299 relations: A Greek–English Lexicon, ABC Islands bear, Adipose tissue, Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears, Alaska, Alaska Native religion, Alaska Natives, Alaskozetes antarcticus, Algae, Allen's rule, Amulet, Ancient Greek, Antarctica, Anthropomorphism, Apex predator, Aquatic locomotion, Archipelago, Arctic, Arctic Basin, Arctic char, Arctic Circle, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Arctic exploration, Arctic fox, Arctic ice pack, Arctic Ocean, Arctic sea ice decline, Arctic wolf, Automotive battery, Bacteria, Baffin Bay, Barren-ground caribou, Bear, Bearded seal, Beaufort Sea, Beluga whale, Bering Sea, Berlevåg, Berry, Binomial nomenclature, Bioaccumulation, Bioindicator, Biomarker, Blubber, Blue mussel, Bowdoin College, Brown bear, Bundaberg Rum, Calgary, Canada, ..., Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Canadian Eskimo Dog, Canine tooth, Cannibalism, Cardiac muscle, Carnivore, Cave painting, Central Siberian Yupik language, Charismatic megafauna, Chris d'Lacey, Chukchi language, Chukchi Peninsula, Chukchi people, Chukchi Sea, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Churchill, Manitoba, Circumpolar peoples, CITES, Clade, Climate change, Climate of the Arctic, Coca-Cola, Cold War, Common eider, Constantine Phipps, 2nd Baron Mulgrave, Constellation, Continental shelf, Crab, Crustacean, Cutaneous condition, DDT, Denmark, Dentition, DNA, Dog paddle, Drift ice, Drowning, East (novel), Ecological niche, Ecological pyramid, Ecosystem health, Edith Pattou, Effects of global warming, Eisbären Berlin, Elephant seal, Empetrum nigrum, Endangered Species Act of 1973, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Ethylene glycol, Evolutionary pressure, Family (biology), Fasting, Fish, Flagship species, Folklore, Fossil, Fourhorn sculpin, Fox's Glacier Mints, Fur, Gallbladder, Genus, Glaucous gull, Global warming, Gray wolf, Greenland, Greenland shark, Grizzly–polar bear hybrid, Habitat destruction, Harbor seal, Harp seal, HarperCollins, Hibernation, His Dark Materials, Hoarding (animal behavior), Hormone, Hudson Bay, Humid continental climate, Hydraulic fluid, Hydrogen peroxide, Hypercarnivore, Hypervitaminosis A, Hypothermia, Ian Stirling (biologist), Icebreaker, Igloo, Immunoglobulin G, International Polar Bear Day, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Inuit, Inuit religion, Inupiaq language, Inuvialuit, IUCN Red List, James Bay, Juvenile (organism), Kamchatka Peninsula, Kelp, Key Porter Books, Keystone species, Khatanga River, Killer whale, Klondike bar, Kodiak bear, Komi language, Kotzebue Sound, Kuril Islands, Landfill, Latin, Leptospirosis, Leymus arenarius, Little auk, Liver, Long-tailed duck, Lost (TV series), Magdalenefjorden, Maine, Manitoba, Marine ecosystem, Marine mammal, Marine Mammal Protection Act, Meat, Mergini, Metabolism, Michio Hoshino, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (Russia), Mitchell Taylor, Mite, Mitochondrial DNA, Molar (tooth), Molecular Ecology, Morbillivirus, Morphology (biology), Moss, Motor oil, Moulting, Muskox, Nanook, Narwhal, National Geographic, Nelvana, Nenets people, Neontology, Newfoundland (island), Noah's Island, North Pole, Northwest Territories, Norway, Nuclear DNA, Nunavut, Oil spill, Olfaction, Omnivore, Oral history, Ovulation, Oxford University Press, Parasitism, Permafrost, Persistent organic pollutant, Pesticide, Peter Simon Pallas, Phenotype, Philip Pullman, Pinniped, Plastic, Pleistocene, PLOS One, Poaching, Polar Bears International, Polar Beverages, Polar Biology, Pollution, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polygyny in animals, Polynya, Pomors, Prins Karls Forland, Rabies, Races and creatures in His Dark Materials, Raymond Briggs, Red Data Book of the Russian Federation, Reindeer, Retinol, Ringed seal, Rodent, Root, Russia, Sea, Sea ice, Sea of Okhotsk, Seaweed, SeaWorld, Sexual dimorphism, Siberia, Siberian Yupik, Sister group, Snow goose, Snowmobile, Soviet Union, Species problem, Spitsbergen, Steven Amstrup, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, Styrofoam, Subarctic climate, Subspecies, Sustainable yield, Svalbard, Svalbard reindeer, Tendon, Territory (animal), The Bear (1998 film), The Fire Within (novel), The Golden Compass (film), Thermography, Thompson, Manitoba, Toonie, Toronto Zoo, Toxicity, Traditional ecological knowledge, Traffic (conservation programme), Transliteration, Trichinella, Trichinosis, Umbrella species, Ungulate, United States, United States Department of the Interior, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, United States Geological Survey, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Ursa Major, Ursid hybrid, Ursinae, Ursus maritimus tyrannus, Vehicle registration plates of Nunavut, Vehicle registration plates of the Northwest Territories, Vulnerable species, Walrus, Waste, Weaning, White-beaked dolphin, Willow, Willow ptarmigan, Wolverine, World Wide Fund for Nature, Yamal Peninsula, Yenisei River, Yupik, 1988 Winter Olympics. Expand index (249 more) » « Shrink index
A Greek–English Lexicon, often referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, is a standard lexicographical work of the Ancient Greek language.
The ABC Islands bear (Ursus arctos sitkensis) or Sitka brown bear is a subspecies of brown bear that resides in Southeast Alaska and is found on Admiralty Island, Baranof Island, and Chichagof Island of Alaska.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
The Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears is a multilateral treaty signed in Oslo, November 15, 1973, by the five nations with the largest polar bear populations: Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Norway (Svalbard), the United States, and the Soviet Union.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Traditional Alaskan Native religion involves mediation between people and spirits, souls, and other immortal beings.
Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples of Alaska, United States and include: Iñupiat, Yupik, Aleut, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, and a number of Northern Athabaskan cultures.
Alaskozetes antarcticus is a species of non-parasitic mite, known for its ability to survive in subzero temperatures.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Allen's rule is an ecogeographical rule formulated by Joel Asaph Allen in 1877, broadly stating that animals adapted to cold climates have shorter limbs and body appendages than animals adapted to warm climates.
An amulet is an object that is typically worn on one's person, that some people believe has the magical or miraculous power to protect its holder, either to protect them in general or to protect them from some specific thing; it is often also used as an ornament though that may not be the intended purpose of it.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.
An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, with no natural predators.
Aquatic locomotion is biologically propelled motion through a liquid medium.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
The Arctic Basin (also North Polar Basin) is an oceanic basin in the Arctic Ocean, consisting of two main parts separated by the Lomonosov Ridge, a mid-ocean ridge running between north Greenland and the New Siberian Islands.
Arctic char or Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a cold-water fish in the family Salmonidae, native to alpine lakes and arctic and subarctic coastal waters.
The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
The Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) is a study describing the ongoing climate change in the Arctic and its consequences: rising temperatures, loss of sea ice, unprecedented melting of the Greenland ice sheet, and many impacts on ecosystems, animals, and people.
Arctic exploration is the physical exploration of the Arctic region of the Earth.
The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and common throughout the Arctic tundra biome.
The Arctic ice pack is the ice cover of the Arctic Ocean and its vicinity.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
Arctic sea ice decline is the sea ice loss observed in recent decades in the Arctic Ocean.
The Arctic wolf (Canis lupus arctos), also known as the white wolf or polar wolf, is a subspecies of gray wolf native to the Queen Elizabeth Islands, from Melville Island to Ellesmere Island.
An automotive battery is a rechargeable battery that supplies electrical current to a motor vehicle.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Baffin Bay (Inuktitut: Saknirutiak Imanga; Avannaata Imaa; Baie de Baffin), located between Baffin Island and the southwest coast of Greenland, is a marginal sea of the North Atlantic Ocean.
The barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) is a subspecies of the reindeer (or the caribou in North America) that is found mainly in the Canadian territories of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, as well as in Kitaa, Greenland.
Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.
The bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), also called the square flipper seal, is a medium-sized pinniped that is found in and near to the Arctic Ocean.
The Beaufort Sea (Mer de Beaufort) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located north of the Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska, west of Canada's Arctic islands.
The beluga whale or white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) is an Arctic and sub-Arctic cetacean.
The Bering Sea (r) is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean.
(Bearalváhki) is a municipality in Finnmark county, Norway.
A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
A bioindicator is any species (an indicator species) or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal the qualitative status of the environment.
A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.
Blubber is a thick layer of vascularized adipose tissue under the skin of all cetaceans, pinnipeds and sirenians.
The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), also known as the common mussel, is a medium-sized edible marine bivalve mollusc in the family Mytilidae, the mussels.
Bowdoin College is a private liberal arts college located in Brunswick, Maine.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
Bundaberg Rum is a dark rum produced in Bundaberg, Australia, by the Bundaberg Distilling Company.
Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, also known as the Arctic Archipelago, is a group of islands north of the Canadian mainland.
The Canadian Eskimo Dog is an Arctic breed of working dog, which is often considered to be one of North America's oldest and rarest remaining purebred indigenous domestic canines.
In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dog teeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth.
Cannibalism is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.
Central Siberian Yupik, (also known as Siberian Yupik, Bering Strait Yupik, Yuit, Yoit, "St. Lawrence Island Yupik", and in Russia "Chaplinski Yupik" or Yuk) is an endangered Yupik language spoken by the indigenous Siberian Yupik people along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the Russian Far East and in the villages of Savoonga and Gambell in St. Lawrence Island.
Charismatic megafauna are large animal species with widespread popular appeal, which are often used by environmental activists to achieve environmentalist goals.
Chris D'Lacey (born 15 December 1954) is an English writer of children's fiction, he is best known for writing The Last Dragon Chronicles.
Chukchi is a Chukotko–Kamchatkan language spoken by the Chukchi people in the easternmost extremity of Siberia, mainly in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug.
The Chukchi Peninsula (or Chukotka Peninsula or Chukotski Peninsula) (Чуко́тский полуо́стров, Чуко́тка), at about 66° N 172° W, is the eastmost peninsula of Asia.
The Chukchi, or Chukchee (Чукчи, sg. Чукча), are an indigenous people inhabiting the Chukchi Peninsula and the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.
Chukchi Sea (p) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (p; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ, Chukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug) or Chukotka (Чуко́тка) is a federal subject (an autonomous okrug) of Russia.
Churchill (ᑯᒡᔪᐊᖅ, Kuugjuaq) is a town in northern Manitoba, Canada on the west shore of Hudson Bay, roughly from the Manitoba–Nunavut border.
Circumpolar peoples and Arctic peoples are umbrella terms for the various indigenous peoples of the Arctic.
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
The climate of the Arctic is characterized by long, cold winters and short, cool summers.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The common eider (pronounced) (Somateria mollissima) is a large (in body length) sea-duck that is distributed over the northern coasts of Europe, North America and eastern Siberia.
Constantine John Phipps, 2nd Baron Mulgrave, PC (19 May 1744 – 10 October 1792) was an English explorer and officer in the Royal Navy.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Dentition pertains to the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
The dog paddle or doggy paddle is a simple swimming style.
Drift ice is any sea ice other than fast ice, the latter being attached ("fastened") to the shoreline or other fixed objects (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).Leppäranta, M. 2011.
Drowning is defined as respiratory impairment from being in or under a liquid.
East (also known as North Child in the UK and Australia) is a 2003 novel by the author Edith Pattou.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
An ecological pyramid (also trophic pyramid, eltonian pyramid, energy pyramid, or sometimes food pyramid) is a graphical representation designed to show the biomass or bio productivity at each trophic level in a given ecosystem.
Ecosystem health is a metaphor used to describe the condition of an ecosystem.
Edith Pattou is an American writer of fantasy fiction, including the novel East, an ALA Top Ten Best Book for Young Adults for 2004.
The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases.
(English: Berlin Polar Bears) is a professional ice hockey team based in Berlin, Germany.
Elephant seals are large, oceangoing earless seals in the genus Mirounga.
Empetrum nigrum, crowberry, black crowberry, or, in western Alaska, blackberry, is a flowering plant species in the heather family Ericaceae with a near circumboreal distribution in the northern hemisphere.
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is one of the few dozens of US environmental laws passed in the 1970s, and serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
Environment and Climate Change Canada (or simply its former name, Environment Canada, or EC) (Environnement et Changement climatique Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act (R.S., 1985, c. E-10), is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources.
Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.
Any cause that reduces reproductive success in a portion of a population potentially exerts evolutionary pressure, selective pressure or selection pressure.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
In conservation biology, a flagship species is a species chosen to raise support for biodiversity conservation in a given place or social context.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
The fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) is a species of fish in the Cottidae family.
Fox's Glacier Mints are the leading, branded boiled mint in the UK.
Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.
In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
The glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) is a large gull, the second largest gull in the world which breeds in Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and winters south to shores of the Holarctic.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus), also known as the gurry shark or grey shark, or by the Kalaallisut name eqalussuaq, is a large shark of the family Somniosidae ("sleeper sharks"), closely related to the Pacific and southern sleeper sharks.
A grizzly–polar bear hybrid (Super Bear) (also named grolar bear or pizzly bear or nanulak) is a rare ursid hybrid that has occurred both in captivity and in the wild.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
The harbor (or harbour) seal (Phoca vitulina), also known as the common seal, is a true seal found along temperate and Arctic marine coastlines of the Northern Hemisphere.
The harp seal or saddleback seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus is a species of earless seal, or true seal, native to the northernmost Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Ocean.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.
His Dark Materials is an epic trilogy of fantasy novels by Philip Pullman consisting of Northern Lights (1995) (published as The Golden Compass in North America), The Subtle Knife (1997), and The Amber Spyglass (2000).
Hoarding or caching in animal behavior is the storage of food in locations hidden from the sight of both conspecifics (animals of the same or closely related species) and members of other species.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
A hydraulic fluid or hydraulic liquid is the medium by which power is transferred in hydraulic machinery.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
A hypercarnivore is an animal which has a diet that is more than 70% meat, with the balance consisting of non-animal foods such as fungi, fruits or other plant material.
Hypervitaminosis A refers to the toxic effects of ingesting too much preformed vitamin A. Symptoms arise as a result of altered bone metabolism and altered metabolism of other fat-soluble vitamins.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
Ian Grote Stirling (born September 26, 1941) is a research scientist emeritus with Environment and Climate Change Canada and an adjunct professor in the University of Alberta Department of Biological Sciences.
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
An igloo (Inuit languages: iglu, Inuktitut syllabics ᐃᒡᓗ (plural: igluit ᐃᒡᓗᐃᑦ)), also known as a snow house or snow hut, is a type of shelter built of snow, typically built when the snow can be easily compacted.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody.
International Polar Bear Day is an annual event celebrated every February 27 to raise awareness about the conservation status of the polar bear.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Inuit religion is the shared spiritual beliefs and practices of Inuit, an indigenous people from Alaska, Canada, and Greenland.
Inupiaq, Inupiat, Inupiatun or Alaskan Inuit, is a group of dialects of the Inuit languages, spoken by the Iñupiat people in northern and northwestern Alaska, and part of the Northwest Territories.
The Inuvialuit (ɪnˈuviˌaluət) (sing. Inuvialuk; the real people) or Western Canadian Inuit are Inuit people who live in the western Canadian Arctic region.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
James Bay (Baie James, Wînipekw) is a large body of water on the southern end of Hudson Bay in Canada.
A juvenile is an individual organism that has not yet reached its adult form, sexual maturity or size.
The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).
Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.
Key Porter Books was a book publishing company based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.
The Khatanga River (Хатанга) is a river in Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia.
Klondike is a brand name for a dessert generally consisting of a vanilla ice cream square coated with a thin layer of chocolate, often known as a Klondike bar.
The Kodiak bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi), also known as the Kodiak brown bear, sometimes the Alaskan brown bear, inhabits the islands of the Kodiak Archipelago in southwest Alaska.
The Komi language (endonym: Коми кыв, tr. Komi kyv) is a Uralic macrolanguage spoken by the Komi peoples in the northeastern European part of Russia.
Kotzebue Sound (Залив Коцебу) is an arm of the Chukchi Sea in the western region of the U.S. state of Alaska.
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p or r; Japanese: or), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.
A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leptospirosis is an infection caused by corkscrew-shaped bacteria called Leptospira.
Leymus arenarius (L.) Hochst.
The little auk or dovekie (Alle alle) is a small auk, the only member of the genus Alle.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis), once known as oldsquaw, is a medium-sized sea duck.
Lost is an American drama television series that originally aired on the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) from September 22, 2004, to May 23, 2010, over six seasons, comprising a total of 121 episodes.
Magdalenefjorden is an 8 km long and up to 5 km wide fjord between Reuschhalvøya and Hoelhalvøya, Albert I Land, on the west coast of Spitsbergen, the largest island in the Svalbard archipelago.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
Marine ecosystems are among the largest of Earth's aquatic ecosystems.
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) was the first act of the United States Congress to call specifically for an ecosystem approach to wildlife management.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
The seaducks (Mergini) are a tribe of the duck subfamily of birds, the Anatinae.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
was a Japanese-born nature photographer.
The Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment of the Russian Federation (Министерство природных ресурсов и экологии Российской Федерации) is a governmental agency within the Cabinet of Russia tasked with managing the country's natural resources and protecting the environment.
Mitchell Taylor, Ph.D., is a Canadian biologist specializing in polar bears who claims that Canada's polar bear population is higher now than it was 30 years ago and that polar bears are not currently threatened by climate change.
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The molars or molar teeth are large, flat teeth at the back of the mouth.
Molecular Ecology is a twice monthly scientific journal covering investigations that use molecular genetic techniques to address questions in ecology, evolution, behavior, and conservation.
Morbillivirus is a genus of viruses in the order Mononegavirales, in the family Paramyxoviridae.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Motor oil, engine oil, or engine lubricant is any of various substances comprising base oils enhanced with additives, particularly antiwear additive plus detergents, dispersants and, for multi-grade oils viscosity index improvers.
In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.
The muskox (Ovibos moschatus), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox (in ᐅᒥᖕᒪᒃ, umingmak), is an Arctic hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae, noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted during the seasonal rut by males, from which its name derives.
In Inuit religion, Nanook (ᓇᓄᖅ,, lit. "polar bear") was the master of bears, meaning he decided if hunters deserved success in finding and hunting bears and punished violations of taboos.
The narwhal (Monodon monoceros), or narwhale, is a medium-sized toothed whale that possesses a large "tusk" from a protruding canine tooth.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
Nelvana Ltd. is a Canadian animation studio and children's media company owned by Corus Entertainment.
The Nenets (ненэй ненэче, nenəj nenəče, ненцы, nentsy), also known as Samoyeds, are a Samoyedic ethnic group native to northern arctic Russia.
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Noah's Island is an animated television series for children made by the creators of The Animals of Farthing Wood and commissioned by the European Broadcasting Union.
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nuclear DNA, or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA), is the DNA contained within the nucleus of a eukaryotic organism.
Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
Omnivore is a consumption classification for animals that have the capability to obtain chemical energy and nutrients from materials originating from plant and animal origin.
Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Peter Simon Pallas FRS FRSE (22 September 1741 – 8 September 1811) was a Prussian zoologist and botanist who worked in Russia (1767–1810).
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
Philip Pullman CBE, FRSL (born 19 October 1946) is an English novelist.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Poaching has been defined as the illegal hunting or capturing of wild animals, usually associated with land use rights.
Polar Bears International (PBI) is a non-profit polar bear conservation organization.
Polar Beverages is a soft drink company based in Worcester, Massachusetts.
Polar Biology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the biology of the polar regions.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
Polygyny (from Neo-Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is a mating system in which one male lives and mates with multiple females, but each female only mates with a single male.
A polynya is an area of open water surrounded by sea ice.
Pomors or Pomory (p, Seasiders) are Russian settlers, primarily from Novgorod, and their descendants living on the White Sea coasts and the territory whose southern border lies on a watershed which separates the White Sea river basin from the basins of rivers that flow south.
Prins Karls Forland or Forlandet, occasionally anglicized as Prince Charles Foreland, is an island off the west coast of Oscar II Land on Spitsbergen in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, Norway.
Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.
This is a list of fictional races and creatures in the His Dark Materials series by Philip Pullman.
Raymond Redvers Briggs, CBE (born 18 January 1934) is an English illustrator, cartoonist, graphic novelist and author who has achieved critical and popular success among adults and children.
Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (RDBRF), also known as Red Book (Красная книга) or Russian Red Data Book is a state document established for documenting rare and endangered species of animals, plants and fungi, as well as some local subspecies (such as the Ladoga seal) that exist within the territory of the Russian Federation and its continental shelf and marine economic zone.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
Retinol, also known as Vitamin A1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
The ringed seal (Pusa hispida or Phoca hispida), also known as the jar seal and as netsik or nattiq by the Inuit, is an earless seal (family: Phocidae) inhabiting the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
The Sea of Okhotsk (Ohōtsuku-kai) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, between the Kamchatka Peninsula on the east, the Kuril Islands on the southeast, the island of Hokkaido to the south, the island of Sakhalin along the west, and a long stretch of eastern Siberian coast along the west and north.
Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.
SeaWorld is a United States chain of marine mammal parks, oceanariums, animal theme parks, and rehabilitation centers owned by SeaWorld Entertainment (one park will be owned and operated by Miral under a license).
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Siberian Yupiks, or Yuits, are a Yupik Eskimo people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and on St. Lawrence Island in Alaska.
A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.
The snow goose (Anser caerulescens), consisting of both a white phase and blue phase (blue goose), is a North American species of goose commonly collectively referred to as "light geese".
A snowmobile, also known as a motor sled, motor sledge, or snowmachine, is a motorized vehicle designed for winter travel and recreation on snow.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The species problem is the set of questions that arises when biologists attempt to define what a species is.
Spitsbergen (formerly known as West Spitsbergen; Norwegian: Vest Spitsbergen or Vestspitsbergen, also sometimes spelled Spitzbergen) is the largest and only permanently populated island of the Svalbard archipelago in northern Norway.
Steven C. Amstrup (born February 4, 1950) is an American zoologist who studies bears, especially polar bears.
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis is commonly known as the green sea urchin because of its characteristic green color.
Styrofoam is a trademarked brand of closed-cell extruded polystyrene foam (XPS), commonly called "Blue Board" manufactured as foam continuous building insulation board used in walls, roofs, and foundations as thermal insulation and water barrier.
The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
The sustainable yield of natural capital is the ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, i.e. the surplus required to maintain ecosystem services at the same or increasing level over time.
Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.
The Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) is a subspecies of the reindeer found on the Svalbard archipelago of Norway.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species).
The Bear is a 1998 short animated direct-to-video film directed by Hilary Audus.
The Fire Within is a 2001 children's fantasy novel written by Chris d'Lacey.
The Golden Compass is a 2007 fantasy adventure film based on Northern Lights, the first novel in Philip Pullman's trilogy His Dark Materials.
Infrared thermography (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science.
Thompson is a city in northern Manitoba.
The Canadian two-dollar coin, commonly called the toonie, is the highest monetary value among Canadian coins.
The Toronto Zoo is a zoo located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) describes indigenous and other forms of traditional knowledge regarding sustainability of local resources.
TRAFFIC, the Wildlife Trade Monitoring Network, is the leading non-governmental organization working globally on the trade of wild animals and plants in the context of both biodiversity and sustainable development.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
Trichinella is the genus of parasitic roundworms of the phylum Nematoda that cause trichinosis (also known as trichinellosis).
Trichinosis is a parasitic disease caused by roundworms of the Trichinella type.
Umbrella species are species selected for making conservation-related decisions, typically because protecting these species indirectly protects the many other species that make up the ecological community of its habitat.
Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States.
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS or FWS) is an agency of the federal government within the U.S. Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish, wildlife, and natural habitats.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The University of Alaska Fairbanks (also referred to as UAF or Alaska) is a public research university in Fairbanks, Alaska, United States.
Ursa Major (also known as the Great Bear) is a constellation in the northern sky, whose associated mythology likely dates back into prehistory.
An ursid hybrid is an animal with parents from two different species or subspecies of the Ursidae (bear) family.
Ursinae is a subfamily of Ursidae (bears) named by Swainson (1835) though probably named before Hunt 1998.
Ursus maritimus tyrannus (meaning tyrant polar bear) is an extinct subspecies of polar bear, known from a single fragmentary ulna found in the gravels of the Thames at Kew Bridge, London.
The Canadian territory of Nunavut was formed in April 1999, by the splitting of the Northwest Territories.
The Canadian territory of Northwest Territories first required its residents to register their motor vehicles and display licence plates in 1941.
A vulnerable species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as likely to become endangered unless the circumstances that are threatening its survival and reproduction improve.
The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere.
Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.
Weaning is the process of gradually introducing an infant mammal to what will be its adult diet and withdrawing the supply of its mother's milk.
The white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) is a marine mammal belonging to the family Delphinidae (dolphins) in the suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales).
Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.
The willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) is a bird in the grouse subfamily Tetraoninae of the pheasant family Phasianidae.
The wolverine (also spelled wolverene), Gulo gulo (Gulo is Latin for "glutton"), also referred to as the glutton, carcajou, skunk bear, or quickhatch, is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Mustelidae.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
The Yamal Peninsula (полуо́стров Яма́л) is located in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug of northwest Siberia, Russia.
The Yenisei (Енисе́й, Jeniséj; Енисей мөрөн, Yenisei mörön; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, Gorlog müren; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, Uluğ-Hem; Khakas: Ким суг, Kim sug) also Romanised Yenisey, Enisei, Jenisej, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.
The Yupik are a group of indigenous or aboriginal peoples of western, southwestern, and southcentral Alaska and the Russian Far East.
The 1988 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XV Olympic Winter Games (Les XVes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), was a Winter Olympics multi-sport event celebrated in and around Calgary, Alberta, Canada, between February 13 and 28, 1988 and were the first Winter Olympics to be held over a whole two week period.
Arctic bear, Effects of climate change on polar bears, Effects of global warming on polar bears, Effects of pollution on polar bears, Hunting behavior of polar bears, Ice Bear, Ice bear, Icebear, Northern bear, Northern bears, Polar Bear, Polar Bear Cub, Polar Bears, Polar bear habitat, Polar bear population, Polar bear populations, Polar bears, Polar bera, Polar-bear, Polarbear, Snow bear, Thalarctos, Thalarctos maritimus, U. maritimus, Ursus eogroenlandicus, Ursus groenlandicus, Ursus jenaensis, Ursus labradorensis, Ursus marinus, Ursus maritimus, Ursus maritimus maritimus, Ursus polaris, Ursus spitzbergensis, Ursus ungavensis.