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The autostrada A1, officially named Amber Highway (pol. Autostrada Bursztynowa) in Poland is a north-south motorway, partly under construction, that runs through central Poland, from Gdańsk on the Baltic Sea through Łódź and the Upper Silesian Industry Area (to the west of Katowice) to the Polish-Czech border in Gorzyczki (Wodzisław County) /Věřňovice (Karviná District), where it is connected with the Czech motorway D1.
Autostrada A18 is a short, planned motorway in southwestern Poland which is to run from the Polish/German border at Olszyna/Forst-Bademeusel and the German Bundesautobahn 15 to the Polish Autostrada A4.
The autostrada A2 in Poland is a motorway which runs from west to east through central Poland, from the Polish-German border in Świecko/Frankfurt, where it connects to the German A12 autobahn, through Poznań and Łódź to Warsaw.
The autostrada A4 in Poland is a long east-west motorway that runs through southern Poland, along the north side the Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains, from the Polish-German border at Zgorzelec-Görlitz (connecting to the German A4 autobahn), bypassing Wrocław, Opole, Strzelce Opolskie, Gliwice, Katowice, Kraków, Tarnów, Dębica and Rzeszów to the Polish-Ukrainian border at Korczowa-Krakovets.
The autostrada A6 in Poland is a long motorway that starts at the Polish/German border at Kołbaskowo/Pomellen connecting to the German A11 autobahn.
The A8 motorway (Autostradowa Obwodnica Wrocławia, abbreviated AOW) or Wrocław Motorway Bypass or Autostrada A8 is a motorway bypass of the city of Wrocław, Poland.
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
Academic art, or academicism or academism, is a style of painting, sculpture, and architecture produced under the influence of European academies of art.
The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film is one of the Academy Awards handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).
Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych w Warszawie) is a public university of visual arts and applied arts located in the Polish capital.
Adam Jarzębski (c. 1590 in Warka – c. 1648 in Warsaw) was an early Baroque Polish composer, violinist, poet, and writer.
Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (24 December 179826 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist.
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Uniwersytet im., Polish abbreviation UAM) is one of the major Polish universities, located in the city of Poznań, Greater Poland, in the west of the country.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adventism is a branch of Protestant Christianity which was started in the United States during the Second Great Awakening when Baptist preacher William Miller first publicly shared his belief that the Second Coming of Jesus Christ would occur at some point between 1843 and 1844.
The Society of Air Transportation Aero SA was a Polish airline founded in Poznań in February 1925 by the members of the Association of Polish Pilots and based entirely on the Polish seed capital.
Aerolot (until 1925 Aerolloyd) was a Polish airline.
Aeroscope was a type of compressed air camera for making films, constructed by Polish inventor Kazimierz Prószyński in 1909 (French patent from April 10, 1909) and built in England since 1911, at first by Newman & Sinclair, and from 1912 by Cherry Kearton Limited.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agnieszka Holland (born 28 November 1948) is a Polish film and television director and screenwriter.
Agnieszka Roma Radwańska (nicknamed Aga, born 6 March 1989) is a Polish professional tennis player.
Airmail (or air mail) is a mail transport service branded and sold on the basis of at least one leg of its journey being by air.
Abraham "Albert" Warner (July 23, 1884Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), Warner Family Tree. – November 26, 1967) was an American film executive who was one of the founders of Warner Bros. Studios.
Aleksander Ford (born Mosze Lifszyc; 24 November 1908 in Kiev, Russian Empire – 4 April 1980 in Naples, Florida, United States) was a Polish Jewish film director; and head of the Polish People's Army Film Crew in the Soviet Union during World War II.
Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko (translit,; ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɡrʲɪˈɡorʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ɫʊkɐˈʂɛnkə; born 30 August 1954) is a Belarusian politician serving as President of Belarus since the office was created on 20 July 1994.
Alexandre Tansman (12 June 1897 – 15 November 1986) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of Jewish origin.
Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901 – October 26, 1983), born Alfred Teitelbaum,School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews,, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Almanach cracoviense ad annum 1474 (Cracovian Almanac for the Year 1474) is a broadside astronomical wall calendar for the year 1474, and Poland's oldest known print.
Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative) is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.
In the United Kingdom, an ancient woodland is a woodland that has existed continuously since 1600 or before in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (or 1750 in Scotland).
Andrzej Eugeniusz Błasik (11 October 1962 – 10 April 2010) was a Lieutenant General in the Polish Armed Forces and a Commander of the Polish Air Force.
Andrzej Czok (November 11, 1948 – January 11, 1986) was a Polish mountaineer best known for the first winter ascent of Dhaulagiri on January 21, 1985 with Jerzy Kukuczka and for the first ascent of Mount Everest through South Pillar in 1980 (new route also with Jerzy Kukuczka).
Andrzej Sebastian Duda (born 16 May 1972) is a Polish politician as well as the sixth and current President of Poland, holding the office since 6 August 2015.
Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski (Andreas Fricius Modrevius) (ca. September 20, 1503 – autumn, 1572) was a Polish Renaissance scholar, humanist and theologian, called "the father of Polish democracy".
Sir Andrzej Panufnik (24 September 1914 – 27 October 1991) was a Polish composer and conductor.
Andrzej Witold Wajda (6 March 1926 – 9 October 2016) was a Polish film and theatre director.
Andrzej Zawada, born: Maria Andrzej Zawada, (16 July 1928 in Olsztyn – 21 August 2000 in Warsaw) was a Polish Alpinist and Tatra Mountains climber, pioneer of winter Himalayism.
Angrapa is a river in northeastern Poland and Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast).
Anti-communist resistance in Poland can be divided into two types: the armed partisan struggle, mostly led by former Armia Krajowa and Narodowe Siły Zbrojne soldiers, which ended in the late 1950s (see cursed soldiers), and the non-violent, civil resistance struggle that culminated in the creation and victory of the Solidarity trade union.
Anti-ship missiles are guided missiles that are designed for use against ships and large boats.
Antoni Zygmund (December 25, 1900 – May 30, 1992) was a Polish mathematician.
Apollo Korzeniowski (21 February 1820 – 23 May 1869) was a Polish poet, playwright, translator, clandestine political activist, and father of Polish-English novelist Joseph Conrad.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
Aptiv PLC (stylised as •APTIV•, formerly known as Delphi Automotive PLC) is a global technology company headquartered in Dublin, Ireland.
An arcade is a succession of arches, each counter-thrusting the next, supported by columns, piers, or a covered walkway enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Armenians in Poland have an important and historical presence going back to the 14th century.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
An armoured personnel carrier (APC) is a type of armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.
The Szczecin Art Academy (Akademia Sztuki w Szczecinie) is a public university in Szczecin, Poland, founded on September 1, 2010.
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.
Arthur Bliss Lane (16 June 1894 – 12 August 1956) was a United States diplomat who served in Latin America and Europe.
Arthur Rubinstein (Artur Rubinstein; 28 January 188720 December 1982) was a Polish American classical pianist.
Artur Grottger (11 November 1837 – 13 December 1867) was a Polish Romantic painter and graphic artist, one of the most prominent artists of the mid 19th century under the foreign partitions of Poland, despite a life cut short by incurable illness.
Artur Hajzer (28 June 1962 – 7 July 2013) was a Polish mountaineer best known for the first winter ascent of Annapurna on February 3, 1987 together with Jerzy Kukuczka.
Asseco Poland SA is the largest corporation in the technology sector quoted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
An attack helicopter is an armed helicopter with the primary role of an attack aircraft, with the capability of engaging targets on the ground, such as enemy infantry and armored fighting vehicles.
An attack submarine or hunter-killer submarine is a submarine specifically designed for the purpose of attacking and sinking other submarines, surface combatants and merchant vessels.
In classical architecture, the term attic refers to a story or low wall above the cornice of a classical façade.
The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas; 19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean; 5 October 1864 – 7 June 1948), were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.
Augustus II the Strong (August II.; August II Mocny; Augustas II; 12 May 16701 February 1733) of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin was Elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I), Imperial Vicar and elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Augustus III (August III Sas, Augustas III; 17 October 1696 5 October 1763) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II (Friedrich August II).
The aurochs (or; pl. aurochs, or rarely aurochsen, aurochses), also known as urus or ure (Bos primigenius), is an extinct species of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Austrian cuisine is a style of cuisine native to Austria and composed of influences from throughout the former Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The Łazienki Palace (pałac Łazienkowski; in English, the Baths Palace; also called the Palace on the Water and the Palace on the Isle) is a classicist palace in Warsaw's Royal Baths Park, the city's largest park, occupying over 76 hectares of the city center.
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
Łódź Voivodeship (also known as Łódź Province, or by its Polish name, województwo łódzkie) is a province (voivodeship) in central Poland.
Łeba (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Leba; Leba) is a town in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland.
Łebsko Lake is a coastal lake in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland.
The Łyna (- Lava), is a river in northern Poland's Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship as well as in Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast.
Łysa Góra (Bald Mountain; also known as Łysiec or Święty Krzyż) is a well-known hill in Świętokrzyskie Mountains, Poland.
Łysica is the highest mountain in Świętokrzyskie Mountains of Poland.
Śniardwy is a lake in the Masurian Lake District of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland.
The Śnieżnik Mountains (Masyw Śnieżnika, Králický Sněžník, Glatzer Schneegebirge) are a massif in the Eastern Sudetes on the border of the Czech Republic and Poland.
Świętokrzyski National Park (Świętokrzyski Park Narodowy) is a National Park in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship in central Poland.
The Świętokrzyskie Mountains (Góry Świętokrzyskie,, Holy Cross Mountains) are a mountain range in central Poland, near the city of Kielce.
Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Świętokrzyskie Province, or Holy Cross Province (województwo świętokrzyskie) is one of the 16 voivodeships (provinces) into which Poland is divided.
Świnoujście (Swinemünde, both names meaning Świna mouth) is a city and seaport on the Baltic Sea and Szczecin Lagoon, located in the extreme north-west of Poland.
Żupan (župan, župan, polgármester, жупан, жупан) is a long garment, always lined, worn by almost all males of the noble social class in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, typical male attire from the beginning of the 16th to half of the 18th century, still surviving as a part of the Polish and Ukrainian national costume.
Babia Góra (in Polish), or Babia hora (in Slovak), literally Old Wives' or Witches' Mountain, is a massif situated on the border between Poland and Slovakia in the Western Beskidy Mountains.
The baccalauréat, often known in France colloquially as bac, is an academic qualification that French students take after high school.
Frédéric Chopin's four ballades are one-movement pieces for solo piano, composed between 1831 and 1842.
The Baltic air-policing mission is a NATO air defence Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) in order to guard the airspace over the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in the area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and in the Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.
The Bar Confederation (Konfederacja barska; 1768–1772) was an association of Polish nobles (szlachta) formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against Russian influence and against King Stanisław II Augustus with Polish reformers, who were attempting to limit the power of the Commonwealth's wealthy magnates.
A barn is an agricultural building usually on farms and used for various purposes.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The Polish Baroque lasted from the early 17th to the mid-18th century.
Bartłomiej Pękiel (fl. from 1633; d. ca. 1670) was a notable Polish composer of classical music.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
The Basilica of Our Lady of Licheń is a Roman Catholic church located at the Shrine of Our Lady of Sorrows, Queen of Poland, in the village of Licheń Stary near Konin in the Greater Poland Voivodeship in Poland.
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
The Battle of Hundsfeld or Battle of Psie Pole was allegedly fought on 24 August 1109 near the Silesian capital Wrocław between the Holy Roman Empire in aid of the claims of the exiled Piast duke Zbigniew against his ruling half-brother, Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland.
The Battle of Klushino, or the Battle of Kłuszyn, was fought on 4 July 1610, between forces of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Tsardom of Russia during the Polish–Muscovite War, part of Russia's Time of Troubles.
The Battle of Legnica (bitwa pod Legnicą), also known as the Battle of Liegnitz (Schlacht von Liegnitz) or Battle of Wahlstatt (Schlacht bei Wahlstatt), was a battle between the Mongol Empire and the combined defending forces of European fighters that took place at Legnickie Pole (Wahlstatt) near the city of Legnica in the Silesia province of the Kingdom of Poland on 9 April 1241.
The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle for Rome and the Battle for Cassino) was a costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Battle of Racławice was one of the first battles of the Polish Kościuszko Uprising against Russia.
The Battle of Vienna (Schlacht am Kahlen Berge or Kahlenberg; bitwa pod Wiedniem or odsiecz wiedeńska (The Relief of Vienna); Modern Turkish: İkinci Viyana Kuşatması, Ottoman Turkish: Beç Ḳalʿası Muḥāṣarası) took place at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna on 1683 after the imperial city had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months.
The Battle of Warsaw refers to the decisive Polish victory in 1920 during the Polish–Soviet War.
The Bay of Pomerania or Pomeranian Bay (Polish: Zatoka Pomorska; German: Pommersche Bucht; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô Hôwinga) is a basin in the southwestern Baltic Sea, off the shores of Poland and Germany.
The Bay of Puck or Puck Bay (Putziger Wiek), is a shallow western branch of the Bay of Gdańsk in the southern Baltic Sea, off the shores of Gdańsk Pomerania, Poland.
Błędów Desert (Pustynia Błędowska) is an area of sands between Błędów (part of Dąbrowa Górnicza in Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union) and the villages of Chechło and Klucze in Poland.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusian cuisine shares many similarities with cuisines of other Eastern, Central and Northeastern European countries, basing predominantly based on meat and various vegetables typical for the region.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
The Belarusian minority in Poland is composed of 47,000 people according to the Polish census of 2011.
Bergitka Roma or Carpathian Roma (also "Polish Highlander Gypsies" in some works) are a Roma ethnic sub-group, living mostly in Poland.
The Beskids or Beskid Mountains (Beskidy, Czech and Beskydy, Rusyn: Бескиды (Beskidy), Бескиди (Beskydy)) is a traditional name for a series of mountain ranges in the Carpathians, stretching from the Czech Republic in the west along the border of Poland with Slovakia up to Ukraine in the east.
Ruth Elizabeth "Bette" Davis (April 5, 1908 – October 6, 1989) was an American actress of film, television, and theater.
Białowieża (Белавежа Biełavieža, Bialovieža, Беловежская Belovezhskaya) is a village in Poland, in Podlaskie Voivodeship, in the middle of Białowieża Forest, of which it is a namesake.
Białowieża Forest (Белавежская пушча, Biełaviežskaja Pušča; Baltvyžio giria; Puszcza Białowieska) is one of the last and largest remaining parts of the immense primeval forest that once stretched across the European Plain.
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
The Bible of Queen Sophia (or Queen Sophia's Bible, Biblia królowej Zofii, also Sárospatak Bible, Biblia Szaroszp(a)otacka) is the oldest surviving translation of the Old Testament into the Polish language and the first complete translation of the Bible into Polish.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Biebrza (Bebras, Bobra) is a river in north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Narew river (near Wizna), with a length of 164 kilometres and a basin area of 7,092 km2 (7,067 in Poland).
Biedronka is the largest discount supermarket chain in Poland with 2,823 stores in 2017 and 55,000 employees (2015).
Bieszczady is a mountain range that runs from the extreme south-east of Poland through Ukraine and Slovakia.
Bigos (бігас,, or бігус), often translated into English as hunter's stew, is a Polish dish of finely chopped meat of various kinds stewed with sauerkraut and shredded fresh cabbage.
The bilingual status of gminas (communes) in Poland is regulated by the Act of 6 January 2005 on National and Ethnic Minorities and on the Regional Languages, which permits certain gminas with significant linguistic minorities to introduce a second, auxiliary language to be used in official contexts alongside Polish.
Bird migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a flyway, between breeding and wintering grounds.
The archaeological open-air museum Biskupin is an archaeological site and a life-size model of an Iron Age fortified settlement in Poland (Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship).
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bogumiła Lisocka-Jaegermann is a Polish social scientist and writer, specialising in the fields of history and development of the Third World and developing countries.
Bogurodzica ("Mother of God/Theotokos") is the oldest Polish hymn.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bolesław Bierut (18 April 1892 – 12 March 1956) was a Polish Communist leader, NKVD agent, and a hard-line Stalinist who became President of Poland after the defeat of the Nazi forces in.
Bolesław I the Brave (Bolesław I Chrobry, Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 – 17 June 1025), less often known as Bolesław I the Great (Bolesław I Wielki), was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025.
Bolesław III Wrymouth (also known as Boleslaus III the Wry-mouthed, Bolesław III Krzywousty) (20 August 1086 – 28 October 1138), was a Duke of Lesser Poland, Silesia and Sandomierz between 1102 and 1107 and over the whole Poland between 1107 and 1138.
Bolesławiec pottery is the collective term for pottery produced in Bolesławiec, Poland.
The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.
The Book of Henryków (Księga henrykowska, Liber fundationis claustri Sancte Marie Virginis in Heinrichau) is a Latin chronicle of the Cistercian abbey in Henryków in Lower Silesia.
The Polish Border Guard (Polish Straż Graniczna, also abbreviated as SG) is a state security agency tasked with patrolling the Polish border.
The Borders of Poland are 3511 or 3582 kilometers long.
The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.
Borscht is a sour soup popular in several Eastern European cuisines, including Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian, Romanian, Ashkenazi Jewish and Armenian cuisines.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Branicki Palace (Pałac Branickich) is a historical edifice in Białystok, Poland.
The Branicki Palace (Pałac Branickich) is an 18th-century magnate's mansion in Warsaw, Poland.
Breaded cutlet is a dish made from coating a cutlet of meat with breading or batter and either frying or baking it.
Bribery is the act of giving or receiving something of value in exchange for some kind of influence or action in return, that the recipient would otherwise not alter.
Brick Gothic (Backsteingotik, Gotyk ceglany, Baksteengotiek) is a specific style of Gothic architecture common in Northwest and Central Europe especially in the regions in and around the Baltic Sea, which do not have resources of standing rock, but in many places a lot of glacial boulders.
British Home Stores, commonly abbreviated to BHS and latterly legally styled BHS Ltd, was a British department store chain, primarily selling clothing and household items.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
The Bug River (Bug or Western Bug; Західний Буг, Zakhidnyy Buh, Захо́дні Буг, Zakhodni Buh; Западный Буг, Zapadnyy Bug) is a major European river which flows through three countries with a total length of.
Burgess originally meant a freeman of a borough (England, Wales, Ireland) or burgh (Scotland).
Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks.
Bydgoszcz (Bromberg; Bydgostia) is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.
A cabbage roll is a dish consisting of cooked cabbage leaves wrapped around a variety of fillings.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Carpathian Romani, also known as Central Romani or Romungro Romani, is a group of dialects of the Romani language spoken from southern Poland to Hungary, and from eastern Austria to Ukraine.
Casimir I the Restorer (b. Kraków, 25 July 1016 – d. Poznań, 28 November 1058), was Duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty and the de jure monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death.
Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370.
Casimir IV KG (Kazimierz IV Andrzej Jagiellończyk; Kazimieras Jogailaitis; 30 November 1427 – 7 June 1492) of the Jagiellonian dynasty was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland from 1447, until his death.
A catechism (from κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.
According to both Anglican and Catholic canon law, a cathedral chapter is a college of clerics (chapter) formed to advise a bishop and, in the case of a vacancy of the episcopal see in some countries, to govern the diocese during the vacancy.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Caziel (born Kazimierz Józef Zielenkiewicz; 16 June 1906 – 25 August 1988) was a Polish artist who lived and worked in Paris during the inter-war period and who worked alongside a number of important figures of the School of Paris, including Pablo Picasso and the art dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe (the Visegrád Group), the Baltic states, and Southeastern Europe, usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) in Europe.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The Central Statistical Office (Główny Urząd Statystyczny; GUS) is Poland's chief government executive agency charged with collecting and publishing statistics related to the country's economy, population, and society, at the national and local levels.
Centrum Badania Opinii Społecznej (CBOS) (Centre for Public Opinion Research) is an opinion polling institute in Poland, based in Warsaw.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Cheesecake is a sweet dessert consisting of one or more layers.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Christianization of Poland (Polish: chrystianizacja Polski) refers to the introduction and subsequent spread of Christianity in Poland.
Cinematography (also called Direction of Photography) is the science or art of motion-picture photography by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock.
The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, PO)The party is officially the Civic Platform of the Republic of Poland (Platforma Obywatelska Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej).
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Oscar-Claude Monet (14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein air landscape painting.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
A cold front is the leading edge of a cooler mass of air, replacing at ground level a warmer mass of air, which lies within a fairly sharp surface trough of low pressure.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Polish People's Republic pursued a policy of '''collectivization''' of agriculture during the Stalinist period, from 1948 until the liberalization during Gomułka's thaw of 1956.
The Commission of National Education (Komisja Edukacji Narodowej, abbreviated KEN, Edukacinė komisija, Адукацыйная камісія) was the central educational authority in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, created by the Sejm and the King Stanisław August Poniatowski on October 14, 1773.
The Communist Party of Poland (Komunistyczna Partia Polski, KPP) was a communist party in Poland.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
A concerto (plural concertos, or concerti from the Italian plural) is a musical composition usually composed in three movements, in which, usually, one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band.
A concordat is a convention between the Holy See and a sovereign state that defines the relationship between the Catholic Church and the state in matters that concern both,René Metz, "What is Canon Law?" (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1960), pg.
A konfederacja ("confederation") was an ad hoc association formed by Polish-Lithuanian szlachta (nobility), clergy, cities, or military forces in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for the attainment of stated aims.
The Congress of Gniezno (Zjazd gnieźnieński, Akt von Gnesen or Gnesener Übereinkunft) was an amical meeting between the Polish Duke Bolesław I the Brave and Emperor Otto III, which took place at Gniezno on March 11, 1000.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
Conrad Celtes (Konrad Celtes; Conradus Celtis (Protucius); 1 February 1459 – 4 February 1508) was a German Renaissance humanist scholar and Neo-Latin poet.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Constitution of 3 May 1791 (Konstytucja 3 Maja, Gegužės trečiosios konstitucija) was adopted by the Great Sejm (parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The current Constitution of Poland was adopted on 2 April 1997.
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland (Konstytucja Królestwa Polskiego) was granted to the 'Congress' Kingdom of Poland by the King of Poland, Alexander I of Russia, who was obliged to issue a constitution to the newly recreated Polish state under his domain as specified by the Congress of Vienna.
The Constitution of the Polish People's Republic (also known as July Constitution or Constitution of 1952) was passed on 22 July 1952.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Constitutional Tribunal (Trybunał Konstytucyjny) is the constitutional court of the Republic of Poland, a judicial body established to resolve disputes on the constitutionality of the activities of state institutions; its main task is to supervise the compliance of statutory law with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland.
In regulatory jurisdictions that provide for this (a list including most or all developed countries with free market economies) consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers, as well as fair trade, competition, and accurate information in the marketplace.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
Continental collision is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of Earth that occurs at convergent boundaries.
Contract Sejm (Sejm kontraktowy) is a term commonly applied to the "Sejm" (parliament) elected in the Polish parliamentary elections of 1989.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
Copernican heliocentrism is the name given to the astronomical model developed by Nicolaus Copernicus and published in 1543.
The Copernican Revolution was the paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic model of the heavens, which described the cosmos as having Earth stationary at the center of the universe, to the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Copernicus Airport Wrocław (Port Lotniczy Wrocław im. is an international commercial airport in Wrocław in southwestern Poland. The airport is located southwest of the city centre. It has one runway, two passenger terminals and one cargo terminal.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Coronations in Poland officially began in 1025 and continued until 1764, when the final king of an independent Poland, Stanisław August Poniatowski, was crowned at St. John's Cathedral in Warsaw.
Szkoła Rycerska (School of Chivalry) or Akademia Szlachecka Korpusu Kadetów Jego Królewskiej Mości i Rzeczypospolitej (English: Nobles' Academy of the Corps of Cadets of His Royal Majesty and the Commonwealth) was the first state school in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council of Ministers of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Rada Ministrów w Polsce) is the collective executive decision-making body of the Polish government.
The Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) is a regional intergovernmental organisation working on three priority areas: Regional Identity, Safe & Secure Region and Sustainable & Prosperous Region.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.
Cream of mushroom soup is a simple type of soup where a basic roux is thinned with cream or milk and then mushrooms and/or mushroom broth are added.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance.
Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.
Cucumber soup is a traditional Polish and Lithuanian soup (Polish: (sometimes simply ogórkowa). It is made from sour, salted cucumbers and potato. Occasionally rice is substituted for the potatoes. A similar soup is also common in Russia and Ukraine, where it is known as rassolnik. Cucumber soup is also any soup using cucumbers as a primary ingredient, and is present in various cuisines. The two major varieties are fresh cucumber soup and pickled cucumber soup.
The culture of Poland is the product of its geography and its distinct historical evolution which is closely connected to its intricate thousand-year history.
The Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology (Centrum Onkologii–Instytut im.) is a specialized research institute and hospital of the Polish Ministry of Health.
The "cursed soldiers" (also known as "doomed soldiers", "accursed soldiers" or "damned soldiers"; Żołnierze wyklęci) or "indomitable soldiers" is a term applied to a variety of Polish anti-Soviet or anti-communist Polish resistance movements formed in the later stages of World War II and its aftermath by some members of the Polish Underground State.
The history of the Curzon Line, with minor variations, goes back to the period following World War I. It was drawn for the first time by the Supreme War Council as the demarcation line between the newly emerging states, the Second Polish Republic, and the Soviet Union.
The Czarna Hańcza, Chornaya Hancha is the largest river of the Suwałki Region of north-eastern Poland and the Sapockin region of north-western Belarus.
Czarny Staw pod Rysami (Black Lake below Mount Rysy) is a mountain lake on the Polish side of Mount Rysy in the Tatra mountains.
Czartoryski (feminine form: Czartoryska, plural: Czartoryscy; Чарторийські, Chartoryisky; Чорторийські, Chortoryisky; Čartoriskiai) is a Polish princely family of Lithuanian-Ruthenian origin, also known as the Familia.
The Czartoryski Museum and Library (Muzeum Książąt Czartoryskich w Krakowie) is a museum located in Kraków, Poland, founded in Puławy in 1796 by Princess Izabela Czartoryska.
Częstochowa,, is a city in southern Poland on the Warta River with 240,027 inhabitants as of June 2009.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
Czesław Miłosz (30 June 1911 – 14 August 2004) was a Polish poet, prose writer, translator and diplomat.
The D'Hondt method or the Jefferson method is a highest averages method for allocating seats, and is thus a type of party-list proportional representation.
Jerzy (Georg) Daniel Schultz known also as Daniel Schultz the Younger (1615–1683) was a famous painter of the Baroque era, born and active in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Dąbrowa Basin (also, Dąbrowa Coal Basin) or Zagłębie Dąbrowskie is a geographical and historical region in southern Poland.
Dąbrowa Górnicza is a city in Zagłębie Dąbrowskie, southern Poland, near Katowice and Sosnowiec.
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543).
The Defence of the Polish Post Office in Danzig (Gdańsk) was one of the first acts of World War II in Europe, as part of the Invasion of Poland.
Delia is a feminine given name, either taken from an epithet of the Greek moon goddess Artemis or else representing a short form of Adelia, Bedelia, Cordelia or Odelia.
The term Deluge (pоtор szwedzki, švedų tvanas) denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
In investing, a developed market is a country that is most developed in terms of its economy and capital markets.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC) is a forum to discuss issues surrounding aid, development and poverty reduction in developing countries.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
Diomedes Cato (1560 to 1565 – after 1618) was an Italian-born composer and lute player, who lived and worked entirely in Poland.
Disco polo is a genre of popular dance music, created in Poland in the late 1980s, initially known as sidewalk musicAnna Kowalczyk „Wiedza i Życie”.
The Divine Mercy Sanctuary in Kraków, Poland is a Roman Catholic basilica dedicated to the Divine Mercy devotion, as the resting place of Saint Faustina Kowalska, canonized on April 30, 2000.
The Dniester or Dnister River is a river in Eastern Europe.
Donald Franciszek Tusk (Polish:; born 22 April 1957) is a Polish politician who has been the President of the European Council since 2014.
Drawsko is a lake located nearby the town of Czaplinek in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland.
Dubai (دبي) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Duchy of Prussia (Herzogtum Preußen, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (Herzogliches Preußen, Prusy Książęce) was a duchy in the region of Prussia established as a result of secularization of the State of the Teutonic Order during the Protestant Reformation in 1525.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.
The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and Early Middle Ages (approximately the 5th to the 10th centuries) in Eastern Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
The Central and Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies fought on after the official end of the Second World War against the Soviet Union and the communist states formed under Soviet occupation and support.
Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.
Economic freedom or economic liberty is the ability of people of a society to take economic actions.
An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The economy of Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and the largest among the former Eastern Bloc members of the European Union.
The European Union is the second largest economy in the world in nominal terms and according to purchasing power parity (PPP).
Poland is part of two global ecoregions as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), which is an international non-governmental organization (NGO) with a branch in Poland; working on issues regarding the conservation, research and protection of the environment.
The Edict of Wieluń was a 1424 law issued in Wieluń by King of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło under pressure from the Catholic Church.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Compulsory education in Poland starts at the age of six from the mandatory "0" reception class (Polish zerówka or klasa 0, literally Year 0).
World War II saw the cultivation of underground education in Poland (Tajne szkolnictwo, or tajne komplety).
Edward Gierek (6 January 1913 – 29 July 2001) was a Polish communist politician.
Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
The eight-thousanders are the 14 independentIn making any "highest mountains" list, one needs to use a criterion to exclude subpeaks and only list independent mountains.
The Speedway Ekstraliga (Polish Extraleague, Ekstraliga żużlowa) is the top division of motorcycle speedway in Poland.
Doménikos Theotokópoulos (Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος; October 1541 7 April 1614), most widely known as El Greco ("The Greek"), was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance.
Elbląg (Elbing; Old Prussian: Elbings) is a city in northern Poland on the eastern edge of the Żuławy region with 124,257 inhabitants (December 31, 2011).
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance.
The Electorate of Saxony (Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also Kursachsen) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356.
Eligiusz Niewiadomski (December 1, 1869 in Warsaw – January 31, 1923 in Warsaw) was a Polish modernist painter and art critic who belonged to the right-wing National Democratic Party till 1904 and later continued supporting it.
Emergency Medical Services (Państwowe Ratownictwo Medyczne, PRM) in Poland is a service of public pre-hospital emergency healthcare, including ambulance service, provided by individual Polish cities and counties.
Encyklopedia Polski (Encyclopedia of Poland) is a Polish-language encyclopedia of Polish history and culture.
Enea is a Polish power industry company based in Poznań.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the process of including new member states in NATO.
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment in Poland were developed later than in Western Europe, as the Polish bourgeoisie was weaker, and szlachta (nobility) culture (Sarmatism) together with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth political system (Golden Liberty) were in deep crisis.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
eSports (also known as electronic sports, esports, e-sports, competitive (video) gaming, professional (video) gaming, or pro gaming) are a form of competition using video games.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
The population of Post-World War II Poland became nearly completely ethnically homogeneous as a result of the German-Nazi Holocaust, the radically altered borders, and the deportations ordered by the Soviet authorities, who wished to remove the sizeable Polish minorities from the Baltics (Lithuania) and Eastern Europe (western Belarus and western Ukraine).
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
The Eugeniusz Geppert Academy of Fine Arts in Wrocław (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im.) is a public institution of higher learning established in 1946 originally as the College of Fine Arts.
The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European bison (Bison bonasus), also known as wisent or the European wood bison, is a Eurasian species of bison.
The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
The Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland (Kościół Ewangelicko-Augsburski w Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is a Lutheran denomination and the largest Protestant body in Poland with about 62,000 members and 133 parishes.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
Eyelash extensions are used to enhance the length, curliness, fullness, and thickness of natural eyelashes.
Fakt (Polish language for "fact") is a Polish tabloid-style daily newspaper and is one of the best-selling papers in the country.
A farmhouse is a building that serves as the primary residence in a rural or agricultural setting.
Fashion is a popular style, especially in clothing, footwear, lifestyle products, accessories, makeup, hairstyle and body.
Fabryka Broni "Łucznik" - Radom (Łucznik Arms Factory, also known as Fabryka Broni Radom or Zakłady Metalowe "Łucznik") is a Polish defence industry enterprise from Radom that produces firearms.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
The history of feminism in Poland has traditionally been divided into seven periods, beginning with the 19th century first-wave feminism.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Filippo Buonaccorsi, called "Callimachus" (Latin: Philippus Callimachus Experiens, Bonacursius;; 2 May 1437 – 1 November 1496) was an Italian humanist and writer.
Film Polski (also Przedsiębiorstwo Państwowe Film Polski) was the state-run film production and distribution organization of Poland, founded in 1945.
A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives such as futures and options at low transaction costs.
The Polish Financial Oversight Commission (PFOC) (Komisja Nadzoru Finansowego (KNF)) is the financial regulatory authority for Poland.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
The Mongol Invasion of Poland from late 1240 to 1241 culminated in the battle of Legnica, where the Mongols defeated an alliance which included forces from fragmented Poland and their allies, led by Henry II the Pious, the Duke of Silesia.
The First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
The Polish First Army (Pierwsza Armia Wojska Polskiego, 1 AWP for short, also known as Berling's Army) was a Polish Army unit formed in the Soviet Union in 1944, from the previously existing Polish I Corps as part of the People's Army of Poland (LWP), a formation of the Polish Armed Forces in the East.
A first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting method is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
The FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship is an international volleyball competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), the sport's global governing body.
The FIVB World Ranking is a ranking system for men's and women's national teams in volleyball.
A folk dance is developed by people that reflect the life of the people of a certain country or region.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
Association football has been included in every Summer Olympic Games as a men's competition sport, except 1896 and 1932.
Football is the most popular sport in Poland.
Polish forests cover about 30% of Poland's territory, and are mostly owned by the state.
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
The Fortune Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue and the list is compiled and published annually by Fortune magazine.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
U.S. President Woodrow Wilson The Fourteen Points was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I. The principles were outlined in a January 8, 1918 speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress by President Woodrow Wilson.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franciszek Gągor (8 September 1951 – 10 April 2010) was a Polish general, Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces between 2006 and 2010.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Frédéric François Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano.
The Free, Independent, and Strictly Neutral City of CracowThe Polish variant of Kraków is occasionally retroactively applied in English to the historical Free City.
The Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig; Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns and villages in the surrounding areas.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
French cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France.
The G6 (Group of Six) in the European Union is an unofficial group of the interior ministers of the six European Union member states – France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and the United Kingdom – with the largest populations and thus with the majority of votes in the Council of the European Union.
Gabriel Narutowicz (17 March 1865 – 16 December 1922) was a Polish professor of hydroelectric engineering and politician who served as the 1st President of Poland from 11 December 1922 until his assassination on 16 December, five days after assuming office.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Gallus Anonymus (Polonized variant: Gall Anonim) is the name traditionally given to the anonymous author of Gesta principum Polonorum (Deeds of the Princes of the Poles), composed in Latin about 1115.
Gazeta Polska (literally: "Polish Newspaper") is a Polish language right-wing/conservative weekly news magazine published in Poland.
Gazeta Polska Codziennie (Gazeta Polska Daily) is a Polish right-wing daily newspaper issued since September 9, 2011.
Gazeta Wyborcza (meaning Electoral Newspaper in English) is a newspaper published in Warsaw, Poland.
Głos (lit. from Polish: Voice) is a Polish socio-political weekly magazine.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Gdansk Bay or the Bay of Gdansk Zatoka Gdańska; Gduńskô Hôwinga; Гданьская бухта, Gdan'skaja bukhta, and Danziger Bucht) is a southeastern bay of the Baltic Sea. It is named after the adjacent port city of Gdańsk in Poland and is sometimes referred to as the Gulf of Gdańsk.
Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport (Port Lotniczy Gdańsk im., formerly Port Lotniczy Gdańsk-Rębiechowo) is an international airport located northwest of Gdańsk, Poland, not far from the city centres of the Tricity metropolitan area: Gdańsk, Sopot and Gdynia.
Gdańsk Shipyard (Stocznia Gdańskа, formerly Lenin Shipyard) is a large Polish shipyard, located in the city of Gdańsk.
Gdynia (Gdingen, Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and a seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea.
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).
The Generalplan Ost (Master Plan for the East), abbreviated GPO, was the German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans.
The location of the geographical centre of Europe depends on the definition of the borders of Europe, mainly whether remote islands are included to define the extreme points of Europe, and on the method of calculating the final result.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
The cuisine of Germany has evolved as a national cuisine through centuries of social and political change with variations from region to region.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The registered German minority in Poland at the 2011 national census consisted of 148,000 people, of whom 64,000 declared both German and Polish ethnicities and 45,000 solely German ethnicity.
German Sign Language or Deutsche Gebärdensprache is the sign language of the deaf community in Germany and in the German-speaking community of Belgium.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Gesta principum Polonorum (Deeds of the Princes of the Poles) is a medieval gesta, or deeds narrative, concerned with Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth, his ancestors, and the Polish principality during and before his reign.
GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London.
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
Gloria May Josephine Swanson (March 27, 1899 – April 4, 1983) was an American actress and producer best known for her role as Norma Desmond, a reclusive silent film star, in the critically acclaimed 1950 film Sunset Boulevard.
The gmina (Polish pronunciation, plural gminy) is the principal unit of the administrative division of Poland, similar to a municipality.
Gniezno (Gnesen) is a city in central-western Poland, about east of Poznań, with about 70,000 inhabitants.
Gołąbki is the Polish name of a dish popular in cuisines of Central and Eastern Europe, made from boiled cabbage leaves wrapped around a filling of minced pork or beef, chopped onions, and rice or barley.
Gość Niedzielny (lit. Sunday Guest) is a Polish weekly Catholic news magazine.
"Bóg się rodzi" ("God Is Born") is a Polish Christmas carol (kolęda), with lyrics written by Franciszek Karpiński in 1792.
Golden Liberty (Aurea Libertas; Złota Wolność, Auksinė laisvė), sometimes referred to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles' Democracy or Nobles' Commonwealth (Szlachecka or Złota wolność szlachecka, aureă lībertās) was a political system in the Kingdom of Poland and, after the Union of Lublin (1569), in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Gopło is a lake in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, north-central Poland, near the city of Gniezno.
The Gorals (Górale; Gorali; Cieszyn Silesian: Gorole; literally "highlanders") are an ethnographic (or ethnic) group primarily found in their traditional area of southern Poland, northern Slovakia, and in the region of Cieszyn Silesia in the Czech Republic (Silesian Gorals).
The Gorce Mountains (Gorce) are part of the Western Beskids mountain range spreading across southernmost Poland.
Gorce National Park (Gorczański Park Narodowy) is a national park in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, southern Poland.
A gord is a medieval Slavic fortified wooden settlement, sometimes known as a burgwall after the German term for such sites.
Gorzów Wielkopolski (abbreviated Gorzów Wlkp.; Landsberg an der Warthe; Łącbarg) is a city in western Poland, on the Warta river.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
Grabarka-Klasztor is a settlement in the administrative district of Gmina Nurzec-Stacja, within Siemiatycze County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland, close to the border with Belarus.
A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
The Grand Duchy of Posen (Großherzogtum Posen; Wielkie Księstwo Poznańskie) was part of the Kingdom of Prussia, created from territories annexed by Prussia after the Partitions of Poland, and formally established following the Napoleonic Wars in 1815.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
The Great Sejm, also known as the Four-Year Sejm (Polish: respectively, Sejm Wielki or Sejm Czteroletni; Lithuanian: Didysis seimas or Ketverių metų seimas) was a Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that was held in Warsaw between 1788 and 1792.
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland.
Greater Poland uprising of 1806 was a military insurrection by Poles in Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) against the occupying Prussian forces after the Partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1772–1795).
The Greater Poland uprising of 1848 or Poznań Uprising (powstanie wielkopolskie 1848 roku or powstanie poznańskie) was an unsuccessful military insurrection of Poles against Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period.
The Greater Poland uprising of 1918–1919, or Wielkopolska uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku; Großpolnischer Aufstand) or Posnanian War was a military insurrection of Poles in the Greater Poland region (German: Grand Duchy of Poznań or Provinz Posen) against German rule.
Greater Poland Voivodeship (in Polish: Województwo Wielkopolskie), also known as Wielkopolska Voivodeship, Wielkopolska Province, or Greater Poland Province, is a voivodeship, or province, in west-central Poland.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
A gristmill (also: grist mill, corn mill or flour mill) grinds cereal grain into flour and middlings.
The Central Rail Line (Centralna Magistrala Kolejowa, CMK, also known in Poland as the Rail Line No. 4, Polish: Linia kolejowa nr 4), was completed on 23 December 1977 could have been the first high speed railway line in Europe.
Grupa Lotos S.A. is a vertically integrated oil company based in Gdańsk, Poland.
Grzegorz Gerwazy Gorczycki (ca. 1665 to 1667 – 30 April 1734) was a Polish Baroque composer.
Hańcza (Ančia) is a lake in Suwałki Region, Podlaskie Voivodeship, Poland.
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
Count Hans Karl Friedrich Anton von Diebitsch und Narden or Graf Ivan Ivanovich Diebitsch-Zabalkansky (Ива́н Ива́нович Ди́бич-Забалка́нский) (13 May 1785 in Groß Leipe in Lower Silesia, Prussia10 June 1831 near Pułtusk) was a German-born soldier serving as Russian Field Marshal.
A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
Harry Morris Warner (born Hirsz Mojżesz Wonsal; December 12, 1881 – July 25, 1958) was an American studio executive, one of the founders of Warner Bros., and a major contributor to the development of the film industry.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Health care in Poland is delivered through a publicly funded health care system called the National Health Fund (in Polish: Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia), which is free for all the citizens of Poland provided they fall into the "insured" category (usually meaning that they have their health insurance paid for by their employer, or are the spouse or child of an insured person).
Heart of Darkness (1899) is a novella by Polish-English novelist Joseph Conrad, about a voyage up the Congo River into the Congo Free State, in the heart of Africa, by the story's narrator Charles Marlow.
Hel Peninsula (Mierzeja Helska, Półwysep Helski; Hélskô Sztremlëzna; Halbinsel Hela or Putziger Nehrung) is a 35-km-long sand bar peninsula in northern Poland separating the Bay of Puck from the open Baltic Sea.
Helena Rubinstein (born Chaja Rubinstein; December 25, 1872 – April 1, 1965) was a Polish American businesswoman, art collector, and philanthropist.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
The Henrician Articles or King Henry's Articles (Polish: Artykuły henrykowskie, Latin: Articuli Henriciani) were a permanent contract between the "Polish nation" (i.e., the szlachta (nobility) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and a newly elected king upon his election to the throne that stated the fundamental principles of governance and constitutional law in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Henry II the Pious (Henryk II Pobożny) (1196 – 9 April 1241),*Cawley, Charles; Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, Medieval Lands Project; Silesia v3.0; Dukes of Breslau (Wrocław) and Lower Silesia 1163–1278 (Piast) (Chap 4); Heinrich II Duke of Lower Silesia; retrieved May 2015.
Henry the Bearded (Henryk Brodaty, Heinrich der Bärtige); c. 1165/70 – 19 March 1238), of the Silesian line of the Piast dynasty, was Duke of Silesia at Wrocław from 1201 and Duke of Kraków and thus High Duke of all Poland — internally divided — from 1232 until his death.
Henry V (Heinrich V.; 11 August 1081/86 – 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1099 to 1125) and Holy Roman Emperor (from 1111 to 1125), the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty.
Henryk Mikołaj Górecki (English pronunciation Go-RET-ski; December 6, 1933 – November 12, 2010) was a Polish composer of contemporary classical music.
Henryk Hektor Siemiradzki (24 October 1843 – 23 August 1902) was a Polish Rome-based painter, best remembered for his monumental Academic art.
Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (also known by the pseudonym "Litwos"; 5 May 1846 – 15 November 1916) was a Polish journalist, novelist and Nobel Prize laureate.
Henryk Wieniawski (10 July 1835 – 31 March 1880) was a Polish violinist and composer.
Henryków (Heinrichau) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Ziębice, within Ząbkowice Śląskie County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
reason (translit; hejtman; hatman) is a political title from Central and Eastern Europe, historically assigned to military commanders.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
The High Tatras or High Tatra Mountains (Slovak: Vysoké Tatry, Tatry Wysokie), are a mountain range along the border of northern Slovakia in the Prešov Region, and southern Poland in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship.
High-speed rail service (Kolej dużych prędkości) commenced in Poland on 14 December 2014, with the introduction of 20 non-tilting Pendolino trainsets operating on 4 designated lines radiating out from Warsaw.
Highways in Poland are public roads designed to carry large amounts of traffic.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.
Hippocrene Books is an independent US publishing press located at 171 Madison Avenue, New York City, NY 10016.
A democracy is a political system, or a system of decision-making within an institution or organization or a country, in which all members have an equal share of power.
The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.
The History of interwar Poland comprises the period from the re-recreation of the independent Polish state in 1918, until the joint Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
In 1989–1991, Poland engaged in a democratic transition which put an end to the Polish People's Republic and led to the foundation of a democratic government, known as the Third Polish Republic (following the First and Second Polish Republics).
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.
Holocaust trains were railway transports run by the Deutsche Reichsbahn national railway system under the strict supervision of the German Nazis and their allies, for the purpose of forcible deportation of the Jews, as well as other victims of the Holocaust, to the German Nazi concentration, forced labour, and extermination camps.
The Holy Cross Sermons (Kazania świętokrzyskie) are the oldest extant prose text in the Polish language, dating probably from the late 13th, or from the early 14th century.
The Holy Father John Paul II Family Home in Wadowice, Poland was the family home and birthplace of Karol Józef Wojtyła, who was elected Pope John Paul II in 1978, and canonised after his death.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.
Hortex is a company in Poland that produces frozen foods and branded fruit juices.
The House of Vasa (Vasaätten, Wazowie, Vaza) was an early modern royal house founded in 1523 in Sweden, ruling Sweden 1523–1654, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1587–1668, and the Tsardom of Russia 1610–1613 (titular until 1634).
The House of Wettin is a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors and kings that once ruled territories in the present-day German states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia.
A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.
Hugo Stumberg Kołłątaj, alt.
Władysław Hugo Dionizy Steinhaus (January 14, 1887 – February 25, 1972) was a Jewish-Polish mathematician and educator.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Hussites (Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation.
Hybrid warfare is a military strategy that employs political warfare and blends conventional warfare, irregular warfare and cyberwarfare with other influencing methods, such as fake news, diplomacy and foreign electoral intervention.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
I saw Poland betrayed: An American ambassador reports to the American people (1948) is a book written by Arthur Bliss Lane, former United States ambassador to Poland, who observed what he considered to be the betrayal of Poland by the Western Allies at the end of World War II.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
Ida is a 2013 Polish drama film directed by Paweł Pawlikowski and written by Pawlikowski and Rebecca Lenkiewicz.
Ignacy Feliks Dobrzyński (15 February 1807 – 9 October 1867) was a Polish pianist and composer.
Ignacy Jan Paderewski (– 29 June 1941) was a Polish pianist and composer, politician, statesman and spokesman for Polish independence.
Ignacy Krasicki (3 February 173514 March 1801), from 1766 Prince-Bishop of Warmia (in German, Ermland) and from 1795 Archbishop of Gniezno (thus, Primate of Poland), was Poland's leading Enlightenment poet"Ignacy Krasicki", Encyklopedia Polski (Encyclopedia of Poland), p. 325.
Count Roman Ignacy Potocki, generally known as Ignacy Potocki, (1750–1809) was a Polish nobleman, member of the influential magnate Potocki family, owner of Klementowice and Olesin (near Kurów), a politician, writer, and office holder.
Igor Mitoraj (26 March 1944 – 6 October 2014) was a Polish artist.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
An impromptu (loosely meaning "offhand") is a free-form musical composition with the character of an ex tempore improvisation as if prompted by the spirit of the moment, usually for a solo instrument, such as piano.
INGLOT Cosmetics is a Polish cosmetics company headquartered in Przemyśl, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, south-eastern Poland, specializing in the manufacturing of make-up products.
Innogy SE is an energy company based in Essen, Germany.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
The Intel Extreme Masters (IEM) are a series of international eSports tournaments held in countries around the world.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
This list of Internet censorship and surveillance by country provides information on the types and levels of Internet censorship and surveillance that is occurring in countries around the world.
Internetowa encyklopedia PWN (Polish for Internet PWN Encyclopedia) is a free online Polish-language encyclopedia published by Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irena Szewińska, née Kirszenstein (Polish pronunciation:; 24 May 1946 – 29 June 2018) was a Polish sprinter who was one of the world's foremost athletes for nearly two decades, in multiple events.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Isaac Bashevis Singer (יצחק באַשעװיס זינגער; November 21, 1902 – July 24, 1991) was a Polish-born Jewish writer in Yiddish, awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1978.
A continuous presence of Islam in Poland began in the 14th century.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
Italian cuisine is food typical from Italy.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Prince (1831) Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich (Ива́н Фёдорович Паске́вич; &ndash) was an imperial Russian military leader.
Princess Izabela Dorota Czartoryska (née Fleming; 3 March 1746 – 15 July 1835) was a Polish noblewoman, writer, and art collector who is widely regarded as a very prominent figure of the Enlightenment in Poland.
Izrael Poznański's Palace is a 19th-century palace in Łódź, Poland.
Jacek Malczewski (15 July 1854 – 8 October 1929) is one of the most revered painters of Poland, associated with the patriotic Young Poland movement following the century of Partitions.
Jack Leonard "J.
The Jagiellonian dynasty was a royal dynasty, founded by Jogaila (the Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized as Władysław, married Queen regnant (also styled "King") Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. The dynasty reigned in several Central European countries between the 14th and 16th centuries. Members of the dynasty were Kings of Poland (1386–1572), Grand Dukes of Lithuania (1377–1392 and 1440–1572), Kings of Hungary (1440–1444 and 1490–1526), and Kings of Bohemia (1471–1526). The personal union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (converted in 1569 with the Treaty of Lublin into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) is the reason for the common appellation "Poland–Lithuania" in discussions about the area from the Late Middle Ages onward. One Jagiellonian briefly ruled both Poland and Hungary (1440–44), and two others ruled both Bohemia and Hungary (1490–1526) and then continued in the distaff line as a branch of the House of Habsburg. The Polish "Golden Age", the period of the reigns of Sigismund I and Sigismund II, the last two Jagiellonian kings, or more generally the 16th century, is most often identified with the rise of the culture of Polish Renaissance. The cultural flowering had its material base in the prosperity of the elites, both the landed nobility and urban patriciate at such centers as Kraków and Gdańsk.
The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.
Jaktorów is a village in Grodzisk Mazowiecki County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland.
Jakub Polak (c. 1545 - c. 1605), also known as Jakub Reys (Reis, de Rais, de Reiz, de Restz, de Retz, du Retz) and Jacques le Polonois, was a Polish lutenist and composer.
Jamno is a lake in northern Poland (in West Pomeranian Voivodeship), close to the Baltic Sea.
Jan Andrzej Morsztyn (1621–93) was a Polish poet, member of the landed nobility, and official in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Jan Łaski or Johannes Alasco (1499 – 8 January 1560) was a Polish Reformed reformer.
Jan Chryzostom Pasek (c. 1636–1701) was a Polish nobleman and writer during the times of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Jan Długosz (1 December 1415 – 19 May 1480), also known as Ioannes, Joannes, or Johannes Longinus or Dlugossius, was a Polish priest, chronicler, diplomat, soldier, and secretary to Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków.
Jan Kochanowski (1530 – 22 August 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to the Polish literary language.
Jan Alojzy Matejko (also known as Jan Mateyko; June 24, 1838 – November 1, 1893) was a Polish painter known for paintings of notable historical Polish political and military events.
The Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts, or the Kraków Academy of Fine Arts (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych w Krakowie im., usually abbreviated to ASP), is a public institution of higher learning located in downtown Kraków, Poland.
Jan Szczepanik (June 13, 1872 – April 18, 1926) was a Polish inventor, with several hundred patents and over 50 discoveries to his name, many of which are still applied today, especially in the motion picture industry, as well as in photography and television.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
The Jasna Góra Monastery (Jasna Góra, Luminous Mount, Fényes Hegy, Clarus Mons) in Częstochowa, Poland, is a famous Polish shrine to the Virgin Mary and one of the country's places of pilgrimage.
Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa S.A. is a large coal mining company in Poland producing around 12 million tonnes of coal every year.
Józef Andrzej Gierowski (1922-2006) was a Polish historian, professor and rector of the Jagiellonian University.
Józef Marian Chełmoński (November 7, 1849 – April 6, 1914) was a Polish painter of the realist school with roots in the historical and social context of the late Romantic period in partitioned Poland.
Józef Antoni Franciszek Elsner (sometimes Józef Ksawery Elsner; baptismal name, Joseph Anton Franz Elsner; 1 June 176918 April 1854) was a composer, music teacher, and music theoretician, active mainly in Warsaw.
Józef Mehoffer (19 March 1869 – 8 July 1946) was a Polish painter and decorative artist, one of the leading artists of the Young Poland movement and one of the most revered Polish artists of his time.
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; he was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.
Jean Lambert-Rucki (1888–1967), a Polish avant-garde artist, sculptor, and graphic artist, was best known for his participation in the Cubist, Surrealist and Art Deco movements.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jerzy Jan Lerski (nom de guerre: Jur; also known as George Jan Lerski; was a Polish lawyer, soldier, historian, political scientist and politician. After World War II he emigrated to the United States, where he became a full professor at the University of San Francisco.
Jerzy Kukuczka (24 March 1948 in Katowice, Poland – 24 October 1989 Lhotse, Nepal) was a Polish alpine and high-altitude climber.
Jewish cuisine is a diverse collection of cooking traditions of the Jewish people worldwide.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joan Crawford (born Lucille Fay LeSueur; March 23, c. 1904 – May 10, 1977) was an American film and television actress who began her career as a dancer and stage showgirl. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked Crawford tenth on its list of the greatest female stars of Classic Hollywood Cinema. Beginning her career as a dancer in traveling theatrical companies, before debuting as a chorus girl on Broadway, Crawford signed a motion picture contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1925. In the 1930s, Crawford's fame rivaled, and later outlasted, MGM colleagues Norma Shearer and Greta Garbo. Crawford often played hard-working young women who find romance and success. These stories were well received by Depression-era audiences, and were popular with women. Crawford became one of Hollywood's most prominent movie stars, and one of the highest-paid women in the United States, but her films began losing money, and, by the end of the 1930s, she was labelled "box office poison". But her career gradually improved in the early 1940s, and she made a major comeback in 1945 by starring in Mildred Pierce, for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress. She would go on to receive Best Actress nominations for Possessed (1947) and Sudden Fear (1952). She continued to act in film and television throughout the 1950s and 1960s; she achieved box office success with the highly successful horror film Whatever Happened To Baby Jane? (1962), in which she starred alongside Bette Davis, her long-time rival. In 1955, Crawford became involved with the Pepsi-Cola Company through her marriage to company Chairman Alfred Steele. After his death in 1959, Crawford was elected to fill his vacancy on the board of directors, serving until she was forcibly retired in 1973. After the release of the British horror film Trog in 1970, Crawford retired from the screen. Following a public appearance in 1974, after which unflattering photographs were published, Crawford withdrew from public life and became increasingly reclusive until her death in 1977. Crawford married four times. Her first three marriages ended in divorce; the last ended with the death of husband Alfred Steele. She adopted five children, one of whom was reclaimed by his birth mother. Crawford's relationships with her two elder children, Christina and Christopher, were acrimonious. Crawford disinherited the two, and, after Crawford's death, Christina wrote a well-known "tell-all" memoir titled Mommie Dearest (1978).
Joanna Jędrzejczyk (born August 18, 1987) is a Polish mixed martial artist and former Muay Thai kickboxer who competes in the women's strawweight division of the Ultimate Fighting Championship.
Johann Haller or Jan HallerNorman Davies, (1463–1525) is considered one of the first commercial printers in Poland.
Johannes Dantiscus, (Johann(es) von Höfen-Flachsbinder, Jan Dantyszek; 1 October 1485 – 27 October 1548) was prince-bishop of Warmia and Bishop of Chełmno (Culm).
John II Casimir (Jan II Kazimierz Waza; Johann II.; Jonas Kazimieras Vaza; 22 March 1609 – 16 December 1672) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania during the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Duke of Opole in Upper Silesia, and titular King of Sweden 1648–1660.
John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski; Jonas III Sobieskis; Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
John Paul II International Airport Kraków–Balice (Kraków Airport im. since 4 September 2007; earlier in Międzynarodowy Port Lotniczy im.) is an international airport located near Kraków, in the village of Balice, west of the city centre, in southern Poland.
A joint venture (JV) is a business entity created by two or more parties, generally characterized by shared ownership, shared returns and risks, and shared governance.
Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 – June 22, 1969) was an American singer, actress, and vaudevillian.
Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz (6 February 1758, Skoki, near Brest – 21 May 1841, Paris) was a Polish poet, playwright and statesman.
Juliusz Słowacki (23 August 1809 – 3 April 1849) was a Polish Romantic poet.
Juliusz Zarębski (3 March 185415 September 1885) was a Polish composer and pianist.
Kamil Wiktor Stoch (born 25 May 1987) is a Polish ski jumper.
Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha (مرزيفونلى قره مصطفى پاشا, Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Paşa; "Mustafa Pasha the Courageous of Merzifon"; 1634/1635 – 25 December 1683) was an Ottoman military commander and Grand Vizier, who was a central character in the Ottoman Empire's last attempts at expansion into both Central and Eastern Europe.
A karabela was a type of Polish sabre (szabla) popular in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Karaim language (Crimean dialect: къарай тили, Trakai dialect: karaj tili, Turkish dialect: karay dili, traditional Hebrew name lashon kedar לשון קדר "language of the nomads") is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Judaeo-Spanish. It is spoken by only a few dozen Crimean Karaites (Qrimqaraylar) in Lithuania, Poland and Crimea and Galicia in Ukraine. The three main dialects are those of Crimea, Trakai-Vilnius and Lutsk-Halych all of which are critically endangered. The Lithuanian dialect of Karaim is spoken mainly in the town of Trakai (also known as Troki) by a small community living there since the 14th century. There is a chance the language will survive in Trakai as a result of official support and because of its appeal to tourists coming to the Trakai Island Castle, where Crimean Karaites are presented as the castle's ancient defenders.
Karol Kazimierz Kurpiński (March 6, 1785, WłoszakowiceSeptember 18, 1857, Warsaw) was a Polish composer, conductor and pedagogue.
Karol Maciej Szymanowski (3 October 188229 March 1937) was a Polish composer and pianist, the most celebrated Polish composer of the early 20th century.
In the English language, kasha is a term for the pseudocereal buckwheat.
Kashubia or Cassubia (Kaszëbë, Kaszuby, Kaschubei, Kaschubien) is a language area in the historic Eastern Pomerania (Pomerelia) region of northwestern Poland.
Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa; język kaszubski, język pomorski, język kaszubsko-słowiński) is a West Slavic language belonging to the Lechitic subgroup along with Polish and Silesian.
The Kashubs (Kaszëbi; Kaszubi; Kaschuben; also spelled Kaszubians, Kassubians, Cassubians, Cashubes, and Kashubians, and formerly known as Kashubes) are a West Slavic ethnic group in Pomerelia, north-central Poland.
Kasper Straube (also Kaspar or Caspar, also known as The Printer of the Turrecrematas) was a German 15th century printer from Bavaria.
Katowice (Katowicy; Kattowitz; officially Miasto Katowice) is a city in southern Poland, with a population of 297,197 and the center of the Silesian Metropolis, with a population of 2.2 million.
The Katyn massacre (zbrodnia katyńska, "Katyń massacre" or "Katyn crime"; Катынская резня or Катынский расстрел Katynskij reznya, "Katyn massacre") was a series of mass executions of Polish intelligentsia carried out by the NKVD ("People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs", the Soviet secret police) in April and May 1940.
Coat of Arms of Kazimierz Łyszczyński Kazimierz Łyszczyński (Born on March 4, 1634 in Łyszczyce (today Belarus) – March 30, 1689 in Warsaw, Poland), also known in English as Casimir Liszinski, was a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman, landowner in Brest Litovsk Voivodeship of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, philosopher, and soldier in the ranks of the Sapieha family, who was accused, tried, and executed for atheism in 1689.
Kazimierz Dolny (קוזמיר Kuzmir) is a small town in central eastern Poland, on the right (eastern) bank of the Vistula river in Puławy County, Lublin Voivodeship.
Kazimierz Kuratowski (Polish pronunciation:, 2 February 1896 – 18 June 1980) was a Polish mathematician and logician.
Kazimierz Prószyński (4 April 1875 – 13 March 1945), born in Warsaw, Poland, was a Polish inventor active in the field of cinema.
Kefir or kephir, alternatively milk kefir or búlgaros, is a fermented milk drink that originated in the Caucasus Mountains made with kefir "grains", a yeast/bacterial fermentation starter.
KGHM Polska Miedź S.A., commonly known as KGHM, is a Polish multinational corporation that employs near 34,000 people around the world and has been a leader in copper and silver production for more than 50 years.
The Khmelnytsky Uprising (Powstanie Chmielnickiego; Chmelnickio sukilimas; повстання Богдана Хмельницького; восстание Богдана Хмельницкого; also known as the Cossack-Polish War, Chmielnicki Uprising, or the Khmelnytsky insurrection) was a Cossack rebellion within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648–1657, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukrainian lands.
Kielbasa or Kiełbasa is a type of sausage originating from Poland.
Kielce is a city in south central Poland with 199,475 inhabitants.
Kinga Baranowska (born 17 November 1975 in Wejherowo) is a Polish mountaineer.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385.
Klemens Janicki (Janiciusz, Januszkowski, from Januszkowo) ('Clemens Ianicius') (1516–1543) was one of the most outstanding Latin poets of the 16th century.
Kluski (singular: klusek or kluska) is a generic Polish name for all kinds of soft, mushy dumplings, usually without a filling.
--> Knights of the Teutonic Order (Polish: Krzyżacy) is a 1960 Polish film directed by Aleksander Ford based on the novel of the same name by Henryk Sienkiewicz.
Kołobrzeg (Kolberg) is a city in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in north-western Poland with about 47,000 inhabitants.
The Kościuszko Uprising was an uprising against Imperial Russia and the Kingdom of Prussia led by Tadeusz Kościuszko in the Commonwealth of Poland and the Prussian partition in 1794.
Kompania Węglowa is the largest coal mining company in Poland and Europe producing around 48 million tonnes of coal every year, from 23 mines.
Konrad I of Masovia (Konrad I Mazowiecki) (ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 1247), from the Polish Piast dynasty, was the sixth Duke of Masovia and Kujawy from 1194 until his death as well as High Duke of Poland from 1229 to 1232 and again from 1241 to 1243.
Kontusz (from Polish language; plural kontusze; also spelled in English language as Kontush or Kuntush from Кунтуш) (originally Hungarian Köntös - robe) - a type of outer garment worn by the Hungarian and Polish-Lithuanian male nobility (szlachta).
Kotlet schabowy is a Polish variety of pork breaded cutlet coated with breadcrumbs similar to Viennese schnitzel,Mieczysław Czuma, Leszek Mazan.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The Kraków Schools of Art and Fashion Design group (Krakowskie Szkoły Artystyczne, KSA) is an umbrella group of postsecondary art and fashion design schools in Kraków, Poland.
The Kraków-Częstochowa Upland, also known as the Polish Jurassic Highland or Polish Jura (Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska), is part of the Jurassic System of south–central Poland, stretching between the cities of Kraków, Częstochowa and Wieluń.
The Krakowiacy are a subethnic group of the Polish nation, who reside in the historic province of Lesser Poland, in the area of the city of Kraków.
Králický Sněžník or Śnieżnik Kłodzki (Polish) is a mountain in the Eastern Bohemia, located on the border between the Czech Republic and Poland.
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.
The Krkonoše (Czech), Karkonosze (Polish), Riesengebirge (German), Riesageberge (Silesian German) or Giant Mountains, are a mountain range located in the north of the Czech Republic and the south-west of Poland, part of the Sudetes mountain system (part of the Bohemian Massif).
Kruszwica (Kruschwitz) is a town in central Poland and is situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (since 1999), previously in Bydgoszcz Voivodeship (1975–1998).
Krynica Morska (Kahlberg) is a town and coextensive municipality (gmina) on the Vistula Spit in northern Poland with 1,364 inhabitants (2006).
Krzysztof Kieślowski (27 June 1941 – 13 March 1996) was a Polish film director and screenwriter.
Krzysztof Komeda (born Krzysztof Trzciński; 27 April 1931 – 23 April 1969) was a Polish film music composer and jazz pianist.
Krzysztof Eugeniusz Penderecki (born 23 November 1933) is a Polish composer and conductor.
Krzysztof Wielicki (born January 5, 1950 in Szklarka Przygodzicka, municipality Ostrzeszów, Poland) is a Polish alpine and high-altitude climber, regarded as one of the greatest Polish climbers in history.
Kurpie is one of a number of ethnic regions in Poland, noted for its unique traditional customs, such as its own types of traditional costume, traditional dance and distinctive type of architecture and livelihoods.
Kuyavia (Kujawy, Kujawien, Cuiavia), also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć River and Lake Gopło.
Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, also known as Cuiavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship or simply Kujawsko-Pomorskie, or Kujawy-Pomerania Province (in Polish, województwo kujawsko-pomorskie.
Lachy Sądeckie are a group of ethnic Poles who live in southern Lesser Poland.
Lady with an Ermine (Dama con l'ermellino; Dama z gronostajem) is a painting by Leonardo da Vinci from around 1489–1490 and one of Poland's national treasures.
Mamry is a lake in the Masurian Lake District of Poland's Warmia-Mazury Province.
Landed nobility or landed aristocracy is a category of nobility in various countries over the history, for which landownership was part of their noble privileges.
A landscape park (chráněná krajinná oblast, abbreviated as CHKO; Chránená krajinná oblasť, abbreviated as CHKO; Park Krajobrazowy; krajinski park; регіона́льний ландша́фтний (пейзажний) па́рк, abbreviated as РЛП; tájvédelmi körzet, abbreviated as TVK) is a type of protected area in Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, Hungary and Slovenia.
The main language spoken in Poland is Polish.
The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union (EU).
Las Vegas (Spanish for "The Meadows"), officially the City of Las Vegas and often known simply as Vegas, is the 28th-most populated city in the United States, the most populated city in the state of Nevada, and the county seat of Clark County.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Laurentius Corvinus (Laurentius Rabe; Wawrzyniec Korwin; 1465–1527) was a Silesian scholar who lectured as an "extraordinary" (i.e. untenured) professor at the University of Krakow when Nicolaus Copernicus began to study there.
Law and Justice (Polish), abbreviated to PiS, is a national-conservative, and Christian democratic political party in Poland.
Lech Aleksander Kaczyński (18 June 194910 April 2010) was a Polish lawyer and politician who served as the Mayor of Warsaw from 2002 until 2005 and as the President of Poland from 2005 until his death in 2010.
Lech Wałęsa (born 29 September 1943) is a retired Polish politician and labour activist.
Lech, Czech and Rus refers to a founding myth of three Slavic peoples: the Poles (or Lechites), the Czechs, and the Rus' people.
Lechites, or Lekhites, is a name given to certain West Slavic peoples, including the ancestors of modern Poles and the historical Pomeranians and Polabians, speakers of the Lechitic languages.
The Lechitic (or Lekhitic) languages are a language subgroup consisting of Polish and several other languages and dialects that originally were spoken in the area.
Lee Strasberg (born Israel Strasberg; November 17, 1901February 17, 1982) was a Polish-born American actor, director, and theatre practitioner.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Lemkos (Лeмки, Łemkowie, Lemko: Лeмкы, translit. Lemkŷ; sing. Лeмкo, Lemko) are an ethnic sub-group inhabiting a stretch of the Carpathian Mountains known as Lemkivshchyna.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Lesser Poland Voivodeship or Lesser Poland Province (in Polish, województwo małopolskie), also known as Małopolska Voivodeship or Małopolska Province, is a voivodeship (province), in southern Poland.
Leszek Balcerowicz (pronounced; born January 19, 1947) is a Polish economist who is currently a professor of economics at the Warsaw School of Economics.
LG Electronics Inc. (LG전자) is a South Korean multinational electronics company headquartered in Yeouido-dong, Seoul, South Korea, and is part of the LG Group, employing 82,000 people working in 119 local subsidiaries worldwide.
The liberum veto (Latin for "free veto") was a parliamentary device in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
A licentiate is a degree below that of a PhD given by universities in some countries.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
A limited-access road, known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual-carriageway, expressway, and partial controlled access highway, is a highway or arterial road for high-speed traffic which has many or most characteristics of a controlled-access highway (freeway or motorway), including limited or no access to adjacent property, some degree of separation of opposing traffic flow, use of grade separated interchanges to some extent, prohibition of some modes of transport such as bicycles or horses, and very few or no intersecting cross-streets.
The Lipka Tatars (also known as Lithuanian Tatars, Polish Tatars, Lipkowie, Lipcani or Muślimi) are a group of Tatars who originally settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the beginning of the 14th century.
This is a list of airlines by foundation date, founded by December 31, 1929.
This is a list of airports in Poland, sorted by location, IATA and ICAO airport codes, passenger traffic and runway surface.
Below is the list of castles in Poland in alphabetical order, based on similar lists compiled by various sight-seeing societies.
This page contains a list of cities and towns in Poland, preceded by a table of major Polish cities.
Most of Chopin's compositions were for solo piano, although he did compose two piano concertos (his concertos No. 1 and No. 2 are two of the romantic piano concerto repertoire's most often-performed pieces) as well as some other music for ensembles.
List of European countries by population present the list of countries, territories and dependencies located in Europe.
Historic Monument (pomnik historii) is one of several categories of objects of cultural heritage (in the singular, zabytek) in Poland.
The following is a list of the largest airlines in Europe by total scheduled and chartered passengers, carried in millions.
This article contains a list of the oldest existing universities in continuous operation in the world.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
This is a partial list of notable Polish or Polish-speaking or -writing persons.
This article lists current political parties in Poland, as well as former parties dating back as far as 1918.
The following is a list of rulers over Lithuania—grand dukes, kings, and presidents—the heads of authority over historical Lithuanian territory.
This is a list of universities in Poland.
This is a chronological list of military conflicts in which Polish armed forces won or took place on Polish territory from the reign of Mieszko I (960–992) to the ongoing military operations.
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed as site of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of humanity.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The Lithuanian minority in Poland consists of 8,000 people (according to the Polish census of 2011) living chiefly in the Podlaskie Voivodeship in the north-eastern part of Poland.
Lithuanian–Polish–Ukrainian Brigade (abbr. LITPOLUKRBRIG; Lietuvos-Lenkijos-Ukrainos brigada, LITPOLUKRBRIG; Литовсько-Польсько-Українська Бригада, ЛИТПОЛУКРБРИГ; Brygada litewsko-polsko-ukraińska) is a multinational brigade consisting of units from the Lithuanian, Polish and Ukrainian armies.
Lithuanians (lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.
Liturgical music originated as a part of religious ceremony, and includes a number of traditions, both ancient and modern.
Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
Loam is soil composed mostly of sand (particle size > 63 µm), silt (particle size > 2 µm), and a smaller amount of clay (particle size These proportions can vary to a degree, however, and result in different types of loam soils: sandy loam, silty loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, and loam. In the USDA textural classification triangle, the only soil that is not predominantly sand, silt, or clay is called "loam". Loam soils generally contain more nutrients, moisture, and humus than sandy soils, have better drainage and infiltration of water and air than silt and clay-rich soils, and are easier to till than clay soils. The different types of loam soils each have slightly different characteristics, with some draining liquids more efficiently than others. The soil's texture, especially its ability to retain nutrients and water are crucial. Loam soil is suitable for growing most plant varieties. Bricks made of loam, mud, sand, and water, with an added binding material such as rice husks or straw, have been used in construction since ancient times.
Loess (from German Löss) is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment that is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust.
A log house, or log building, is a structure built with horizontal logs interlocked at the corners by notching.
A loggia is an architectural feature which is a covered exterior gallery or corridor usually on an upper level, or sometimes ground level.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Longships were a type of ship invented and used by the Norsemen (commonly known as the Vikings) for commerce, exploration, and warfare during the Viking Age.
Polskie Linie Lotnicze LOT S.A. (flight), doing business as LOT Polish Airlines, is the flag carrier of Poland.
Lower Silesia (Dolny Śląsk; Dolní Slezsko; Silesia Inferior; Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Niederschläsing; Dolny Ślůnsk) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.
Lower Silesian Voivodeship, or Lower Silesia Province (''Polish'': województwo dolnośląskie), in southwestern Poland, is one of the 16 voivodeships (provinces) into which Poland is divided.
Lower Silesian Wilderness (Polish: Bory Dolnośląskie German: Niederschlesische Heide) is the largest continuous forest of Poland, with total area of 1650 square kilometers.
LPP S. A. (Lubianiec Piechocki and Partnerzy) is a large Polish retailing company based in Gdańsk whose brands include: Reserved, Reserved Kids, Cropp, House, Mohito and Sinsay.
Lubin, (Lüben) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in south-western Poland.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
The Lublin Castle (Zamek Lubelski) is a medieval castle in Lublin, Poland, adjacent to the Old Town district and close to the city center.
Lublin Voivodeship, or Lublin Province (in Polish, województwo lubelskie), is a voivodeship, or province, located in southeastern Poland.
The Lubliniacy are a subethnic group of the Polish nation, who reside in the historic province of Lesser Poland, in the area of the city of Lublin.
Lubomirski's rebellion or Lubomirski's rokosz (rokosz Lubomirskiego), was a rebellion against Polish King John II Casimir, initiated by the Polish nobleman Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski.
Lubusz Land (Ziemia Lubuska, Lubusz; Land Lebus) is a historical region and cultural landscape in Poland and Germany on both sides of the Oder river.
Lubusz Voivodeship, or Lubusz Province (in Polish, województwo lubuskie), is a voivodeship (province) in western Poland.
Lukas Josef Podolski (born Łukasz Józef Podolski on 4 June 1985) is a professional footballer who plays as a forward for Japanese side Vissel Kobe.
Lusatia (Lausitz, Łužica, Łužyca, Łużyce, Lužice) is a region in Central Europe.
The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300 BC – 500 BC) in most of today's Poland and parts of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, eastern Germany, and western Ukraine.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
The Lwów school of mathematics (lwowska szkoła matematyczna) was a group of Polish mathematicians who worked between the two World Wars in Lwów, Poland (since 1945 Lviv, Ukraine).
Lynne Olson (born August 19, 1949) is an American author, historian and journalist.
Maciej Berbeka (17 October 1954, Zakopane, Poland – 6 March 2013, Broad Peak, Baltistan) was a Polish mountaineer, mountain guide UIAGM and member of TOPR.
Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski (in Latin, Matthias Casimirus Sarbievius; Lithuanian: Motiejus Kazimieras Sarbievijus; Sarbiewo, Poland, 24 February 1595 Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski's biography by Mirosław Korolko in: – 2 April 1640, Warsaw, Poland), was Europe's most prominent Latin poet of the 17th century, and a renowned theoretician of poetics.
Magdalena Abakanowicz (20 June 1930 – 20 April 2017) was a Polish sculptor and fiber artist.
A magister degree (also magistar, female form: magistra; from magister, "teacher") is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education.
Magnate, from the Late Latin magnas, a great man, itself from Latin magnus, 'great', designates a noble or other man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities.
The magnates of Poland and Lithuania were an aristocracy of nobility (szlachta) that existed in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, from the 1569 Union of Lublin, in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, until the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
A main battle tank (MBT), also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the armor-protected direct fire and maneuver role of many modern armies.
Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
Mannerism, also known as Late Renaissance, is a style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520 and lasted until about the end of the 16th century in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it.
A manor house of Polish nobility is called dwór or dworek in Polish.
Marcello Bacciarelli (16 February 1731 – 5 January 1818) was a Polish-Italian painter of the late-baroque and Neoclassic periods.
Marcin Gortat (born February 17, 1984) is a Polish professional basketball player for the Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Marcin Leopolita (also Marcin z Lwowa; Lwów, now Lviv, Ukraine, 1537 – ca. 1584) was one of the most eminent Polish composers of the sixteenth century.
Marcin Mielczewski (c. 1600 – September 1651) was, together with his tutor Franciszek Lilius and Bartłomiej Pękiel, among the most notable Polish composers in the 17th century.
Marian Kamil Dziewanowski (May 1913, Zhytomyr – 18 February 2005, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) was a historian of Poland, Russia and modern Europe.
The Mariavite Church was an independent Christian church that emerged from the Catholic Church of Poland at the turn of the 20th century.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
Maria Countess Walewska (née Łączyńska; 7 December 1786 – 11 December 1817) was a Polish noblewoman and a mistress of Emperor Napoleon I. In her later years she married count Philippe Antoine d'Ornano, an influential Napoleonic officer.
Marinism (Italian: marinismo, or secentismo, "17th century") is the name now given to an ornate, witty style of poetry and verse drama written in imitation of Giambattista Marino (1569–1625), following in particular La Lira and L'Adone.
Mariusz Zbigniew Pudzianowski (born 7 February 1977), known in Poland as "Pudzian" and "Dominator" is a Polish former strongman competitor and current mixed martial artist.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Martial law in Poland (Stan wojenny w Polsce) refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983, when the authoritarian communist government of the Polish People's Republic drastically restricted normal life by introducing martial law in an attempt to crush political opposition.
Mazovian Voivodeship or Mazovia Province (województwo mazowieckie) is the largest and most populous of the 16 Polish provinces, or voivodeships, created in 1999.
The Masovians or Mazovians (Polish: Mazowszanie; Masovian: Masovsany) are a Lechitic tribe or an ethnic group associated with the region of Mazovia.
The massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia (rzeź wołyńska, literally: Volhynian slaughter; Волинська трагедія., Volyn tragedy), were part of an ethnic cleansing operation carried out in Nazi German-occupied Poland by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) against Poles in the area of Volhynia, Polesia, Lublin region and Eastern Galicia beginning in 1943 and lasting up to 1945.
Masuria (Masuren, Masurian: Mazurÿ) is a region in northern Poland famous for its 2,000 lakes.
The Masurian Lake District or Masurian Lakeland (Pojezierze Mazurskie; Masurische Seenplatte) is a lake district in northeastern Poland within the geographical region of Masuria, in past inhabited by Masurians whose spoke the Masurian dialect.
The Masurians or Mazurs (Mazurzy, Masuren, Masurian: Mazurÿ) are a small 5,000-15,000 strong Lechitic sub-ethnic group traditionally present in what is now the present-day Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland.
Mateusz Jakub Morawiecki (born 20 June 1968) is a Polish politician, manager, banker, economist, lawyer, historian who is currently the Prime Minister of Poland.
Matura or its translated terms (Mature, Matur, Maturita, Maturità, Maturität, Maturité, Mатура) is a Latin name for the secondary school exit exam or "maturity diploma" in various countries, including Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine.
Max Factor is a line of cosmetics from Coty, Inc..
Maksymilian Faktorowicz (15 September 1872 – 30 August 1938), also known as Max Factor Sr., was a Polish-Jewish businessman, entrepreneur and inventor.
Max Fleischer (born Majer Fleischer;; July 19, 1883 – September 25, 1972) was a Polish-American animator, inventor, film director and producer.
The May Coup d'État (Przewrót majowy or zamach majowy) was a coup d'état carried out in Poland by Marshal Józef Piłsudski between 12 and 14 May 1926.
Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.
The mazurka (in Polish mazurek, plural mazurki) is a Polish folk dance in triple meter, usually at a lively tempo, and with "strong accents unsystematically placed on the second or third beat".
Mead (archaic and dialectal meath or meathe, from Old English medu) is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme is an international initiative launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
A metropolis or metropolitan archdiocese is a see or city whose bishop is the metropolitan of a province.
Międzyzdroje, (Misdroy), is a town and a seaside resort in northwestern Poland on the island of Wolin on the Baltic coast.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mieczysław Karłowicz (11 December 18768 February 1909) was a Polish composer and conductor.
Mieszko I (– 25 May 992) was the ruler of the Polans from about 960 until his death.
Since the fall of Communism in 1989, the nature of migration to and from Poland has been in flux.
Mikołaj Gomółka (c. 1535 – after 30 April 1591, most probably 5 March 1609) was a Polish Renaissance composer, member of the royal court of Sigismund II Augustus, where he was a singer, flutist and trumpeter.
Mikołaj Rej or Mikołaj Rey of Nagłowice (4 February 1505 – between 8 September/5 October 1569) was a Polish poet and prose writer of the emerging Renaissance in Poland as it succeeded the Middle Ages, as well as a politician and musician.
Mikołaj Radomski, also called Mikołaj z Radomia and Nicholas of Radom, was an early 15th-century Polish composer.
Mikołaj Zieleński (Zelenscius, fl. 1611) was a Polish composer, organist and Kapellmeister to the primate Baranowski, Archbishop of Gniezno.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
A minehunter is a naval vessel that seeks, detects, and destroys individual naval mines.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych) is the Polish government department tasked with maintaining Poland's international relations and coordinating its participation in international and regional supra-national political organisations such as the European Union and United Nations.
Ministry of Health of the Republic of Poland (Ministerstwo Zdrowia Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is one of the Ministries of the Republic of Poland.
Ministry of National Defense (Polish: Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej) is the office of government in Poland under the Minister of National Defense.
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact combat sport that allows striking and grappling, both standing and on the ground, using techniques from other combat sports and martial arts.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains.
The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.
A moraine-dammed lake occurs when the terminal moraine has prevented some meltwater from leaving the valley.
Morskie Oko (literally "Sea Eye" or "Eye of the Sea"; Morské oko, "Sea Eye"; Halas-tó, "Fish Lake") is the largest and fourth-deepest lake in the Tatra Mountains.
Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit.
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois.
The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America (Operation Iraqi Freedom), United Kingdom (Operation TELIC), Australia, Spain and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
Municipal police are law enforcement agencies that are under the control of local government.
The term musical form (or musical architecture) refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music; it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Narcyza Żmichowska (Warsaw, 4 March 1819 – 24 December 1876, Warsaw), also known under her popular nom de plume Gabryella, was a Polish novelist and poet.
The Narew River (Нараў Naraŭ; Lithuanian: Narvė, Narevas, Naruva, Naura; Нарва Narva), in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, is a right tributary of the Vistula river.
Narodowy Bank Polski (National Bank of Poland, NBP) is the central bank of Poland.
The National Festival of Polish Song in Opole (Krajowy Festiwal Piosenki Polskiej w Opolu, KFPP) is an annual music festival in Opole, Poland.
There are 23 national parks in Poland.
A national poet or national bard is a poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of a particular national culture.
Native Polish Church, Rodzimy Kościół Polski (RKP) – a West Slavic pagan religious association that refers to ethnic, pre-Christian beliefs of the Slavic people.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Natura 2000 is a network of nature protection areas in the territory of the European Union.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The New Pendolino is a class of high-speed tilting trains built by Alstom Ferroviaria for Trenitalia, SBB, Renfe, and PKP, known as the ETR 600 / 610, RABe 503, Avant S-114 and ED250 respectively.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Newsweek Polska is a Polish language weekly news magazine published in Poland as the Polish edition of Newsweek.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
Nicolaus Cracoviensis (or Mikołaj z Krakowa) was a 16th-century Polish composer.
Niebieskie Źródła Nature Reserve (lit. Blue Springs) is a nature reserve in Poland just outside the town of Tomaszów Mazowiecki.
Nihil novi nisi commune consensu ("Nothing new without the common consent") is the original Latin title of a 1505 act or constitution adopted by the Polish Sejm (parliament), meeting in the royal castle at Radom.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
A nocturne (from the French which meant nocturnal, from Latin nocturnus) is usually a musical composition that is inspired by, or evocative of, the night.
A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is a military officer who has not earned a commission.
Noodles are a staple food in many cultures.
Ivor Norman Richard Davies (born 8 June 1939) is a British-Polish historian noted for his publications on the history of Europe, Poland and the United Kingdom.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
The North European Plain (Norddeutsches Tiefland or Norddeutsche Tiefebene, North German Plain; Nizina Środkowoeuropejska, Middle European Plain) is a geomorphological region in Europe, mostly in Poland, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands (Low Countries), and a small part of northern France and Czech republic.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Nostromo: A Tale of the Seaboard is a 1904 novel by Joseph Conrad, set in the fictitious South American republic of "Costaguana".
The Notre Dame school or the Notre Dame school of polyphony refers to the group of composers working at or near the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris from about 1160 to 1250, along with the music they produced.
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.
A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction.
The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
An oath of office is an oath or affirmation a person takes before undertaking the duties of an office, usually a position in government or within a religious body, although such oaths are sometimes required of officers of other organizations.
Oświęcim (Auschwitz; אָשפּיצין Oshpitzin) is a town in the Lesser Poland (Małopolska) province of southern Poland, situated west of Cracow, near the confluence of the Vistula (Wisła) and Soła rivers.
The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during the Second World War (1939–1945) began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, and it was formally concluded with the defeat of Germany by the Allies in May 1945.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.
The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Polish language (język staropolski) is the period in the history of the Polish language between the 9th and the 16th centuries, followed by the Middle Polish language.
Old Prussians or Baltic Prussians (Old Prussian: Prūsai; Pruzzen or Prußen; Pruteni; Prūši; Prūsai; Prusowie; Prësowié) refers to the indigenous peoples from a cluster of Baltic tribes that inhabited the region of Prussia.
Olsztyn (Allenstein; Old Polish: Holstin; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini or Alnestabs; Alnaštynas, Alnštynas, Alštynas (historical) and Olštynas (modern)) is a city on the Łyna River in northeastern Poland.
Weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or Olympic weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.
The Open'er Festival is a music festival which takes place on the North coast of Poland, in Gdynia.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Tempest (akcja „Burza”, sometimes referred in English as Operation Storm) was a series of anti-Nazi uprisings conducted during World War II by the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa, AK), the dominant force in the Polish resistance.
Opole (Oppeln, Silesian German: Uppeln, Uopole, Opolí) is a city located in southern Poland on the Oder River and the historical capital of Upper Silesia.
Opole Voivodeship, or Opole Province (województwo opolskie, Woiwodschaft Oppeln), is the smallest and least populated voivodeship (province) of Poland.
Orange Polska (formerly Telekomunikacja Polska) is a Polish telecommunications provider established in December 1991.
Orange S.A., formerly France Télécom S.A., is a French multinational telecommunications corporation.
The Orava (Árva) is a 60.9 km long river in north-western Slovakia passing through a picturesque country, in the Orava county.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
Orla Perć (English: Eagle's Path) is a tourist path in the Tatra Mountains in southern Poland.
Ottoman Classical Army was the military structure established by Mehmed II, during his reorganization of the state and the military.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Poland: The Republic of Poland is a sovereign country located in Central Europe.
An overskirt, or peplum, is a type of elongated hem resembling a short skirt, worn to lie over another garment, either another skirt such as a petticoat or underskirt, or breeches.
Oxford Street is a major road in the City of Westminster in the West End of London, running from Tottenham Court Road to Marble Arch via Oxford Circus.
The pagan reaction in Poland was a series of events in the Kingdom of Poland in the 1030s that culminated in a popular uprising or rebellion, or series of these, which for a time destabilized the Kingdom of Poland.
The Palace of the Kraków Bishops in Kielce (Pałac Biskupów Krakowskich w Kielcach), was built in the 17th century as a summer residence of Bishops of Kraków in Kielce, Poland.
The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.
Pan Tadeusz (full title in English: Sir Thaddeus, or the Last Lithuanian Foray: A Nobleman's Tale from the Years of 1811 and 1812 in Twelve Books of Verse; Polish original: Pan Tadeusz, czyli ostatni zajazd na Litwie. Historia szlachecka z roku 1811 i 1812 we dwunastu księgach wierszem) is an epic poem by the Polish poet, writer and philosopher Adam Mickiewicz.
The parliament of Poland has an upper house, the Senate, and a lower house, the Sejm.
The Partition Sejm (Sejm Rozbiorowy) was a Sejm lasting from 1773 to 1775 in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, convened by its three neighbours (the Russian Empire, Prussia and Austria) in order to legalize their First Partition of Poland.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Paweł Aleksander Pawlikowski (born 15 September 1957) is a Polish filmmaker, who has lived and worked most of his life in the UK.
Płock (pronounced) is a city on the Vistula river in central Poland.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
The Pentecostal Church in Poland (Kościół Zielonoświątkowy w Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is a Pentecostal Christian denomination in Poland.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Pesa (Pojazdy Szynowe Pesa Bydgoszcz) is a company manufacturing railway vehicles based in Bydgoszcz, Poland.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
A petticoat or underskirt is an article of clothing, a type of undergarment worn under a skirt or a dress.
Polskie Górnictwo Naftowe i Gazownictwo (PGNiG, literally: Polish Petroleum Mining and Gas Industry) is a Polish state-controlled oil and gas company, headquartered in Warsaw, Poland.
Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
A piano sonata is a sonata written for a solo piano.
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.
The Pieniny (sometimes also the PieninsSzafer, Władysław. 2013. The Vegetation of Poland: International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Biology. Warsaw: Pergamon Press, pp. 156, 388. or the Pienin Mountains) is a mountain range in the south of Poland and the north of Slovakia.
Pieniny National Park (Pieniński Park Narodowy) is a protected area located in the heart of Pieniny Mountains in the southernmost part of Poland.
Pierogi (singular pieróg), also known as varenyky, are filled dumplings of Eastern European origin made by wrapping unleavened dough around a savory or sweet filling and cooking in boiling water.
Pilica is a river in central Poland, the longest left tributary of the Vistula river, with a length of 333 kilometres (8th longest) and a basin area of 9,258 km2 (all in Poland).
Piotr Pustelnik (born July 12, 1951 in Łódź, Poland) is a Polish alpine and high-altitude climber.
Piotr Skarga (less often, Piotr Powęski; 2 February 1536 – 27 September 1612) was a Polish Jesuit, preacher, hagiographer, polemicist, and leading figure of the Counter-Reformation in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Piotr Wysocki (10 September 1797 in Warka – 6 January 1875 there), was a Polish lieutenant and leader of the Polish conspiracy against Russian Tsar Nicolas I. Nobleman (szlachcic) of Odrowąż Coat of Arms, he raised military insurgents on 29 November 1830, starting the November Uprising against Russia.
PKN Orlen (Polski Koncern Naftowy Orlen) is a major Polish oil refiner and petrol retailer.
Powszechna Kasa Oszczędności Bank Polski Spółka Akcyjna (also known as PKO Bank Polski, PKO BP) is Poland's largest bank.
PKP Intercity is a company of PKP Group responsible for long-distance passenger transport.
The planned destruction of Warsaw refers to the largely-realized plans by Nazi Germany to raze the city that were put into motion after the Warsaw Uprising in 1944.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Play, P4 is a brand name of a Polish cellular telecommunications provider.
Pleograph (Pleograf) was an early type of movie camera constructed in 1894, before those made by the Lumière brothers, by Polish inventor Kazimierz Prószyński.
Plus (formerly Plus GSM) is the brand name of Poland's mobile phone network operator, Polkomtel.
Poczta Polska (Polish Post) is the state postal administration of Poland.
Podkarpackie Voivodeship or Podkarpackie Province (in Polish: województwo podkarpackie), also known as Subcarpathian Voivodeship or Subcarpathia Province, is a voivodeship, or province, in extreme-southeastern Poland.
Podlaskie Voivodeship or Podlasie Province (Województwo podlaskie) is a voivodeship (province) in northeastern Poland.
Pola Negri (born Barbara Apolonia Chałupec; 3 January 18971 August 1987) was a Polish stage and film actress who achieved worldwide fame during the silent and golden eras of Hollywood and European film for her tragedienne and femme fatale roles.
Poland has been a member state of the European Union since 1 May 2004, with the Treaty of Accession 2003 signed on 16 April 2003 in Athens as the legal basis for Poland's accession to the EU.
"Mazurek Dąbrowskiego", also known by its incipit, "Poland Is Not Yet Lost", is the national anthem of Poland.
The Poland national men's volleyball team is controlled by the Polski Związek Piłki Siatkowej (PZPS), which represents the country in international competitions and friendly matches.
The Poland national football team (Reprezentacja Polski w piłce nożnej) represents Poland in association football and is controlled by the Polish Football Association, the governing body for football in Poland.
The Poland national speedway team is the national motorcycle speedway team of Poland and is controlled by the Polish Motor Union (PZM).
The Polans (also known as Polanes, Polanians;, derived from Old Slavic pole, "field" or "plain", see polje) were a West Slavic tribe, part of the Lechitic group, inhabiting the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Poles in Germany are the second largest Polish diaspora (Polonia) in the world and the biggest in Europe.
The Polish community in the United Kingdom since the mid-20th century largely stems from the Polish presence in the British Isles during the Second World War, when Poles made a substantial contribution to the Allied war effort.
Polferries is the largest Polish ferry operator.
Police (Pölitz; Kashubian/Pomeranian: Pòlice) is a town in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, northwestern Poland.
Policja is the generic name for the police in Poland.
The Polish Air Force (Siły Powietrzne, literally "Air Forces") is the aerial warfare military branch of the Polish Armed Forces.
The Polish Air Forces (Polskie Siły Powietrzne) was the name of the Polish Air Forces formed in France and the United Kingdom during World War II.
The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography.
Polish Americans are Americans who have total or partial Polish ancestry.
Following the Invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II, nearly a quarter of the entire territory of the Second Polish Republic was annexed by Nazi Germany and placed directly under the German civil administration.
The Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland (Polish:Siły Zbrojne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, abbreviated SZ RP; popularly called Wojsko Polskie in Poland, abbreviated WP—roughly, the "Polish Military") are the national armed forces of the Republic of Poland.
Polish Armed Forces in the East (Polskie Siły Zbrojne na Wschodzie) (or Polish Army in USSR) refers to military units composed of Poles created in the Soviet Union at the time when the territory of Poland was occupied by both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in the Second World War.
The Polish Armed Forces in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight alongside the Western Allies against Nazi Germany and its allies during World War II.
The Polish Brethren (Polish: Bracia Polscy) were members of the Minor Reformed Church of Poland, a Nontrinitarian Protestant church that existed in Poland from 1565 to 1658.
Polish Canadians are citizens of Canada with Polish ancestry, and Poles who immigrated to Canada from abroad.
Polish census of 2011 (Narodowy Spis Powszechny 2011) was a census in Poland taken from 1 April to 30 June 2011.
The Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polish: Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego, PKWN), also known as the Lublin Committee, was a puppet provisional government of Poland,.
The European theatre of World War II opened with the German invasion of Poland on Friday September 1, 1939 and the Soviet invasion of Poland on September 17, 1939.
The Polish diaspora refers to Poles who live outside Poland.
The Polish government-in-exile, formally known as the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile (Rząd Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na uchodźstwie), was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of September 1939, and the subsequent occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic.
The Land Forces (Wojska Lądowe) are a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polish literature is the literary tradition of Poland.
The Polish Merchant Navy (Polska Marynarka Handlowa, PMH) was created in the interwar period when the Second Polish Republic regained independence.
The Polish minority in the Republic of Ireland numbered approximately 122,515 (2.57% of the population) according to 2016 census figures.
The Polish Navy (Marynarka Wojenna, "War Navy") is a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces responsible for naval operations.
Polish Navy Shipyard (Stocznia Marynarki Wojennej) is a Polish shipyard company located in Gdynia.
The Polish Ombudsman (Rzecznik Praw Obywatelskich, literally Advocate for Citizens' Rights, now referring to itself in English as the "Commissioner for Human Rights" and earlier as the "Human Rights Defender," often abbreviated RPO) is an independent central office of the Republic of Poland.
The Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church, commonly known as the Polish Orthodox Church (Polski Autokefaliczny Kościół Prawosławny), or (Orthodox) Church of Poland is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches in full communion.
A parliamentary election to both the Senate and the ''Sejm'' (lower house) was held in Poland on 9 October 2011.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
The Polish population transfers in 1944–46 from the eastern half of prewar Poland (also known as the expulsions of Poles from the Kresy macroregion), refer to the forced migrations of Poles toward the end – and in the aftermath – of World War II.
Presidential elections were held in Poland on 25 November 1990, with a second round on 9 December.
The Polish resistance movement in World War II, with the Polish Home Army at its forefront, was the largest underground resistance movement in all of occupied Europe, covering both German and Soviet zones of occupation.
The citizens of Poland have the world's highest count of individuals who have been recognized by Yad Vashem of Jerusalem as the Polish Righteous Among the Nations, for saving Jews from extermination during the Holocaust in World War II.
Beginning in the 1950s and through the 1980s, the Polish School of Posters combined the aesthetics of painting with the succinctness and simple metaphor of the poster.
Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN (Polish Scientific Publishers PWN; until 1991 Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe - National Scientific Publishers PWN, PWN) is a Polish book publisher, founded in 1951.
Polish Sign Language ("Polski Język Migowy", PJM) is the language of the Deaf community in Poland.
Wojska Specjalne, WS (en. Special Troops) is the 4th military branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland formed in early 2007.
Polskie Koleje Państwowe SA (PKP SA, Polish State Railways, Inc.) is the dominant railway operator in Poland.
The Polish Underground State (Polskie Państwo Podziemne, also known as the Polish Secret State) is a collective term for the underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian, that were loyal to the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile in London.
The Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP; Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR) was the Communist party which governed the Polish People's Republic from 1948 to 1989.
Polish Uplanders (Pogórzanie; also known as Western Pogorzans and Eastern Pogorzans), are a distinctive subethnic group of Poles that mostly live in the Central Beskidian Range of the Subcarpathian highlands.
The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.
The Poland–Czechoslovakia War, also known mostly in Czech sources as the Seven-day war (Sedmidenní válka) was a military confrontation between Czechoslovakia and Poland over the territory of Cieszyn Silesia in 1919.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The term Polish–Lithuanian Union refers to a series of acts and alliances between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that lasted for prolonged periods of time and led to the creation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—the "Republic of the Two Nations"—in 1569 and eventually to the creation of a short-lived unitary state in 1791.
The Polish–Russian War of 1792 (also, War of the Second Partition, and in Polish sources, War in Defence of the Constitution (wojna w obronie Konstytucji 3 maja)) was fought between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on one side, and the Targowica Confederation (conservative nobility of the Commonwealth opposed to the new Constitution of 3 May 1791) and the Russian Empire under Catherine the Great on the other.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
Polityka (Politics) is a centre-left weekly newsmagazine in Poland.
The polonaise (polonez) is a dance of Polish origin, in 4 time.
The robe à la polonaise or polonaise is a woman's garment of the later 1770s and 1780s or a similar revival style of the 1870s inspired by Polish national costume, consisting of a gown with a cutaway, draped and swagged overskirt, worn over an underskirt or petticoat.
Polonization (or Polonisation; polonizacja)In Polish historiography, particularly pre-WWII (e.g., L. Wasilewski. As noted in Смалянчук А. Ф. (Smalyanchuk 2001) Паміж краёвасцю і нацыянальнай ідэяй. Польскі рух на беларускіх і літоўскіх землях. 1864–1917 г. / Пад рэд. С. Куль-Сяльверставай. – Гродна: ГрДУ, 2001. – 322 с. (2004). Pp.24, 28.), an additional distinction between the Polonization (polonizacja) and self-Polonization (polszczenie się) has been being made, however, most modern Polish researchers don't use the term polszczenie się.
Polsat is one of Poland's biggest television channels, founded on 5 December 1992 and owned by Zygmunt Solorz-Żak.
Polsat News is a Polish news channel, launched on 7 June 2008 at 7:00 AM (UTC+1).
Polska Grupa Energetyczna (PGE SA or PGE Group, the name can be translated as Polish Energy Group) is a state-owned public power company and the largest power producing company in Poland.
Polska Roma are the largest and one of the oldest ethnolinguistic sub group of Romani people living in Poland.
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
Pomeranian Voivodeship, Pomorskie Region, or Pomerania Province (in Polish województwo pomorskie, in Kashubian Pòmòrsczé wòjewództwò), is a voivodeship, or province, in north-western Poland.
The Pomeranians (Pomoranen; Pòmòrzónie; Pomorzanie) were a group of West Slavic tribes who lived along the shore of the Baltic Sea between the mouths of the Oder and Vistula Rivers (the latter Farther Pomerania and Pomerelia).
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Pope Urban V (Urbanus V; 1310 – 19 December 1370), born Guillaume de Grimoard, was Pope from 28 September 1362 to his death in 1370 and was also a member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
Prince Popiel ІІ (or Duke Popiel) was a legendary 9th century ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans and Polans and the last member of the pre-Piast dynasty, the Popielids.
Poppy seed is an oilseed obtained from the poppy (Papaver somniferum).
The poppy seed roll is a pastry consisting of a roll of sweet yeast bread (a viennoiserie) with a dense, rich, bittersweet filling of poppy seed.
The Port of Świnoujście (in Polish generally Port Świnoujście) is a Polish seaport in Świnoujście, Poland at the Baltic Sea located at the Świna strait, on Wolin and Usedom islands.
The Port of Gdańsk is a seaport located on the southern coast of Gdańsk Bay in the city of Gdańsk, extending along the Vistula estuary Martwa Wisła (Dead Vistula), Port Channel and Kashubia Canal.
Port of Gdynia – the Polish seaport located on the western coast of Gdańsk Bay Baltic sea in Gdynia.
The Port of Kołobrzeg (in Polish generally Port Kołobrzeg) is a Polish seaport in Kołobrzeg, Poland at the Baltic Sea located at the Parsęta river.
The Port of Police (in Polish generally Port Police) is a Polish seaport and deep water harbour in Police, Poland located on the west bank of the Oder River, off the Szczecin Lagoon.
The Port of Szczecin (in Polish generally Port Szczecin) is a Polish seaport and deep water harbour in Szczecin, Poland.
Pospolite ruszenie (lit. mass mobilization; "Noble Host", motio belli, the French term levée en masse is also used) is a name for the mobilisation of armed forces during the period of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
A powiat (pronounced; Polish plural: powiaty) is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (LAU-1, formerly NUTS-4) in other countries.
PZU Group (PZU) is a publicly traded insurance company, a component of the WIG20 and one of the largest financial institutions in Poland.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
Poznań Town Hall or Ratusz is a historic building in the city of Poznań in western Poland, located at the Poznań Old Town in the centre of Old Market Square (Stary Rynek).
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The Pregolya or Pregola (Прего́ля; Pregel; Prieglius; Pregoła) is a river in the Russian Kaliningrad Oblast exclave.
The prehistory and protohistory of Poland can be traced from the first appearance of Homo species on the territory of modern-day Poland, to the establishment of the Polish state in the 10th century AD, a span of roughly 500,000 years.
A prelude (Präludium or Vorspiel; praeludium; prélude; preludio) is a short piece of music, the form of which may vary from piece to piece.
The presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature.
The President of the Republic of Poland (Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, shorter form: Prezydent RP) is the head of state of Poland.
The President of the European Council is a principal representative of the European Union (EU) on the world stage, and the person presiding over and driving forward the work of the European Council.
The President of the Council of Ministers (Polish: Prezes Rady Ministrów), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister of Poland (Polish: Premier Polski), is the leader of the cabinet and the head of government of Poland.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.
Protected areas of Poland include the following categories, as defined by the Act on Protection of Nature (Ustawa o ochronie przyrody) of 16 April 2004,, 2004, published by the Polish Parliament by the Polish Parliament.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Przewozy Regionalne, trading as POLREGIO, formerly PKP Przewozy Regionalne, is a train operator in Poland, responsible for local and interregional passenger transportation (przewozy regionalne means regional transport in Polish).
Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service.
PZL Mielec (Polskie Zakłady Lotnicze - Polish Aviation Works), formerly WSK-Mielec (Wytwórnia Sprzętu Komunikacyjnego) and WSK "PZL-Mielec" is a Polish aerospace manufacturer, based in Mielec.
PZL Świdnik S.A (Wytwórnia Sprzętu Komunikacyjnego PZL-Świdnik S.A.) is the biggest helicopter manufacturer in Poland.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
In monetary economics, the quantity theory of money (QTM) states that the general price level of goods and services is directly proportional to the amount of money in circulation, or money supply.
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
Quern-stones are stone tools for hand-grinding a wide variety of materials.
Quo Vadis: A Narrative of the Time of Nero, commonly known as Quo Vadis, is a historical novel written by Henryk Sienkiewicz in Polish.
Raczki Elbląskie (Unter Kerbswalde) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Elbląg, within Elbląg County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
The Polish railways network consists of around of track as of 2015, of which the vast majority is electrified at 3 kV DC overhead.
Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species.
There have been several referendums in the history of Poland.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
Polish regions are regions located within the present-day Poland without being identified in its administrative division.
While there are a number of religious communities operating in Poland, the majority of its population adheres to Christianity.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Renaissance in Poland (Renesans, Odrodzenie; literally: the Rebirth) lasted from the late 15th to the late 16th century and is widely considered to have been the Golden Age of Polish culture.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Polish Jews were the primary victims of the German-organized Holocaust. Throughout the German occupation of Poland, some Poles risked their lives – and the lives of their families – to rescue Jews from the Germans. Poles were, by nationality, the most numerous persons who rescued Jews during the Holocaust. To date, ethnic Poles have been recognized by the State of Israel as Righteous among the Nations – more, by far, than the citizens of any other country. The Home Army (the Polish Resistance) alerted the world to the Holocaust through the reports of Polish Army officer Witold Pilecki, conveyed by Polish Government-in-Exile courier Jan Karski. The Polish Government-in-Exile and the Polish Secret State pleaded, to no avail, for American and British help to stop the Holocaust. Some estimates put the number of Polish rescuers of Jews as high as 3 million, and credit Poles with saving up to some 450,000 Jews, temporarily, from certain death. The rescue efforts were aided by one of the largest resistance movements in Europe, the Polish Underground State and its military arm, the Home Army. Supported by the Government Delegation for Poland, these organizations operated special units dedicated to helping Jews; of those units, the most notable was the Żegota Council, based in Warsaw, with branches in Kraków, Wilno, and Lwów. Polish rescuers of Jews were hampered by the most stringent conditions in all of German-occupied Europe. Occupied Poland was the only country where the Germans decreed that any kind of help to Jews was punishable by death for the rescuer and the rescuer's entire family. Of the estimated 3 million non-Jewish Poles killed in World War II, thousands – perhaps as many as 50,000 – were executed by the Germans solely for saving Jews.
Reserved is a Polish clothing store chain, part of LPP, which has more than 1,700 stores located in 18 countries.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Ribes is a genus of about 150 known species of flowering plants native throughout the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
Roasting is a cooking method that uses dry heat where hot air envelops the food, cooking it evenly on all sides with temperatures of at least 150 °C (~300 °F) from an open flame, oven, or other heat source.
Robert Józef Kubica (born 7 December 1984) is a Polish racing driver who is currently test and reserve driver for the Williams F1 team.
Robert Lewandowski (born 21 August 1988) is a Polish professional footballer who plays as a striker for Bundesliga club Bayern Munich and is the captain of the Poland national team.
Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950sJim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992),.
Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.
The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
Roman Opałka (August 27, 1931 – August 6, 2011) was a French-born Polish painter, whose works are mostly associated with conceptual art.
Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański (born 18 August 1933) is a French-Polish film director, producer, writer, and actor.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
Romani people in Poland (Romowie, commonly known as Gypsies Cyganie) are one of Poland's recognized ethnic minorities.
Romanticism in Poland, a literary, artistic and intellectual period in the evolution of Polish culture, began around 1820, coinciding with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz's first poems in 1822.
Rosół is a traditional Polish meat broth.
A roulade (/ruːˈlɑːd/) is a dish of filled rolled meat or pastry.
The Royal Castle in Warsaw (Zamek Królewski w Warszawie) is a castle residency that formerly served throughout the centuries as the official residence of the Polish monarchs.
Royal elections in Poland (wolna elekcja, lit. free election) was the election of individual kings, rather than of dynasties, to the Polish throne.
The Rus (Русь, Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group, who lived in a large area of what is now Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other countries, and are the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian cuisine is a collection of the different cooking traditions of the Russian people.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.
Ruthenians and Ruthenes are Latin exonyms which were used in Western Europe for the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples, Rus' people with Ruthenian Greek Catholic religious background and Orthodox believers which lived outside the Rus'.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
Rysy (Polish and Slovak: Rysy,; Meeraugspitze, Tengerszem-csúcs) is a mountain in the crest of the High Tatras, lying on the border between Poland and Slovakia.
Rzeczpospolita Polska is a traditional and official name of the Polish State – Rzeczpospolita Polska (Res Publica Poloniae, Republic of Poland).
Rzeczpospolita is a nationwide daily economic and legal newspaper and the only conservative-liberal newspaper in Poland.
Rzeszów (Ряшiв, Ŕašiv; Resche (antiquated); Resovia; ריישע, rayshe) is the largest city in southeastern Poland, with a population of 189,637 (01.03.2018).
The Church of Saints Peter and Paul in the Old Town district of Kraków, Poland (Kościół ŚŚ Piotra i Pawła w Krakowie) is a Roman Catholic, Polish Baroque church located at ul.
Samuel Louis "Sam" Warner (born Szmuel Wonsal, August 10, 1887 – October 5, 1927) was an American film producer who was the co-founder and chief executive officer of Warner Bros. Studios.
Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.
Samuel Goldwyn (born Szmuel Gelbfisz; שמואל געלבפֿיש; c. August 27, 1879 – January 31, 1974), also known as Samuel Goldfish, was a Polish American film producer of Jewish descent.
Samuel Linde (Thorn, now Toruń, 11 or 24 April 1771 – 8 August 1847, Warsaw) was a linguist, librarian, and lexicographer of the Polish language.
Sanation (Sanacja) was a Polish political movement that was created in the interwar period, prior to Józef Piłsudski's May 1926 ''Coup d'État'', and came to power in the wake of that coup.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
Sarmatism (or Sarmatianism) is an ethno-cultural concept with a shade of politics designating the formation of an idea of Poland's origin from Sarmatians within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
Słowiński National Park (Słowiński Park Narodowy) is a national park in Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern Poland.
Słupsk (Stolp; also known by several alternative names) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland, with a population of 98,757.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
Searing (or pan searing) is a technique used in grilling, baking, braising, roasting, sautéing, etc., in which the surface of the food (usually meat, poultry or fish) is cooked at high temperature until a caramelized crust forms.
In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre, (in the UK or Australia) a guildhall, a Rathaus (German), or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city, town, or other municipality.
The 1793 Second Partition of Poland was the second of three partitions (or partial annexations) that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
The Peace of Thorn of 1466 (Zweiter Friede von Thorn; drugi pokój toruński) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanseatic city of Thorn (Toruń) on 19 October 1466 between the Polish king Casimir IV Jagiellon on one side, and the Teutonic Knights on the other.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
The general sejm (sejm walny, also translated as the full or ordinary sejm) was the bicameral parliament of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
A sejmik (diminutive of sejm, occasionally translated as a dietine; seimelis) was one of various local parliaments in the history of Poland.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament, the lower house being the 'Sejm'.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
Shock therapy is a term used by some non-economists to refer to the sudden release of price and currency controls (economic liberalization), withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country, usually also including large-scale privatization of previously public-owned assets.
Shuysky tribute was the act of homage of the deposed Tsar Vasily IV of Russia and his retinue to the Polish King Sigismund III Vasa and teenage prince Władysław (the then-candidate to the Russian throne) on October 29, 1611, in the Senate Hall of the Royal Castle in Warsaw.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siege of Tobruk lasted for 241 days in 1941, after Axis forces advanced through Cyrenaica from El Agheila in Operation Sonnenblume against Allied forces in Libya, during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.
The Siege of Warsaw in 1939 was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the invading German Army.
Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.
Sigismund I of Poland (Zygmunt I Stary, Žygimantas I Senasis; 1 January 1467 – 1 April 1548), of the Jagiellon dynasty, reigned as King of Poland and also as the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until 1548.
Sigismund II Augustus (Zygmunt II August, Ruthenian: Żygimont II Awgust, Žygimantas II Augustas, Sigismund II.) (1 August 1520 – 7 July 1572) was the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the only son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548.
Sigismund III Vasa (also known as Sigismund III of Poland, Zygmunt III Waza, Sigismund, Žygimantas Vaza, English exonym: Sigmund; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599.
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound (and in particular, no spoken dialogue).
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Silesian architecture is the name given to the constructions made in Silesia throughout time, and those by Silesian architects worldwide.
Silesian Gorals (Górale śląscy, Slezští Goralé, Cieszyn Silesian: Gorole; literally "highlanders") are a Polish ethnographic group (subgroup of both Gorals and Silesians) living in Silesian Beskids and Moravian-Silesian Beskids within historical region of Cieszyn Silesia.
Silesian or Upper Silesian (Silesian: ślōnskŏ gŏdka, ślůnsko godka (Silesian pronunciation), Slezština, język śląski / etnolekt śląski, Wasserpolnisch) is a West Slavic lect, part of its Lechitic group.
The Silesian Uprisings (Aufstände in Oberschlesien; Powstania śląskie) were a series of three armed uprisings of the Poles and Polish Silesians of Upper Silesia, from 1919 to 1921, against German rule; the resistance hoped to break away from Germany in order to join the Second Polish Republic, which had been established in the wake of World War I. In the latter-day history of Poland after World War II, the insurrections were celebrated as centrepieces of national pride.
Silesian Voivodeship, or Silesia Province (województwo śląskie), Woiwodschaft Schlesien) is a voivodeship, or province, in southern Poland, centered on the historic region known as Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk), with Katowice serving as its capital. Despite the Silesian Voivodeship's name, most of the historic Silesia region lies outside the present Silesian Voivodeship — divided among Lubusz, Lower Silesian, and Opole Voivodeships — while the eastern half of Silesian Voivodeship (and, notably, Częstochowa in the north) was historically part of Lesser Poland. The Voivodeship was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Katowice, Częstochowa and Bielsko-Biała Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. It is the most densely populated voivodeship in Poland and within the area of 12,300 squared kilometres, there are almost 5 million inhabitants. It is also the largest urbanised area in Central and Eastern Europe. In relation to economy, over 13% of Poland’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is generated here, making the Silesian Voivodeship one of the wealthiest provinces in the country.
Silesians (Silesian: Ślůnzoki; Silesian German: Schläsinger; Ślązacy; Slezané; Schlesier) are the inhabitants of Silesia, a historical region in Central Europe divided by the current national boundaries of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic.
Silesians (Ślężanie) were a tribe of West Slavs, specifically of the Lechitic/Polish group, inhabiting territories of Lower Silesia, near Ślęża mountain and Ślęza river, on the both banks of the Oder, up to the area of modern city of Wrocław.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sinte Romani (also known as Sintenghero Tschib(en), Sintitikes or Romanes) is the variety of Romani spoken by the Sinti people in Germany, France, Austria, some parts of northern Italy and other adjacent regions.
Ski jumping is a winter sport in which competitors aim to achieve the longest jump after descending from a specially designed ramp on their skis.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
The Slovaks or Slovak people (Slováci, singular Slovák, feminine Slovenka, plural Slovenky) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovak language.
Small arms include handguns (revolvers and pistols) and long guns, such as rifles, carbines, shotguns, submachine guns, assault rifles, personal defense weapons, and light machine guns.
Smolensk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, west-southwest of Moscow.
Sněžka or Śnieżka (in Czech and Polish) is a mountain on the border between the Czech Republic and Poland, the most prominent point of the Silesian Ridge in the Krkonoše mountains.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Solaris Bus & Coach S.A. is a Polish multinational bus, coach, trolleybus and tram manufacturer based in Bolechowo near Poznań, Poland.
Solbus is a Polish bus manufacturer founded in 2001 in Solec Kujawski.
Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced; full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"—Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność”) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.
Sonata (Italian:, pl. sonate; from Latin and Italian: sonare, "to sound"), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung.
Sopot (Kashubian: Sopòt; German: Zoppot) is a seaside resort city in Eastern Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Poland, with a population of approximately 40,000.
The Sopot International Song Festival (later called Sopot Music Festival Grand Prix, Sopot Top of the Top Festival from 2012–13 and Polsat Sopot Festival in 2014) is an annual international song contest held in Sopot, Poland.
Soured milk denotes a range of food products produced by the acidification of milk.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
The Soviet partisans were members of resistance movements that fought a guerrilla war against the Axis forces in the Soviet Union, the previously Soviet-occupied territories of interwar Poland in 1941–45 and eastern Finland.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Special Courts (Polish Sądy Specjalne) were World War II underground courts in occupied Poland, organized by the Polish Government-in-Exile.
Speedway is one of the most popular sports in Poland.
The Speedway World Team Cup was an annual speedway event held each year in different countries.
A spit or sandspit is a deposition bar or beach landform off coasts or lake shores.
Sponsoring something (or someone) is the act of supporting an event, activity, person, or organization financially or through the provision of products or services.
A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.
The Church of St.
Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.
Stanisław II Augustus (also Stanisław August Poniatowski; born Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski; 17 January 1732 – 12 February 1798), who reigned as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1764 to 1795, was the last monarch of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Stanisław Żółkiewski (1547 – 7 October 1620) was a Polish nobleman of the Lubicz coat of arms, magnate and military commander of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, who took part in many campaigns of the Commonwealth and on its southern and eastern borders.
Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz (24 February 188518 September 1939), commonly known as Witkacy, was a Polish writer, painter, philosopher, playwright, novelist, and photographer active in the interwar period.
Stanisław I Leszczyński (also Anglicized and Latinized as Stanislaus I, Stanislovas Leščinskis, Stanislas Leszczynski; 20 October 1677 – 23 February 1766) was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire.
Stanisław Mazur (1 January 1905, Lwów – 5 November 1981, Warsaw) was a Polish mathematician and a member of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
Stanisław Moniuszko (May 5, 1819, Ubiel, Minsk Governorate – June 4, 1872, Warsaw, Congress Poland) was a Polish composer, conductor and teacher.
Stanisław Sylwester Szarzyński (fl. 1692–1713) was a Polish composer.
Stanisław Witkiewicz (8 May 1851 in Pašiaušė – 5 September 1915 in Lovran) was a Polish painter, architect, writer and art theoretician.
Stanisław Wyspiański (15 January 1869 – 28 November 1907) was a Polish playwright, painter and poet, as well as interior and furniture designer.
Stanisław Marcin Ulam (13 April 1909 – 13 May 1984) was a Polish-American scientist in the fields of mathematics and nuclear physics.
Stary Sącz - is a town in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland, seat of the municipality Stary Sącz.
State Fire Service (Państwowa Straż Pożarna, PSP) is a fire fighting service of Poland.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
The State Tribunal of the Republic of Poland is the judicial body, which rules on the constitutional liability of people holding the highest offices of state.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
The General Charter of Jewish Liberties known as the Statute of Kalisz, and as the Kalisz Privilege, was issued by the Duke of Greater Poland Boleslaus the Pious on September 8, 1264 in Kalisz.
Stefan Banach (30 March 1892 – 31 August 1945) was a Polish mathematician who is generally considered one of the world's most important and influential 20th-century mathematicians.
Stena Line is one of the largest ferry operators in the world.
Steven J. Zaloga (born February 1, 1952) is an American historian, defense consultant, and an author on military technology.
Stilt houses are houses raised on piles over the surface of the soil or a body of water.
Stołowe Mountains; also known as the Table Mountains (Góry Stołowe, Stolové hory, Heuscheuergebirge) are a -long mountain range in Poland and the Czech Republic, part of the Sudetes.
The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries.
The Sudetes (also known as the Sudeten after their German name; Czech: Krkonošsko-jesenická subprovincie, Sudetská subprovincie, subprovincie Sudety, Sudetská pohoří, Sudetské pohoří, Sudety; Polish: Sudety) are a mountain range in Central Europe.
Suffragettes were members of women's organisations in the late-19th and early-20th centuries who, under the banner "Votes for Women", fought for women's suffrage, the right to vote in public elections.
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
Sulejów Landscape Park (Sulejowski Park Krajobrazowy) is a protected area (Landscape Park) in central Poland, established in 1994 and covering an area of.
Sung poetry is a broad and imprecise music genre widespread in European countries, such as Poland and the Baltic States, to describe songs consisting of a poem (most often a ballad) and music written specially for that text.
The Supreme Administrative Court of the Republic of Poland (Naczelny Sąd Administracyjny) is the court of last resort in administrative cases e.g. those betweens private citizens (or corporations) and administrative bodies.
The Supreme Court (Sąd Najwyższy) of the Republic of Poland supervises the adjudication in.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
Suwałki (Suvalkai, סואוואַלק) is a city in northeastern Poland with 69,210 inhabitants (2011).
Szabla (plural: szable) is the Polish word for sabre.
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
Szczecin Lagoon, Stettin Lagoon, Bay of Szczecin, or Stettin Bay (Zalew Szczeciński, Stettiner Haff), also Oder lagoon (Oderhaff), is a lagoon in the Oder estuary, shared by Germany and Poland.
Szczecin Shipyard or New Szczecin Shipyard (Polish: Stocznia Szczecińska Nowa) was a shipyard in the city of Szczecin, Poland.
The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet.
Tadeusz Kantor (6 April 1915 – 8 December 1990) was a Polish painter, assemblage artist, set designer and theatre director.
Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko (Andrew Thaddeus Bonaventure Kosciuszko; February 4 or 12, 1746 – October 15, 1817) was a Polish-Lithuanian military engineer, statesman, and military leader who became a national hero in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and the United States.
Tamara Łempicka (born: Maria Górska; 16 May 1898 – 18 March 1980; colloquial: Tamara de Lempicka) was a Polish painter active in the 1920s and 1930s, who spent her working life in France and the United States.
The Targowica Confederation (konfederacja targowicka,, Targovicos konfederacija) was a confederation established by Polish and Lithuanian magnates on 27 April 1792, in Saint Petersburg, with the backing of the Russian Empress Catherine II.
Tarnów (is a city in southeastern Poland with 115,341 inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 269,000 inhabitants. The city is situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999. From 1975 to 1998, it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship. It is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east–west connection from Lviv to Kraków, and two additional lines, one of which links the city with the Slovak border. Tarnów is known for its traditional Polish architecture, which was strongly influenced by foreign cultures and foreigners that once lived in the area, most notably Jews, Germans and Austrians. The entire Old Town, featuring 16th century tenements, houses and defensive walls, has been fully preserved. Tarnów is also the warmest city of Poland, with the highest long-term mean annual temperature in the whole country.
Tarnica is a peak in the Bieszczady Mountains in southern Poland.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Tatra Mountains, Tatras or Tatra (Tatry either in Slovak or in Polish- plurale tantum), is a mountain range that forms a natural border between Slovakia and Poland.
Tauron Group (Tauron Polska Energia S.A.) is an energy holding company in Poland.
Technikum (p; Ukrainian: те́хнікум; Polish: technikum) was an institute of vocational education in countries in the former Soviet bloc.
The telectroscope (also referred to as 'electroscope') was the first conceptual model of a television or videophone system.
The assignment of telephone numbers in Poland is controlled by the Office of Electronic Communications (UKE), the national regulatory authority.
A television advertisement (also called a television commercial, commercial or ad in American English, and known in British English as a TV advert or simply an advert) is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization.
A television licence or broadcast receiving licence is a payment required in many countries for the reception of television broadcasts, or the possession of a television set where some broadcasts are funded in full or in part by the licence fee paid.
Telewizja Polska S.A. (TVP S.A., or Polish Television) is a public broadcasting corporation, the only public TV broadcaster in the territory of the Republic of Poland.
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial biome, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The territorial changes of Poland immediately after World War II were very extensive, the Oder-Neisse Line became Poland's western border and the Curzon Line its eastern border.
The Territorial Defence Force - TDF (Wojska Obrony Terytorialnej – WOT) is a Polish force made up of professional and part-time volunteer soldiers, forming part of the country's defence and deterrence system.
A territorial entity is an entity that covers a part of the surface of the Earth with specified borders.
Poland (Polska) is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north.
17 days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union invaded the eastern regions of the Second Polish Republic, which Poland re-established during the Polish–Soviet War and referred to as the "Kresy", and annexed territories totaling with a population of 13,299,000 inhabitants including Lithuanians,Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, Jews, Czechs and others.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Adventures of Mr.
The Dybbuk (Der Dibuk; Dybuk) is a 1937 Yiddish-language Polish fantasy drama directed by Michał Waszyński.
The Holocaust in German-occupied Poland was the last and most lethal phase of Nazi Germany's "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" (Endlösung der Judenfrage), marked by the construction of death camps on German-occupied Polish soil.
The Peasants (Chłopi) is a novel written by Nobel Prize-winning Polish author Władysław Reymont in four parts between 1904 and 1909.
The Pianist is a 2002 biographical drama film co-produced and directed by Roman Polanski, scripted by Ronald Harwood, and starring Adrien Brody.
The Witcher (Wiedźmin) is an action role-playing game developed by CD Projekt Red and published by Atari, based on the novel series of The Witcher by Polish author Andrzej Sapkowski.
The Third Partition of Poland (1795) was the last in a series of the Partitions of Poland and the land of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth among Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and the Russian Empire which effectively ended Polish–Lithuanian national sovereignty until 1918.
The Thirteen Years' War (Dreizehnjähriger Krieg; wojna trzynastoletnia), also called the War of the Cities, was a conflict fought in 1454–66 between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and the State of the Teutonic Order.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
The Three Bards are the national poets of Polish Romantic literature.
The Three Seas Initiative, also known as the Baltic, Adriatic, Black Sea (BABS) Initiative, is a forum of European Union countries in Central and Eastern Europe.
Tomasz Gollob (born 11 April 1971 in Bydgoszcz, Poland) is a Polish motorcycle speedway rider who has appeared in every Speedway Grand Prix series since its inaugural season in 1995.
Tomasz Szarota (born 1940) is a Polish historian and publicist.
Tomaszów Mazowiecki is a medium-sized city in central Poland with 63,601 inhabitants (2016).
Tomato soup is a soup made with tomatoes as the primary ingredient.
Toruń (Thorn) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.
The trade-to-GDP ratio is an indicator of the relative importance of international trade in the economy of a country.
The Trail of the Eagle's Nests (Szlak Orlich Gniazd) of south-western Poland, is a marked trail along a chain of 25 medieval castles between Częstochowa and Kraków.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Treblinka was an extermination camp, built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Tripe soup is a common dish in Balkan, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Greek, Turkish, and Eastern European cuisine.
Triple metre (or Am. triple meter, also known as triple time) is a musical metre characterized by a primary division of 3 beats to the bar, usually indicated by 3 (simple) or 9 (compound) in the upper figure of the time signature, with,, and being the most common examples.
Triticale (× Triticosecale), is a hybrid of wheat (Triticum) and rye (Secale) first bred in laboratories during the late 19th century in Scotland and Germany.
Truce of Deulino (also known as Peace or Treaty of Dywilino) was signed on 11 December 1618 and took effect on 4 January 1619.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
Turbacz is the highest peak of the Gorce Mountains, a mountain range located in southern Lesser Poland.
TVN is a Polish commercial television station.
TVN24 is a Polish 24-hour commercial infotainment channel, launched on 9 August 2001.
TVP Historia is a public, history channel available on cable, satellite and DSL, It was launched on May 2007.
TVP Info is a Polish news channel, run by the public broadcaster TVP.
TVP Kultura is the first TV theme channel to be run by the Polish public broadcaster TVP.
TVP Polonia (also known as TV Polonia, Telewizja Polonia or Telewizja Polska Polonia) is the international channel of the Telewizja Polska (TVP).
TVP Rozrywka is a public entertainment channel.
TVP Seriale is a public series channel available on cable, satellite and DSL, It was launched in December 2010.
TVP Sport is a Polish sport channel owned by TVP launched on 18 November 2006.
TVP3 (formerly TVP Regionalna, known also as Regionalna Trójka or Program 3 Telewizji Polskiej) is a Polish TV channel, run by the public broadcaster, TVP and dedicated to the country's regions.
Tygodnik Angora, commonly known as Angora, is a Polish language weekly press review published in Łódź.
Tymbark SA, a Polish food company, is a producer of juices and beverages.
The 2012 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2012 or simply Euro 2012, was the 14th European Championship for men's national football teams organised by UEFA.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainian cuisine is the cuisine of Ukraine.
The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Українська повстанська армія, УПА, Ukrayins’ka Povstans’ka Armiya, UPA) was a Ukrainian nationalist paramilitary and later partisan army that engaged in a series of guerrilla conflicts during World War II against Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and both Underground and Communist Poland.
The Ukrainian minority in Poland (Українці, Ukrayintsi, Ukraińcy), according to the Polish census of 2011 used to be composed of approximately 51,000 people (including 11,451 without Polish citizenship).
Unemployment in Poland appeared in the 19th century, during the process of industrialization, and was particularly severe during the Great Depression.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
Unity Line is a Polish company that operates RoRo and train ferry services between Świnoujście in Poland and the Swedish ports of Ystad and Trelleborg.
University of Arts in Poznań (in Polish: Uniwersytet Artystyczny w Poznaniu) is one of the major fine-art academies in Poland.
The University of Warsaw (Uniwersytet Warszawski, Universitas Varsoviensis), established in 1816, is the largest university in Poland.
The University of Wrocław (UWr; Uniwersytet Wrocławski; Universität Breslau; Universitas Wratislaviensis) is a public research university located in Wrocław, Poland.
Poland has no official motto of the State, namely the one which is recognized as such by the Polish national law.
Usedom (Usedom, Uznam) is a Baltic Sea island in Pomerania, divided since 1945 between Germany and Poland.
A utility helicopter is a multi-purpose helicopter.
The Váh (Waag; Vág; Wag) is the longest river within Slovakia.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
Victory (also published as Victory: An Island Tale) is a psychological novel by Joseph Conrad first published in 1915, through which Conrad achieved "popular success." The New York Times, however, called it "an uneven book" and "more open to criticism than most of Mr.
Viennoiseries ("things of Vienna") are baked goods made from a yeast-leavened dough in a manner similar to bread, or from puff pastry, but with added ingredients (particularly eggs, butter, milk, cream and sugar) giving them a richer, sweeter character, approaching that of pastry.
Vietnamese people in Poland form one of the ethnic minorities in Poland.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
The Visegrád Battlegroup or V4 EU Battlegroup is an EU Battlegroup led by Poland, in which the other fellow Visegrád Group countries –the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary participate.
The Visegrád Group, Visegrád Four, or V4 is a cultural and political alliance of four Central European statesthe Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia, that are members of the European Union (EU)for the purposes of advancing military, cultural, economic and energy cooperation with one another along with furthering their integration in the EU.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Vistula delta Mennonites settled in the delta of the Vistula between the mid-16th century and 1945.
The Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany; Калининградский залив or Kaliningradskiy Zaliv; Frisches Haff; Aistmarės) is a brackish water lagoon on the Baltic Sea roughly 56 miles (90 km) long, 6 to 15 miles (10 to 19 km) wide, and up to 17 feet (5 m) deep, separated from Gdańsk Bay by the Vistula Spit.
The Vistula Spit (Mierzeja Wiślana; Балтийская коса; Frische Nehrung) is an aeolian sand spit, or peninsular stretch of land, which separates Vistula Lagoon from Gdańsk Bay in the Baltic Sea, with its tip separated from the mainland by the Strait of Baltiysk.
The Vistulans, or Vistulanians (Wiślanie), were an early medieval West Slavic tribe inhabiting western part of modern Lesser Poland.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vlax Romani is a dialect group of the Romani language.
VoivodeAlso spelled "voievod", "woiwode", "voivod", "voyvode", "vojvoda", or "woiwod" (Old Slavic, literally "war-leader" or "warlord") is an Eastern European title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force.
A voivodeship is the area administered by a voivode (Governor) in several countries of central and eastern Europe.
A voivodeship sejmik (sejmik województwa), also known as a provincial or regional assembly, is the regional-level elected legislature for each of the sixteen voivodeships of Poland.
A województwo (plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries.
Volhynia, also Volynia or Volyn (Wołyń, Volýn) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling between south-eastern Poland, parts of south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
150px The 1976 Men's Olympic Volleyball Tournament was the 4th edition of the event, organized by the world's governing body, the FIVB in conjunction with the IOC.
Wacław z Szamotuł (Szamotuły, near Poznań, c. 1520 – c. 1560, Pińczów), also called Wacław Szamotulski and (in Latin) Venceslaus Samotulinus, was a Polish composer.
Wacław Franciszek Sierpiński (14 March 1882 – 21 October 1969) was a Polish mathematician.
Wadowice (Frauenstadt – Wadowitz) is a city in southern Poland, southwest of Kraków with 19,200 inhabitants (2006), situated on the Skawa river, confluence of Vistula, in the eastern part of Silesian Foothills (Pogórze Śląskie).
The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance, normally in time, performed primarily in closed position.
Wanda Rutkiewicz (February 4, 1943 – May 12–13, 1992) was a Polish computer engineer and mountain climber.
Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship or Warmia-Masuria Province or Warmia-Mazury Province (in Województwo warmińsko-mazurskie,.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport (Lotnisko Chopina w Warszawie), more commonly referred to as Chopin Airport or Warsaw-Chopin Airport, is an international airport located in the Włochy district of Warsaw, Poland.
The Warsaw Confederation, signed on 28 January 1573 by the Polish national assembly (sejm konwokacyjny) in Warsaw, was the first European act granting religious freedoms.
The Warsaw Old Town (italic and collectively with the New Town, known colloquially as: Starówka) is the oldest part of Warsaw, the capital city of Poland.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
Warsaw School of Mathematics is the name given to a group of mathematicians who worked at Warsaw, Poland, in the two decades between the World Wars, especially in the fields of logic, set theory, point-set topology and real analysis.
The Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE), Giełda Papierów Wartościowych w Warszawie, is a stock exchange in Warsaw, Poland.
The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie; Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation.
The Warta (Polish pronunciation: Warthe; Varta) is a river in western-central Poland, a tributary of the Oder River (Odra).
Wawel is a fortified architectural complex erected over many centuries atop a limestone outcrop on the left bank of the Vistula river in Kraków, Poland, at an altitude of 228 metres above sea level.
The Wawel Castle is a castle residency located in central Kraków, Poland.
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet.
Węglokoks is a Polish coal exporting company the largest exporter of hard coal in Europe.
Władysław Żeleński (6 July 1837 – 23 January 1921) was a Polish composer, pianist and organist.
Władysław Gomułka (6 February 1905 – 1 September 1982) was a Polish communist politician.
Władysław I the Elbow-high or the Short (Władysław I Łokietek; c. 1260 – 2 March 1333) was the King of Poland from 1306 to 1333, and duke of several of the provinces and principalities in the preceding years.
Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.
Władysław IV Vasa (Władysław IV Waza; Vladislovas Vaza; r; Vladislaus IV Vasa or Ladislaus IV Vasa; 9 June 1595 – 20 May 1648) was a Polish prince from the Royal House of Vasa.
Władysław Stanisław Reymont (born Rejment; 7 May 1867 – 5 December 1925) was a Polish novelist and the 1924 laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Władysławowo (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Wiôlgô Wies, Großendorf) is a town on the south coast of the Baltic Sea in Kashubia in the Pomerelia region, northern Poland, with 15,015 (2009) inhabitants.
Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous related or unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name.
The "Weimar Triangle" is, loosely, a grouping of Poland, Germany, and France.
Welfare in Poland is part of the social security system in Poland.
West Pomeranian Voivodeship or West Pomerania Province (in Polish, województwo zachodniopomorskie.
The West Slavic languages are a subdivision of the Slavic language group.
The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages.
The concept of Western betrayal refers to the view that the United Kingdom and France failed to meet their legal, diplomatic, military and moral obligations with respect to the Czechoslovak and Polish nations during the prelude to and aftermath of World War II.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Western European Union (WEU) was the international organisation and military alliance that succeeded the Western Union (WU) after the 1954 amendment of the 1948 Treaty of Brussels.
The Western Tatras (Západné Tatry; Tatry Zachodnie) are mountains in the Tatras, part of the Carpathian Mountains, located on the Polish-Slovak borders.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
The white stork (Ciconia ciconia) is a large bird in the stork family Ciconiidae.
The WIG30 is a capitalization-weighted stock market index of the thirty largest companies on the Warsaw Stock Exchange.
Wigilia is the traditional Christmas Eve vigil supper in Poland, held on December 24.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
Blessed Wincenty Kadłubek (1150 – 8 March 1223) was a Polish Roman Catholic prelate and professed Cistercian who served as the Bishop of Kraków from 1208 until his resignation in 1218.
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity.
Windsurfing is a surface water sport that combines elements of surfing and sailing.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Wire transfer, bank transfer or credit transfer is a method of electronic funds transfer from one person or entity to another.
Maria Wisława Anna SzymborskaVioletta Szostak gazeta.pl, 2012-02-09.
Witold Roman Lutosławski (25 January 1913 – 7 February 1994) was a Polish composer and orchestral conductor.
A witzchoura (sometimes witz-chouras) was a type of mantle, pelisse, or sleeved cloak, with a large collar and, sometimes, a hood, that was particularly fashionable in the early 19th century.
Wojciech Bogusławski (9 April 1757 – 23 July 1829) was a Polish actor, theater director and playwright of the Polish Enlightenment.
Wojciech Długoraj (c. 1557 - after 1619), also called Wiecesław Długoraj, Adalbert Długoraj and Gostinensis, was a Polish Renaissance composer and lutenist.
Wojciech Kurtyka (also Voytek Kurtyka, born 25 July 1947, in Skrzynka near Kłodzko) is a Polish mountaineer and rock climber, one of the pioneers of the alpine style of climbing the biggest walls in the Greater Ranges.
Wolin (Wollin,, Pomeranian Wòlin) is the name both of a Polish island in the Baltic Sea, just off the Polish coast, and a town on that island.
Wolin National Park (Woliński Park Narodowy) is one of 23 National Parks in Poland, situated on the island of Wolin in the far north-west of the country, in West Pomeranian Voivodeship.
Wooden Churches of Southern Lesser Poland of the UNESCO inscription are located in Binarowa, Blizne, Dębno, Haczów, Lipnica Murowana, and Sękowa (Lesser Poland Voivodeship or Małopolska).
Wooden Tserkvas of the Carpathian Region in Poland and Ukraine are a group of wooden Orthodox (and some Eastern Catholic) churches located in Poland and Ukraine which were inscribed in 2013 on the UNESCO World Heritage List which explains.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,236 or more in 2016, calculated using the Atlas method.
The World Rally Championship (WRC) is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
The World Values Survey (WVS) is a global research project that explores people’s values and beliefs, how they change over time and what social and political impact they have.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history in absolute terms of total casualties.
Mass evacuation, forced displacement, expulsion, and deportation of millions of people took place across most countries involved in World War II.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
The World's Strongest Man is a strongman competition.
Wprost (meaning "Directly") is a Polish-language weekly newsmagazine published in Poznań, Poland.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
The Wrocław Zoological Garden, known simply as the Wrocław Zoo (Ogród Zoologiczny we Wrocławiu), is a zoo on Wróblewskiego Street in Wrocław, Poland.
Wrocław’s dwarfs (krasnoludki) are small figurines (20-30 cm) that first appeared in the streets of Wrocław, Poland, in 2005.
Yachting refers to the use of recreational boats and ships called yachts for sporting purposes.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yiddish cinema (יידישע קינא, יידיש-שפראכיגע קינא; trans. Idish-Sprakhige Kino, Idishe Kino) refers to the film industry in the Yiddish language.
Young Poland (Młoda Polska) was a modernist period in Polish visual arts, literature and music, covering roughly the years between 1890 and 1918.
The Yugoslav Partisans,Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani, Партизани or the National Liberation Army,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачка војска (НОВ); Народноослободителна војска (НОВ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska (NOV) officially the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV i POJ), Народноослободилачка војска и партизански одреди Југославије (НОВ и ПОЈ); Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија (НОВ и ПОЈ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV in POJ) was the Communist-led resistance to the Axis powers (chiefly Germany) in occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
The Zachęta National Gallery of Art (Polish: Narodowa Galeria Sztuki), is a contemporary art museum in the centre of Warsaw, Poland.
Zakopane is a town in the extreme south of Poland.
Zaolzie is the Polish name for an area now in the Czech Republic which was disputed between interwar Poland and Czechoslovakia.
Zdzisław Beksiński (24 February 1929 – 21 February 2005) was a Polish painter, photographer and sculptor, specializing in the field of dystopian surrealism.
Zielona Góra (Grünberg in Schlesien) is the largest city in Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland, with 138,512 inhabitants (2015).
Zrazy (Polish: zrazy, Lithuanian: zrazai or mušti suktinukai) is a meat roulade dish popular in Eastern Europe, especially in Poland (Silesian rouladen), Belarus and Lithuania.
Count Zygmunt Krasiński (19 February 1812 – 23 February 1859), a Polish nobleman traditionally ranked with Adam Mickiewicz and Juliusz Słowacki as one of Poland's Three National Bards — the trio of great Romantic poets who influenced national consciousness during the period of Poland's political bondage.
is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Poland, administered by NASK, the Polish research and development organization.
The meridian 14° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 1972 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1972), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972.
The 1974 FIFA World Cup, the tenth staging of the World Cup, was held in West Germany (including West Berlin) from 13 June to 7 July.
The 1974 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship was the eighth edition of the tournament, organised by the world's governing body, the FIVB.
The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially called the Games of the XXI Olympiad (French: Les XXIes olympiques d'été), was an international multi-sport event in Montreal, Quebec, in 1976, and the first Olympic Games held in Canada.
The 1982 FIFA World Cup, the 12th FIFA World Cup, was held in Spain from 13 June to 11 July 1982.
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain in 1992.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 2004 enlargement of the European Union was the largest single expansion of the European Union (EU), in terms of territory, number of states, and population to date; however, it was not the largest in terms of gross domestic product.
The 2008 Canadian Grand Prix (formally the XLV Grand Prix du Canada) was a Formula One motor race held on 8 June 2008 at the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
On 10 April 2010, a Tupolev Tu-154 aircraft of the Polish Air Force crashed near the city of Smolensk, Russia, killing all 96 people on board.
The 2014 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship was held in Poland from 30 August to 21 September 2014.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000.
The meridian 25° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 49th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 49° north of Earth's equator.
The 55th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 55 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
Architecture of Poland, Bastarnia, Country- Poland, Etymology of Poland, Fourth Poland, ISO 3166-1:PL, Lenkija, POLAND, Ploand, Po land, PolanD, Poland., Polandia, Pole land, Poleand, Poleland, Polija, Polind, Polish state, Polland, Polnd, Pologne, Pols Land, Polska, Polskor, Puola, Republic of Poland, Rzeczpospolita Polska.