Influenza virus B, Influenza virus C, Influenza virus D, Isavirus, Thogotovirus and Quaranjavirus.
Oseltamivir, sold under the brand name Tamiflu, is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and influenza B (flu).
Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear.
Oxygen saturation is the fraction of oxygen-saturated hemoglobin relative to total hemoglobin (unsaturated + saturated) in the blood.
Oxygen therapy, also known as supplemental oxygen, is the use of oxygen as a medical treatment.
Paragonimus westermani is the major species of lung fluke that infects humans, causing paragonimiasis.
A parapneumonic effusion is a type of pleural effusion that arises as a result of a pneumonia, lung abscess, or bronchiectasis.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Parenchyma is the bulk of a substance.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Peramivir (trade name Rapivab) is an antiviral drug developed by BioCryst Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of influenza.
Percussion is a method of tapping on a surface to determine the underlying structure, and is used in clinical examinations to assess the condition of the thorax or abdomen.
Pertussis vaccine is a vaccine that protects against whooping cough (pertussis).
Phlegm (φλέγμα "inflammation, humour caused by heat") is a liquid secreted by the mucous membranes of mammals.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in humans.
The pleural cavity is the thin fluid-filled space between the two pulmonary pleurae (known as visceral and parietal) of each lung.
A pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs.
Pleural empyema is a collection of pus in the pleural cavity caused by microorganisms, usually bacteria.
Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity (pleurae).
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is a pneumococcal vaccine and a conjugate vaccine used to protect infants, young children, and adults against disease caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus).
Pneumococcal pneumonia is a type of bacterial pneumonia that is specifically caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)— the latest version is known as Pneumovax 23 (PPV-23)— is the first pneumococcal vaccine derived from a capsular polysaccharide, and an important landmark in medical history.
Pneumocystis jirovecii (previously P. carinii) is a yeast-like fungus of the genus Pneumocystis.
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia that is caused by the yeast-like fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
The pneumonia severity index (PSI) or PORT Score is a clinical prediction rule that medical practitioners can use to calculate the probability of morbidity and mortality among patients with community acquired pneumonia.
Pneumonitis or pulmonitis is an inflammation of lung tissue due to factors other than microorganisms.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide precursor of the hormone calcitonin, the latter being involved with calcium homeostasis.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.
A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of ventilation.
Pulmonary aspiration is the entry of material (such as pharyngeal secretions, food or drink, or stomach contents) from the oropharynx or gastrointestinal tract into the larynx (voice box) and lower respiratory tract (the portions of the respiratory system from the trachea—i.e., windpipe—to the lungs).
A pulmonary consolidation is a region of (normally compressible) lung tissue that has filled with liquid instead of air.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.
Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation (SO2).
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
A rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) tells whether a person has a current influenza infection by detecting the influenza viral nucleoprotein antigen.
Respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease refers to a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia associated with smoking.
The respiratory rate is the rate at which breathing occurs.
The rhinovirus (from the Greek ῥίς rhis "nose", ῥινός rhinos "of the nose", and the Latin vīrus) is the most common viral infectious agent in humans and is the predominant cause of the common cold.
Rimantadine (INN, sold under the trade name Flumadine) is an orally administered antiviral drug used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, influenzavirus A infection.
Saunders is an academic publisher based in the United States.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV).
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.
Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi).
A sputum culture is a test to detect and identify bacteria or fungi that infect the lungs or breathing passages.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body.
Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as group B streptococcus or GBS) is a gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) with a tendency to form chains (as reflected by the genus name Streptococcus).
Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Strongyloides stercoralis is a human pathogenic parasitic roundworm causing the disease strongyloidiasis.
A superinfection is a second infection superimposed on an earlier one, especially by a different microbial agent of exogenous or endogenous origin, that is resistant to the treatment being used against the first infection.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
A surgical mask, also known as a procedure mask, is intended to be worn by health professionals during surgery and during nursing to catch the bacteria shed in liquid droplets and aerosols from the wearer's mouth and nose.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Tachypnea or tachypnoea is abnormally rapid breathing.
Thoracentesis, also known as thoracocentesis (from the Greek θώραξ thōrax "chest, thorax"—GEN thōrakos—and κέντησις kentēsis "pricking, puncture") or pleural tap (from the Greek πλευρά pleura or πλευρόν pleuron "side, rib"), is an invasive procedure to remove fluid or air from the pleural space for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Toll-like receptor 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR6 gene.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis.
Tracheal intubation, usually simply referred to as intubation, is the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea (windpipe) to maintain an open airway or to serve as a conduit through which to administer certain drugs.
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), also known as co-trimoxazole among other names, is an antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract including the nose, sinuses, pharynx or larynx.
Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is a form of lung disease characterized by progressive scarring of both lungs.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Varicella vaccine, also known as chickenpox vaccine, is a vaccine that protects against chickenpox.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a type of lung infection that occurs in people who are on mechanical ventilation breathing machines in hospitals.
Viral culture is a laboratory test in which samples are placed with a cell type that the virus being tested for is able to infect.
Viral pneumonia is a pneumonia caused by a virus.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Vital signs (often shortened to just vitals) are a group of the 4 to 6 most important signs that indicate the status of the body’s vital (life-sustaining) functions.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
McKinney defines vocal resonance as "the process by which the basic product of phonation is enhanced in timbre and/or intensity by the air-filled cavities through which it passes on its way to the outside air." Throughout the vocal literature, various terms related to resonation are used, including: amplification, filtering, enrichment, enlargement, improvement, intensification, and prolongation.
A volume expander is a type of intravenous therapy that has the function of providing volume for the circulatory system.
A wheeze (formally called "sibilant rhonchi" in medical terminology) is a continuous, coarse, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways during breathing.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet, (July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a Canadian physician and one of the four founding professors of Johns Hopkins Hospital.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World Pneumonia Day (12 November) provides an annual forum for the world to stand together and demand action in the fight against pneumonia.
Zanamivir is a medication used to treat and prevent influenza caused by influenza A and B viruses.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Bronchial Pneumonia, Bronchial pneumonia, Bronchopneumonia, Chronic pneumonia, Congenital pneumonia, Congested lungs, Hypostatic pneumonia, Infectious pneumonia, Lobular pneumonia, Necrotizing pneumonia, Nemonia, Neumonia, Numonia, Opportunistic pneumonia, Phemonia, Pnemonia, Pneumonia treatment, Pnuemonia, Pnumonia, Pulmonary bronchopneumonia, Recurrent pneumonia.