328 relations: Adana, Adana massacre, Al-Andalus, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Alexander II of Russia, Alexandrian riots (38), Algirdas Klimaitis, Amos Elon, Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire, Anti-Jewish violence in Central and Eastern Europe, 1944–46, Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–1946, Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo, Antisemitism, Anton Denikin, Antwerp, Arabs, Argentina, Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Aulus Avilius Flaccus, Austria, Austrian Partition, Azerbaijan, Baku pogrom, Barcelona, Basel massacre, BBC News, Belarus, Black Death Jewish persecutions, Black July, Bolsheviks, Bosnia and Herzegovina, British Army, Brooklyn, Brussels massacre, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Catherine the Great, Catholic Church, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Chetniks, Colin Tatz, Columbia Encyclopedia, Commissar, Conducător, Controversy surrounding the Lviv pogroms of 1941, Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Crown Heights riot, Crown Heights, Brooklyn, Curfew, Częstochowa pogrom (1902), Dacha, ..., Daugava, David Engel (historian), David Theo Goldberg, Definitions of pogrom, Delhi, Dorohoi pogrom, Eastern Europe, Egypt (Roman province), Ehud Olmert, Einsatzgruppen, Encyclopaedia Judaica, Encyclopædia Britannica, English language, Erfurt massacre (1349), Ethnic cleansing, Europe, Farhud, Feodosia, Flemish people, Food riot, France, Frankfurt, Frankfurter Judengasse, Gendarmerie, General Government, General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, Genocidal massacre, Genocide, George Vernadsky, German-occupied Europe, Germany, God's Playground, Gomel, Granada, Greeks, Greeks in Turkey, Green armies, Greenwood Publishing Group, Greenwood, Tulsa, Hans Krueger, Hearst Communications, Hebron, Heinrich Himmler, Henry Abramson, Hierarchy of the Catholic Church, History of the Jews in Belgium, History of the Jews in Poland, Home Secretary, Iași, Iași pogrom, Igbo people, India, Institute of National Remembrance, Internal Security Corps, Ion Antonescu, Ion Iliescu, Iraq, Ireland, Ireland–Israel relations, Iron Guard, Israeli Jews, Israeli settlement, Istanbul, Istanbul pogrom, Ivan Bunin, Jack Fischel, Jedwabne, Jedwabne pogrom, Jerusalem, Jewish Bolshevism, Jewish Encyclopedia, Jewish history, Jewish Virtual Library, Jews, John Klier, Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, Kaunas pogrom, Kerosene, Khmelnytsky Uprising, Kielce pogrom, Kielce pogrom (1918), Kiev, Kiev pogrom (1881), Kiev pogrom (1905), Kiev pogroms (1919), Kirovabad pogrom, Kishinev pogrom, Kristallnacht, Krnjeuša, Krnjeuša massacre, Kunmadaras pogrom, L'Histoire, Legionnaires' rebellion and Bucharest pogrom, Limerick boycott, Limerick Leader, Lisbon massacre, List of ethnic riots, Lithuania, Lithuanian Activist Front, Lithuanian partisans (1941), Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Loanword, Lviv pogroms, Lwów Ghetto, Lwów pogrom (1918), Lynching, Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army, Mainz, Mandatory Palestine, Martin Gilbert, Massacre, Mława, Mława riot, Melitopol, Meyer Waxman, Michael Berenbaum, Middle Ages, Minsk, Miskolc pogrom, Mobbing, Moldova, Morgenthau Report, Mountain Jews, Murder, Murtala Mohammed, Muslim, Myanmar, Nahum Gergel, Nazi concentration camps, Nazi Germany, Nazism, New Christian, New York (state), New York Daily News, New-York Tribune, Nicholas I of Russia, NKVD, Norman Davies, Occupation of Poland (1939–1945), Odessa, Odessa pogroms, Okhrana, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Minsk, Operation Reinhard, Ottoman countercoup of 1909, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Pale of Settlement, Palestinians, Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Partitions of Poland, Peasant, People's Crusade, Persecution, Peter the Hermit, Philo, Pinsk, Pinsk massacre, Pogrom, Poland, Poles, Polish Land Forces, Polish People's Army, Polish People's Republic, Polish-Soviet War Polish order of battle, Polish–Soviet War, Polish–Ukrainian War, Polotsk, Prague, Prefect, Prime Minister of Israel, Prussian Partition, Przytyk pogrom, Rabbi, Red Army, Religious violence, Rhineland massacres, Riot, Rohingya people, Romani people, Romania, Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian Partition, Russian Revolution, Schutzmannschaft, Second Polish Republic, Sicherheitsdienst, Siedlce pogrom, Sikh, Smila, Socialism, South Wales, Southwestern Krai, Speyer, Sri Lanka, Sri Lankan Tamils, Stanisławów Ghetto, Steppe, Strasbourg massacre, Sturmabteilung, Sumgait pogrom, Sviatopolk II of Kiev, Symon Petliura, Synagogue, Tadeusz Piotrowski (sociologist), Tamil nationalism, Tamil United Liberation Front, Tanzania, Terrorism, The Daily Telegraph, The Holocaust, The New York Times, The New Yorker, The Post and Courier, The Times, Tiberius, Toulon, Tragic Week (Argentina), Tulsa race riot, Two Hundred Years Together, Tykocin, Tykocin pogrom, Ukraine, Ukrainian Auxiliary Police, Ukrainian nationalism, Ukrainian People's Militia, Ukrainian People's Republic, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, University of Nebraska Press, University of Pittsburgh Press, University of Toronto Press, University Press of America, Vigilante, Vilna offensive, Vizier, Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz, Volunteer Army, Wales, Walter de Gruyter, Warrant for Genocide, Warsaw pogrom (1881), Werner Bergmann, West Bank, White movement, William Rubinstein, Winston Churchill, World War I, World War II, Worms, Germany, Yehezkel Abramsky, Yiddish, YIVO, Zanzibar Revolution, Zaporozhian Cossacks, Zhytomyr, Zvi Gitelman, 1066 Granada massacre, 1929 Hebron massacre, 1929 Palestine riots, 1929 Safed riots, 1945 Anti-Jewish riots in Tripolitania, 1947 Aden riots, 1947 anti-Jewish riots in Aleppo, 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, 1948 Anti-Jewish riots in Oujda and Jerada, 1956 Ceylonese riots, 1958 anti-Tamil pogrom, 1966 anti-Igbo pogrom, 1977 anti-Tamil pogrom, 1984 anti-Sikh riots, 1989 Bangladesh pogroms, 1st Lithuanian–Belarusian Division, 2002 Gujarat riots, 2004 unrest in Kosovo, 2013 Myanmar anti-Muslim riots. 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Adana (Ադանա) is a major city in southern Turkey.
The Adana massacre occurred in the Adana Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in April 1909.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (11 December 1918 – 3 August 2008) was a Russian novelist, historian, and short story writer.
Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.
The Alexandrian pogrom, Gambetti, Sandra, "Alexandrian Pogrom", in Levy, Richard S. (2005).
Algirdas Klimaitis (1910 in Kaunas – August 29, 1988 in Hamburg) was a Lithuanian paramilitary commander, infamous for his role in the Kaunas pogrom in June 1941.
Amos Elon (עמוס אילון, July 4, 1926 – May 25, 2009) was an Israeli journalist and author.
Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire (Еврейские погромы в России; (הסופות בנגב ha-sufot ba-negev; lit. "the storms in the South") were large-scale, targeted, and repeated anti-Jewish rioting that first began in the 19th century. Pogroms began occurring after the Russian Empire, which previously had very few Jews, acquired territories with large Jewish populations from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during 1791–1835. These territories were designated "the Pale of Settlement" by the Imperial Russian government, within which Jews were reluctantly permitted to live, and it was within them that the pogroms largely took place. Most Jews were forbidden from moving to other parts of the Empire, unless they converted to the Russian Orthodox state religion.
The anti-Jewish violence in Central and Eastern Europe following the retreat of Nazi German occupational forces and the victorious arrival of the Soviet Red Army – during the latter stages of World War II – was linked in part to postwar anarchy and economic chaos exacerbated by the Stalinist policies imposed across the territories of expanded Soviet republics and new satellite countries.
The anti-Jewish violence in Poland from 1944 to 1946 refers to a series of violent incidents in Poland that immediately followed the end of World War II in Europe and influenced the postwar history of the Jews as well as Polish-Jewish relations.
The anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo consisted of large-scale anti-Serb violence in Sarajevo on 28 and 29 June 1914 following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Anton Ivanovich Denikin (p; 8 August 1947) was a Russian Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian Army (1916) and afterwards a leading general of the White movement in the Russian Civil War.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, occurred on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo when they were mortally wounded by Gavrilo Princip.
Aulus Avilius Flaccus was the Egyptian prefect appointed by Tiberius in 32 CE.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Austrian Partition (zabór austriacki) comprise the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth acquired by the Habsburg Monarchy during the Partitions of Poland in the late 18th century.
The Baku pogrom was a pogrom directed against the ethnic Armenian inhabitants of Baku, Azerbaijan SSR.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The Basel massacre of Jews took place on 9 January 1349, as part of the Black Death persecutions of 1348–1350.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Black Death persecutions and massacres were a series of violent attacks on Jewish communities blamed for an outbreak of the Black Death in Europe from 1348 to 1351.
Black July (translit; කළු ජූලිය Kalu Juliya) is the common name used to refer to the anti-Tamil pogrom and riots in Sri Lanka during July 1983.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
The Brussels massacre was an anti-Semitic episode in Brussels in 1370 in connection with an alleged host desecration at the Brussels synagogue.
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (CASBS) is a interdisciplinary research lab at Stanford University that offers a residential postdoctoral fellowship program for scientists and scholars studying "the five core social and behavioral disciplines of anthropology, economics, political science, psychology, and sociology".
The Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, also known as the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland or The Ravna Gora Movement, commonly known as the Chetniks (Četnici, Четници,; Četniki), was a World War II movement in Yugoslavia led by Draža Mihailović, an anti-Axis movement in their long-term goals which engaged in marginal resistance activities for limited periods.
Colin Tatz AO, a Natal University and Australian National University graduate, has been Professor of Politics at the University of New England, Armidale, and at Macquarie University, Sydney.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.
Commissar (or sometimes Kommissar) is an English transliteration of the Russian комиссáр, which means commissary.
Conducător ("Leader") was the title used officially in two instances by Romanian politicians, and earlier by Carol II.
In the Lviv pogroms of June and July 1941, during World War II, an estimated 4,000–9,000 people were killed within the space of one month in Lviv (also known as Lwów or Lvov), many of them Polish Jews.
The Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina, often referred to as the Bosnian Croats, are the third most populous ethnic group in that country after Bosniaks and Serbs, and are one of the constitutive nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Crown Heights riot was a three-day racial riot that occurred from August 19 to August 21, 1991 in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York City.
Crown Heights is a neighborhood in the central portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn.
A curfew is an order specifying a time during which certain regulations apply.
Częstochowa pogrom refers to an alleged anti-Semitic disturbance that occurred on August 11, 1902, in the town of Chenstokhov, Russian Partition under Nicholas II (modern Częstochowa, Poland).
A dacha (a) is a seasonal or year-round second home, often located in the exurbs of Russian and other post-Soviet cities.
The Daugava (Daugova) or Western Dvina is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, Russia, flowing through Russia, Belarus, and Latvia and into the Gulf of Riga.
David Engel is an American historian and Professor of Holocaust and Judaic Studies at New York University.
David Theo Goldberg (born January 8, 1952) is a South African professor working in the United States, known for his work in critical race theory, and in more recent years, the digital humanities.
This article provides a list of definitions of the term pogrom.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
On 1 July 1940, in the town of Dorohoi in Romania, Romanian military units carried out a pogrom against the local Jews, during which, according to an official Romanian report, 53 Jews were murdered, and dozens injured.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
Ehud Olmert (אֶהוּד אוֹלְמֶרְט,; born 30 September 1945) is an Israeli politician and lawyer.
Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).
The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and of Judaism.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Erfurt massacre refers to the massacre of the Jewish community in Erfurt, Germany, on March 21, 1349.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Farhud (الفرهود) refers to the pogrom or "violent dispossession" carried out against the Jewish population of Baghdad, Iraq, on June 1–2, 1941, immediately following the British victory in the Anglo-Iraqi War.
Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.
The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Dutch, especially any of its dialects spoken in historical Flanders, known collectively as Flemish Dutch.
Food riots may occur when there is a shortage and/or unequal distribution of food.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
The Frankfurter Judengasse (from German: “Jews' Alley”) was the Jewish ghetto of Frankfurt and one of the earliest ghettos in Germany.
Wrong info! --> A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
The General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia (אַלגעמײַנער ײדישער אַרבעטער בּונד אין ליטע פוילין און רוסלאַנד, Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Litah, Poyln un Rusland), generally called The Bund (בונד, cognate to Bund, meaning federation or union) or the Jewish Labour Bund, was a secular Jewish socialist party in the Russian Empire, active between 1897 and 1920.
The term genocidal massacre was introduced by Leo Kuper (1908–1994) to describe incidents with a genocidal component but which are committed on a smaller scale when compared to genocides such as the Rwandan Genocide.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
George Vernadsky (August 20, 1887 – June 12, 1973), Russian: Гео́ргий Влади́мирович Верна́дский was a Russian-born American historian and an author of numerous books on Russian history.
German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
God's Playground: A History of Poland is a history book in two volumes written by Norman Davies, covering a thousand-year history of Poland.
Gomel (also Homieĺ, Homiel, Homel or Homyel’; Belarusian: Го́мель, Łacinka: Homiel,, Russian: Го́мель) is the administrative centre of Gomel Region and with 526,872 inhabitants (2015 census) the second-most populous city of Belarus.
Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The Greeks in Turkey (Rumlar) constitute a population of Greek and Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox Christians who mostly live in Istanbul, as well as on the two islands of the western entrance to the Dardanelles: Imbros and Tenedos (Gökçeada and Bozcaada).
The Green armies, Green Army (Russian: Зелёная Армия), or Greens (Russian: Зелёные) were armed peasant groups which fought against all governments in the Russian Civil War of 1917–22.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Greenwood is a neighborhood in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
SS-Hauptsturmführer Hans Krueger (1 July 1909 – 8 February 1988) was a German captain of the Gestapo in occupied Poland during World War II, involved in organizing the string of massacres after the commencement of Operation Barbarossa behind the Curzon Line.
Hearst Communications, often referred to simply as Hearst, is an American mass media and business information conglomerate based in New York City, New York.
Hebron (الْخَلِيل; חֶבְרוֹן) is a Palestinian.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Henry (Hillel) Abramson (born 1963) was the former Dean for Academic Affairs and Student Services at Touro College's Miami branch (Touro College South).
The hierarchy of the Catholic Church consists of its bishops, priests, and deacons.
Judaism has a long history in Belgium, from the 1st century CE until today.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, normally referred to as the Home Secretary, is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Home Office.
Iași (also referred to as Jassy or Iassy) is the second-largest city in Romania, after the national capital Bucharest, and the seat of Iași County.
The Iași pogrom or Jassy pogrom (pronounced:Yash) of 29 June 1941 was a series of pogroms launched by governmental forces under Ion Antonescu in the Romanian city of Iaşi (Jassy) against its Jewish population, resulting in the murder of at least 13,266 Jews, according to Romanian authorities.
The Igbo people (also Ibo," formerly also Iboe, Ebo, Eboe, Eboans, Heebo; natively Ṇ́dị́ Ìgbò) are an ethnic group native to the present-day south-central and southeastern Nigeria.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Institute of National Remembrance – Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation (Instytut Pamięci Narodowej – Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu; IPN) is a Polish government-affiliated research institute with lustration prerogatives, as well as prosecution powers.
The Internal Security Corps (Korpus Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego, KBW) was a special-purpose military formation in Poland under Stalinist government, established by the communist Council of Ministers on May 24, 1945.
Ion Antonescu (– June 1, 1946) was a Romanian soldier and authoritarian politician who, as the Prime Minister and Conducător during most of World War II, presided over two successive wartime dictatorships.
Ion Iliescu (born 3 March 1930) is a Romanian politician who served as President of Romania from 1989 until 1996, and from 2000 until 2004.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Ireland–Israel relations are foreign relations between Ireland and Israel.
The Iron Guard (Garda de fier) is the name most commonly given to a far-right movement and political party in Romania in the period from 1927 into the early part of World War II.
Israeli Jews (יהודים ישראלים, Yehudim Yisraelim), also known as Jewish Israelis, refers to Israeli citizens of the Jewish ethnicity or faith, and also the descendants of Israeli-Jewish emigrants outside of Israel.
Israeli settlements are civilian communities inhabited by Israeli citizens, almost exclusively of Jewish ethnicity, built predominantly on lands within the Palestinian territories, which Israel has militarily occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War, and partly on lands considered Syrian territory also militarily occupied by Israel since the 1967 war.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
The Istanbul pogrom, also known as the Istanbul riots or September events (Septemvriana, "Events of September";, "Events of September 6–7"), were organized mob attacks directed primarily at Istanbul's Greek minority on 6–7 September 1955.
Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin (or; a; – 8 November 1953) was the first Russian writer awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Jack R. Fischel is an American academic.
Jedwabne (יעדוואבנע, Yedvabna) is a town in northeast Poland, in Łomża County of Podlasie Province, with 1,942 inhabitants (2002).
The Jedwabne pogrom (Pogrom w Jedwabnem) was a World War II massacre committed in the town of Jedwabne, German-occupied Poland, on 10 July 1941.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jewish Bolshevism, also Judeo–Bolshevism, is an anti-communist and antisemitic canard, which alleges that the Jews were the originators of the Russian Revolution in 1917 and that they held the primary power among the Bolsheviks.
The Jewish Encyclopedia is an English encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the history, culture, and state of Judaism and the Jews up to the early 20th century.
Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures.
The Jewish Virtual Library ("JVL", formerly known as JSOURCE) is an online encyclopedia published by the American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE).
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Doyle Klier (13 December 1944 – 23 September 2007) was a pioneering historian of Russian Jewry and a pivotal figure in academic Jewish studies and East European history in the UK and beyond.
Johnson Thomas Umunnakwe Aguiyi-Ironsi (3 March 1924 – 29 July 1966) was a senior Nigerian military officer and the first Nigerian Military Head of State.
The Kaunas pogrom was a massacre of Jewish people living in Kaunas, Lithuania that took place on June 25–29, 1941 – the first days of the Operation Barbarossa and of Nazi occupation of Lithuania.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
The Khmelnytsky Uprising (Powstanie Chmielnickiego; Chmelnickio sukilimas; повстання Богдана Хмельницького; восстание Богдана Хмельницкого; also known as the Cossack-Polish War, Chmielnicki Uprising, or the Khmelnytsky insurrection) was a Cossack rebellion within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648–1657, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukrainian lands.
The Kielce Pogrom was an outbreak of violence toward the Jewish community centre's gathering of refugees in the city of Kielce, Poland on 4 July 1946 by Polish soldiers, police officers, and civilians during which 42 Jews were killed and more than 40 were wounded.
The Kielce pogrom of 1918 refers to the events that occurred on 11 November 1918, in the Polish town of Kielce located in current Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
The Kiev pogrom of 1881 lasted for three days.
The Kiev pogrom of October 18-October 20 (October 31-November 2, 1905, N.S.) came as a result of the collapse of the city hall meeting of October 18, 1905 in Kiev in the Russian Empire.
The Kiev pogroms of 1919 refers to a series of anti-Jewish pogroms in various places around Kiev carried out by White Volunteer Army troops.
The Kirovabad pogrom or the pogrom of Kirovabad was an Azeri-led pogrom that targeted Armenians living in the city of Kirovabad (today called Ganja) in Soviet Azerbaijan during November 1988.
The Kishinev pogrom was an anti-Jewish riot that took place in Kishinev, then the capital of the Bessarabia Governorate in the Russian Empire, on April 19 and 20, 1903.
Kristallnacht (lit. "Crystal Night") or Reichskristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht or simply Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome (Yiddish: קרישטאָל נאַכט krishtol nakt), was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians.
Krnjeuša (Cyrillic: Крњеуша) is a village in the municipality of Bosanski Petrovac, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Krnjeuša massacre was a massacre of civilians committed by Chetniks on 9-10 August 1941.
The Kunmadaras pogrom was a post-World War II anti-Semitic pogrom in Kunmadaras, Hungary.
L'Histoire is a monthly mainstream French magazine dedicated to historical studies, recognized by peers as the most important historical popular magazine (as opposed to specific university journals or less scientific popular historical magazines).
The Legionnaires' rebellion and the Bucharest pogrom occurred in Bucharest, Romania, between 21–23 January 1941.
The Limerick boycott, also known as the Limerick pogrom, was an economic boycott waged against the small Jewish community in Limerick, Ireland, for over two years in the first decade of the twentieth century.
The Limerick Leader is a weekly local newspaper in Limerick, Ireland.
The Lisbon massacre, alternatively known as the Lisbon pogrom or the 1506 Easter Slaughter was an incident in April, 1506, in Lisbon, Portugal in which a crowd of Catholics, as well as foreign sailors who were anchored in the Tagus, persecuted, tortured, killed, and burnt at the stake hundreds of people who were accused of being Jews and, thus, guilty of deicide and heresy.
This is a list of ethnic riots, sectarian riots, and race riots, by country.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanian Activist Front or LAF was a short-lived resistance organization established in 1940 after Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union.
Lithuanian partisans is a generic term used during World War II by Nazi officials and quoted in books by modern historians to describe Lithuanian collaborators with the Nazis during the first months of the occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany.
The Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (LBSSR; Lietuvos–Baltarusijos Tarybinė Socialistinė Respublika; Літоўска–Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка; Литовско–Белорусская ССР; Litewsko–Białoruska Republika Radziecka) or Litbel (Lit-Bel) was a Soviet socialist republic that existed within the territories of modern Belarus and eastern Lithuania for approximately five months during 1919.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The Lviv pogroms were the consecutive massacres of Jews living in the city of Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine), perpetrated by the German commandos and the Ukrainian nationalists from 30 June to 2 July 1941, and from 25 to 29 July 1941, during the Wehrmacht's attack on the Soviet positions in occupied eastern Poland in World War II.
The Lwów Ghetto (Ghetto Lemberg; getto we Lwowie) was a World War II Jewish ghetto established and operated by Nazi Germany in the city of Lwów (since 1945 Lviv, Ukraine) in the territory of Nazi-administered General Government in German-occupied Poland.
The Lwów pogrom (pogrom lwowski, Lemberg pogrom) was a pogrom of the Jewish population of the city of Lwów (since 1945, Lviv, Ukraine) that took place on November 21–23, 1918 during the Polish–Ukrainian War, in the aftermath of World War I. The Ukrainian National Council proclaimed the formation of the Ukrainian Republic on November 1, 1918 with Lviv as its capital.
Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group.
Główny Zarząd Informacji Wojska Polskiego (GZI WP - "Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army"), was a name of a first military Police and counter-espionage organ of the Polish People's Army in communist Poland during and after World War II.
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
Sir Martin John Gilbert (25 October 1936 – 3 February 2015) was a British historian and honorary Fellow of Merton College, University of Oxford.
A massacre is a killing, typically of multiple victims, considered morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims.
Mława (מלאווע Mlave; 1941-45 Mielau) is a town in north-central Poland with 30,957 inhabitants in 2012.
The Mława riot, or Mława incident, also described by Western commentators as the Mława pogrom, was a series of violent devastations and looting incidents on 26–27 June 1991 when a group of youth estimated at 200 individuals including young females invaded the homes of Roma residents of the Polish town of Mława causing them to flee.
Melitopol (Меліто́поль, translit. Melitópol’, Мелитополь) is a city in Zaporizhia Oblast (region) of southeastern Ukraine.
Meyer Waxman (1887–1969), Rabbi and scholar, best known for his magnum opus, A History of Jewish Literature.
Michael Berenbaum (born July 31, 1945 in Newark, New Jersey) is an American scholar, professor, rabbi, writer, and filmmaker, who specializes in the study of the Holocaust.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
The Miskolc pogrom led to death of one accused Jewish black marketeer, the wounding of another, and subsequently the death of a Jewish policeman in Miskolc, Hungary, July 30 and August 1, 1946.
Mobbing, as a sociological term, means bullying of an individual by a group, in any context, such as a family, peer group, school, workplace, neighborhood, community, or online.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
The Morgenthau report was a report compiled by Henry Morgenthau, Sr., as member of the "Mission of the United States to Poland" which was appointed by the American Commission to Negotiate Peace formed by President Woodrow Wilson in the aftermath of World War I. The mission consisted of three American members: former US ambassador Henry Morgenthau, Brigadier General Edgar Jadwin of Engineer Corps, and professor of law Homer H. Johnson from Cleveland; and from the British side Sir Stuart M. Samuel.
Mountain Jews or Caucasus Jews also known as Juhuro, Juvuro, Juhuri, Juwuri, Juhurim, Kavkazi Jews or Gorsky Jews (Dağ Yəhudiləri, יהודי קווקז Yehudey Kavkaz or Yehudey he-Harim, translit) are Jews of the eastern and northern Caucasus, mainly Azerbaijan, Chechnya, Dagestan and Ingushetia.
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.
Murtala Rufai Ramat Muhammed (November 8, 1938 – February 13, 1976) was the military ruler (Head of the Federal Military Government) of Nigeria from 1975 until his assassination in 1976.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nahum Gergel (April 4, 1887 – November 18, 1931) was a Jewish rights activist, humanitarian, sociologist, and author in Yiddish.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
New Christian (cristiano nuevo; cristão-novo; cristià nou) was a law-effective and social category developed from the 15th century onwards, and used in what is today Spain and Portugal as well as their New World colonies, to refer to Sephardi Jews and Muslims ("Moors") who had converted to the Catholic Church, often by force or coercion.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The New York Daily News, officially titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City.
The New-York Tribune was an American newspaper, first established in 1841 by editor Horace Greeley (1811–1872).
Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
Ivor Norman Richard Davies (born 8 June 1939) is a British-Polish historian noted for his publications on the history of Europe, Poland and the United Kingdom.
The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during the Second World War (1939–1945) began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, and it was formally concluded with the defeat of Germany by the Allies in May 1945.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
A series of pogroms against Jews in the city of Odessa, then part of the Russian Empire, took place during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Department for Protecting the Public Security and Order (Отделение по Охранению Общественной Безопасности и Порядка), usually called "guard department" (tr) and commonly abbreviated in modern sources as Okhrana (t) was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the police department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in the late 19th century, aided by the Special Corps of Gendarmes.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Mińsk was a military offensive of the Polish Army resulting in the recapture of Minsk from the Bolsheviks around August 8, 1919.
Operation Reinhard or Operation Reinhardt (Aktion Reinhard or Aktion Reinhardt also Einsatz Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhardt) was the codename given to the secretive German Nazi plan to exterminate the majority of Polish Jews in the General Government district of German-occupied Poland during World War II.
The Ottoman countercoup of 1909 (13 April 1909) was an attempt to dismantle the Second Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire and replace it with an autocracy under Sultan/Caliph Abdul Hamid II.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pale of Settlement (Черта́ осе́длости,, דער תּחום-המושבֿ,, תְּחוּם הַמּוֹשָב) was a western region of Imperial Russia with varying borders that existed from 1791 to 1917, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent or temporary residency was mostly forbidden.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
The People's Crusade was a popular crusade and a prelude to the First Crusade that lasted roughly six months from April to October 1096.
Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another individual or group.
Peter the Hermit (also known as Cucupeter, Little Peter or Peter of Amiens; 1050 – 8 July 1115) was a priest of Amiens and a key figure during the First Crusade.
Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
Pinsk (Пі́нск, Pinsk; Пи́нск; Пи́нськ, Pyns'k; Pińsk; Yiddish/פינסק, Pinskas) is a city in Belarus, in the Polesia region, traversed by the river Pina, at the confluence of the Pina and Pripyat rivers.
The Pinsk massacre was the mass execution of thirty-five Jewish residents of Pinsk on April 5, 1919 by the Polish Army.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The Land Forces (Wojska Lądowe) are a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland.
The Polish People's Army (Ludowe Wojsko Polskie, LWP) constituted the second formation of the Polish Armed Forces in the East (1943–1945) and later the armed forces (1945–1989) of the Polish communist government of Poland (from 1952, the Polish People's Republic) along with the ruling Polish United Workers' Party.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
During the Polish–Soviet War of liberation fought between February 1919 and March 1921 between the Bolshevik Russia and the reemerging sovereign Poland – right after the conclusion of World War I in Europe – the Polish order of battle included broad disposition of personnel, strength, organization, and command structure.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
The Polish–Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the Second Polish Republic and Ukrainian forces (both West Ukrainian People's Republic and Ukrainian People's Republic).
Polack (official transliteration), Polotsk or Polatsk (translit, translit, Połock, Polockas, Polotsk) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, substantive adjectival form of praeficere: "put in front", i.e., in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area.
The Prime Minister of Israel (רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה״מ; رئيس الحكومة, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of government of Israel and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics.
The Prussian Partition (Zabór pruski), or Prussian Poland, refers to the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth acquired during the Partitions of Poland, in the late 18th century by the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Przytyk pogrom or Przytyk riots occurred between Polish and Jewish community in Przytyk, Radom County, Kielce Voivodeship, Second Polish Republic, on March 9, 1936.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Religious violence is a term that covers phenomena where religion is either the subject or the object of violent behavior.
The Rhineland massacres, also known as the persecutions of 1096 or Gzerot Tatenu (גזרות תתנ"ו Hebrew for "Edicts of 856"), were a series of mass murders of Jews perpetrated by mobs of German Christians of the People's Crusade in the year 1096, or 4856 according to the Jewish calendar.
A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people.
The Rohingya people are a stateless Indo-Aryan-speaking people who reside in Rakhine State, Myanmar (also known as Burma).
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Partition (sometimes called Russian Poland) constituted the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that were invaded by the Russian Empire in the course of late-18th-century Partitions of Poland.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Schutzmannschaft or Auxiliary Police (literally: "protective, or guard units"; plural: Schutzmannschaften, abbreviated as Schuma) was the collaborationist auxiliary police of native policemen serving in those areas of the Soviet Union and the Baltic states occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service), full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS (Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS), or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany.
Siedlce pogrom refers to the events of September 8–10 or 11, 1906, in Siedlce, (Congress) Kingdom of Poland.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
Smila is a city located on Dnieper Upland near Tyasmyn River.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
South Wales (De Cymru) is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west.
Southwestern Krai (Юго-западный край, Yugo-zapadny kray), also known as Kiev General Governorate or Kiev, Podolia, and Volhynia General Governorate (Киевское, Подольское и Волынское генерал-губернаторство) was a subdivision (a krai) of the Russian Empire that included some of the territory of modern-day Ukraine mostly on the right bank of the Dnieper River.
Speyer (older spelling Speier, known as Spire in French and formerly as Spires in English) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, with approximately 50,000 inhabitants.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Sri Lankan Tamils (also) or Ceylon Tamils, also known as Eelam Tamils in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.
Stanisławów Ghetto (getto w Stanisławowie, Ghetto Stanislau) was a Jewish World War II ghetto established in 1941 by the Schutzstaffel (SS) in the prewar Polish city of Stanisławów in the south-eastern region of Kresy (now Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine) occupied by Germany after Operation Barbarossa.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
The Strasbourg massacre occurred on February 14, 1349, when several hundred Jews were publicly burnt to death, and the rest of them expelled from the city as part of the Black Death persecutions.
The Sturmabteilung (SA), literally Storm Detachment, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Sumgait pogrom (Սումգայիթի ջարդեր, Sumgayit'i ĵarder lit.: "Sumgait massacres"; Sumqayıt hadisələri lit.: "Sumgait events") was a pogrom that targeted the Armenian population of the seaside town of Sumgait in Azerbaijan in late February 1988.
Sviatopolk II Iziaslavich (1050 – April 16, 1113) was supreme ruler of the Kievan Rus for 20 years, from 1093 to 1113.
Symon Vasylyovych Petliura (Си́мон Васи́льович Петлю́ра; May 10, 1879 – May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician and journalist.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
Tadeusz Piotrowski or Thaddeus Piotrowski (born 1940) is a Polish-American sociologist.
Tamil nationalism asserts that Tamils are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Tamil people.
The Tamil United Liberation Front (தமிழர் ஐக்கிய விடுதலை முன்னணி, ද්රවිඩ එක්සත් විමුක්ති පෙරමුණ) is a political party in Sri Lanka which seeks independence for the Tamil-populated areas of Sri Lanka.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The Post and Courier is the main daily newspaper in Charleston, South Carolina.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
Toulon (Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm)) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.
Tragic Week (Semana Trágica) was a series of riots and massacres that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina, during the week of January 7, 1919.
The Tulsa race riot, sometimes referred to as the Tulsa massacre, Tulsa pogrom, or Tulsa race riot of 1921, took place between May 31 and June 1, 1921, when a white mob attacked residents and businesses of the African-American community of Greenwood in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Two Hundred Years Together (Двести лет вместе) is a two-volume historical essay by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.
Tykocin טיקטין, Tiktin) is a small town in north-eastern Poland, with 2,010 inhabitants (2012), located on the Narew river. Tykocin has been situated in the Podlaskie Voivodeship since 1999. Previously, it belonged to Białystok Voivodeship (1975-1998). It is one of the oldest settlements in the region.
The Tykocin massacre (pogrom), of August 25, 1941, was the mass murder of Jewish residents of Tykocin in occupied Poland during World War II, soon after the Nazi German attack on the Soviet Union.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainische Hilfspolizei or the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police (Українська допоміжна поліція, Ukrains’ka dopomizhna politsiia) was the official title of the local police formation set up by Nazi Germany during World War II in Reichskommissariat Ukraine; shortly after the German conquest of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in Operation Barbarossa against the Soviet Union, Germany's former ally in the invasion of Poland.
Ukrainian nationalism refers to the Ukrainian version of nationalism.
Ukrainian People's Militia or the Ukrainian National Militia (Українська Народна Міліція), was a paramilitary formation created by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) in the General Government territory of occupied Poland and later in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine during World War II.
The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic (abbreviated to УНР), was a predecessor of modern Ukraine declared on 10 June 1917 following the Russian Revolution.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.
The University of Nebraska Press, also known as UNP, was founded in 1941 and is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books.
The University of Pittsburgh Press is a scholarly publishing house and a major American university press, part of the University of Pittsburgh.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
University Press of America is an academic publisher based in the United States.
A vigilante is a civilian or organization acting in a law enforcement capacity (or in the pursuit of self-perceived justice) without legal authority.
The Vilna offensive was a campaign of the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921.
A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.
Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz (ethnic self-defense or self-protection), also known as the Selbstschutz battalions, were a paramilitary organisation consisting of ethnic German Volksdeutsche mobilized from among the German minority in Poland.
The Volunteer Army (Добровольческая армия in Russian, or Dobrovolcheskaya armiya) was an anti-Bolshevik army in South Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1920.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
Warrant for Genocide, by Norman Cohn, is a critical work about The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
The Warsaw pogrom was a pogrom that took place in Russian-controlled Warsaw on 25-27 December 1881, then part of Vistula Land in the Russian Empire, resulting in two people dead and 24 injured.
Werner Bergmann (born 26 May 1950, Celle, West Germany) is a German sociologist.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
William D. Rubinstein (born August 12, 1946) is a historian and author.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, situated on the Upper Rhine about south-southwest of Frankfurt-am-Main.
Yehezkel Abramsky (יחזקאל אברמסקי) (1886 – September 19, 1976), also affectionately referred to as 'Reb Chatzkel Abramsky', was a prominent and influential Orthodox rabbi and scholar, born and raised in the Russian Empire, who later headed the London Beth Din rabbinical court for 17 years.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
YIVO (Yiddish: ייִוואָ), established in 1925 in Wilno in the Second Polish Republic (now Vilnius, Lithuania) as the Yidisher Visnshaftlekher Institut (Yiddish: ייִדישער װיסנשאַפֿטלעכער אינסטיטוט,, Yiddish Scientific Institute), is an organization that preserves, studies, and teaches the cultural history of Jewish life throughout Eastern Europe, Germany and Russia, as well as orthography, lexicography, and other studies related to Yiddish.
The Zanzibar Revolution occurred in 1964 and led to the overthrow of the Sultan of Zanzibar and his mainly Arab government by local African revolutionaries.
The Zaporozhian Cossacks, Zaporozhian Cossack Army, Zaporozhian Host (Військо Запорізьке, Войско Запорожское) or simply Zaporozhians (translit) were Cossacks who lived beyond the rapids of the Dnieper River, the land also known under the historical term Wild Fields in today's Central Ukraine.
Zhytomyr (Žytomyr; Žitomir; Żytomierz; Žitomir) is a city in the north of the western half of Ukraine.
Zvi Gitelman is a Jewish scholar, Professor of Political Science, and Professor of Judaic Studies at the University of Michigan.
The 1066 Granada massacre took place on 30 December 1066 (9 Tevet 4827; 10 Safar 459 AH) when a Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, in the Taifa of Granada, crucified the Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela, and massacred much of the Jewish population of the city.
The Hebron massacre refers to the killing of sixty-seven or sixty-nine Jews on 24 August 1929 in Hebron, then part of Mandatory Palestine, by Arabs incited to violence by rumors that Jews were planning to seize control of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
The 1929 Arab riots in Palestine, or the Buraq Uprising (ثورة البراق), also known as the 1929 Massacres, (מאורעות תרפ"ט,, lit. Events of 5689 Anno Mundi) refers to a series of demonstrations and riots in late August 1929 when a long-running dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem escalated into violence.
The 1929 Safed riots, during the 1929 Palestine riots, were the riots that took place in Safed culminating in the massacre of 18-20 Jewish residents of Safed on 29 August 1929.
The 1945 Anti-Jewish riots in Tripolitania was the most violent rioting against Jews in North Africa in modern times.
The 1947 Aden riots were three days of violence in which Aden's Jewish community was violently attacked by members of the Yemeni Arab community in early December 1947 following the approval of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine on 29 November 1947.
The 1947 Anti-Jewish riots in Aleppo were an attack against Jews in Aleppo, Syria in December 1947, following the United Nations vote in favour of partitioning Palestine.
The 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine was the first phase of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1948 Anti-Jewish riots in Oujda and Jerada, the latter also known as Djerada, occurredDalit Atrakchi (2001).
The Gal Oya riots or Gal Oya massacre were the first ethnic riots that targeted the minority Tamils in the Dominion of Ceylon.
1958 anti-Tamil pogrom and riots in Ceylon, also known as the 58 riots, refer to the first island wide ethnic riots and pogrom to target the minority Tamils in the Dominion of Ceylon after it became an independent country from Britain in 1948.
The 1966 anti-Igbo pogrom was a series of massacres committed against Igbo people and other people of southern Nigerian origin living in northern Nigeria starting in May 1966 and reaching a peak after 29 September 1966.
The 1977 anti-Tamil pogrom in Sri Lanka followed the 1977 general elections in Sri Lanka where the Sri Lankan Tamil nationalistic Tamil United Liberation Front won a plurality of minority Sri Lankan Tamil votes in which it stood for secession.
The 1984 anti-Sikh riots, also known as the 1984 Sikh Massacre, was a series of organised pogroms against Sikhs in India by anti-Sikh mobs (notably Congress Party members and temporarily released convicts) in response to the assassination of Indira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguards.
The 1989 Bangladesh pogroms were a series of attacks against the Bengali Hindus in October - November, apparently as a reaction to the laying of the foundation of Ram temple adjacent to the disputed structure in Ayodhya in India.
The 1st Lithuanian–Belarusian Division (1., 1.DL-B; 1-ая Літоўска-Беларуская дывізія; 1-oji Lietuvos-Baltarusijos divizija) was a volunteer unit of the Polish Army formed around December 1918 and January 1919 during the Polish–Soviet War.
The 2002 Gujarat riots, also known as the 2002 Gujarat violence and the Gujarat pogrom, was a three-day period of inter-communal violence in the western Indian state of Gujarat.
The worst ethnic violence in Kosovo since the end of the 1999 conflict erupted in the partitioned town of Mitrovica, leaving hundreds wounded and at least 14 people dead.
The 2013 Myanmar anti-Muslim riots were a series of conflicts in various cities throughout central and eastern Myanmar (Burma).