86 relations: Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Amplitude, Attenuation, Étienne-Louis Malus, Beam splitter, Birefringence, Brewster's angle, Calcite, Canada balsam, Cartesian coordinate system, Circular polarization, Compton wavelength, Crystal, Crystal optics, Degree of polarization, Dichroism, Dielectric, Differential interference contrast microscopy, Edwin H. Land, Electric field, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Euclidean vector, Extinction cross, Extinction ratio, Fiber-optic communication, Fresnel rhomb, Glan–Foucault prism, Glan–Taylor prism, Glan–Thompson prism, Herapathite, Infrared, Iodine, Joule heating, Laser, Light, Linear polarization, Liquid-crystal display, Lithography, Magnetic field, Metal, Microscopy, Microwave, Nicol prism, Nomarski prism, Optical coating, Optical filter, Optical instrument, Optical rotation, Optics, ..., Orthogonality, Phase (waves), Photoelastic modulator, Photographic filter, Photography, Plane of incidence, Polarimetry, Polarization (waves), Polarized 3D system, Polarized light microscopy, Polarizer, Polarizing filter (photography), Polaroid (polarizer), Polyvinyl alcohol, Quartz, Radio wave, RealD 3D, Refraction, Rigorous coupled-wave analysis, Rochon prism, Sénarmont prism, Silver nanoparticle, Snell's law, Speed of light, Stereoscopy, Sunglasses, Theory of relativity, Thin-film optics, Total internal reflection, Tourmaline, Valence electron, Wave interference, Wavelength, Waveplate, Wollaston prism, X-ray. Expand index (36 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).
In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.
Étienne-Louis Malus (23 July 1775 – 24 February 1812) was a French officer, engineer, physicist, and mathematician.
A beam splitter is an optical device that splits a beam of light in two.
Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.
Brewster's angle (also known as the polarization angle) is an angle of incidence at which light with a particular polarization is perfectly transmitted through a transparent dielectric surface, with no reflection.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Canada balsam, also called Canada turpentine or balsam of fir, is a turpentine made from the resin of the balsam fir tree (Abies balsamea) of boreal North America.
A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.
In electrodynamics, circular polarization of an electromagnetic wave is a polarization state in which, at each point, the electric field of the wave has a constant magnitude but its direction rotates with time at a steady rate in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
The Compton wavelength is a quantum mechanical property of a particle.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Crystal optics is the branch of optics that describes the behaviour of light in anisotropic media, that is, media (such as crystals) in which light behaves differently depending on which direction the light is propagating.
Degree of polarization (DOP) is a quantity used to describe the portion of an electromagnetic wave which is polarized.
In optics, a dichroic material is either one which causes visible light to be split up into distinct beams of different wavelengths (colours) (not to be confused with dispersion), or one in which light rays having different polarizations are absorbed by different amounts.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, also known as Nomarski interference contrast (NIC) or Nomarski microscopy, is an optical microscopy technique used to enhance the contrast in unstained, transparent samples.
Edwin Herbert Land, ForMemRS, FRPS, Hon.MRI (May 7, 1909 – March 1, 1991) was an American scientist and inventor, best known as the co-founder of the Polaroid Corporation.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
The extinction cross is an optical phenomenon that is seen when trying to extinguish a laser beam or non-planar white light using crossed polarizers.
In telecommunications, extinction ratio (re) is the ratio of two optical power levels of a digital signal generated by an optical source, e.g., a laser diode.
Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber.
A Fresnel rhomb is an optical prism that introduces a 90° phase difference between two perpendicular components of polarization, by means of two total internal reflections.
A Glan–Foucault prism (also called a Glan–air prism) is a type of prism which is used as a polarizer.
A Glan–Taylor prism is a type of prism which is used as a polarizer or polarizing beam splitter.
A Glan–Thompson prism is a type of polarizing prism similar to the Nicol and Glan–Foucault prisms.
Herapathite, or iodoquinine sulfate, is a chemical compound whose crystals are dichroic and thus can be used for polarizing light.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Joule heating, also known as Ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor produces heat.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In electrodynamics, linear polarization or plane polarization of electromagnetic radiation is a confinement of the electric field vector or magnetic field vector to a given plane along the direction of propagation.
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.
Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
A Nicol prism is a type of polarizer, an optical device used to produce a polarized beam of light.
A Nomarski prism is a modification of the Wollaston prism that is used in differential interference contrast microscopy.
An optical coating is one or more thin layers of material deposited on an optical component such as a lens or mirror, which alters the way in which the optic reflects and transmits light.
An optical filter is a device that selectively transmits light of different wavelengths, usually implemented as a glass plane or plastic device in the optical path, which are either dyed in the bulk or have interference coatings.
An optical instrument either processes light waves to enhance an image for viewing, or analyzes light waves (or photons) to determine one of a number of characteristic properties.
Optical rotation or optical activity (sometimes referred to as rotary polarization) is the rotation of the plane of polarization of linearly polarized light as it travels through certain materials.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.
Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.
A photoelastic modulator (PEM) is an optical device used to modulate the polarization of a light source.
In photography and videography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted into the optical path.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
In describing reflection and refraction in optics, the plane of incidence (also called the meridional plane) is the plane which contains the surface normal and the propagation vector of the incoming radiation.
Polarimetry is the measurement and interpretation of the polarization of transverse waves, most notably electromagnetic waves, such as radio or light waves.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
A polarized 3D system uses polarization glasses to create the illusion of three-dimensional images by restricting the light that reaches each eye (an example of stereoscopy).
Polarized light microscopy can mean any of a number of optical microscopy techniques involving polarized light.
A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass through while blocking light waves of other polarizations.
A polarizing filter or polarising filter (see spelling differences) is often placed in front of the camera lens in photography in order to darken skies, manage reflections, or suppress glare from the surface of lakes or the sea.
Polaroid is a type of synthetic plastic sheet which is used as a polarizer or polarizing filter.
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH, PVA, or PVAl) is a water-soluble synthetic polymer.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.
RealD 3D is a digital stereoscopic projection technology made and sold by RealD.
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
Rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) is a semi-analytical method in computational electromagnetics that is most typically applied to solve scattering from periodic dielectric structures.
A Rochon prism is a type of polariser.
The Sénarmont prism is a type of polariser.
Silver nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver of between 1 nm and 100 nm in size.
Snell's law (also known as Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water, glass, or air.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision.
Sunglasses or sun glasses (informally called shades) are a form of protective eyewear designed primarily to prevent bright sunlight and high-energy visible light from damaging or discomforting the eyes.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
Thin-film optics is the branch of optics that deals with very thin structured layers of different materials.
Total internal reflection is the phenomenon which occurs when a propagated wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface.
Tourmaline is a crystalline boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
A waveplate or retarder is an optical device that alters the polarization state of a light wave travelling through it.
A Wollaston prism is an optical device, invented by William Hyde Wollaston, that manipulates polarized light.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
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