850 relations: Academy Awards, Academy Honorary Award, Adam Jarzębski, Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, Adam Mickiewicz, Adam Zagajewski, Adolf Rudnicki, Aesthetics, Agnieszka Holland, Albert Brudzewski, Aleksander Fredro, Aleksander Wolszczan, Alex Borstein, Alfred Tarski, Alice in Wonderland (2010 film), Alice Through the Looking Glass (2016 film), Americas, An Ancient Tale (novel), Ancestor, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski, Andrzej Panufnik, Andrzej Sapkowski, Andrzej Seweryn, Andrzej Wajda, Anna Chlumsky, Anthropologist, Anthropology, Anti-communist resistance in Poland (1944–1946), Antoni Zygmund, Armenians, Armenians in Poland, Art for art's sake, Art music, Arthur Rubinstein, Ashes and Diamonds, Association "Polish Community", Astronomer, Astronomy, Atom transfer radical polymerization, Australasia, Avant-garde, Axiom of choice, Łódź, Łęczyca, Łowicz, Łukasz Opaliński (1612–1666), Łuków, Śląsk Song and Dance Ensemble, Ślęża, Ślęza, ..., Świecie, Żuławy Wiślane, Baby Doll, Balladyna (drama), Baltic languages, Baltic Sea, Bamberg, Bambrzy, Baroque, Baroque in Poland, Bartłomiej Pękiel, Bavaria, Bavarian Geographer, Bóbr, Belarus, Belarusian minority in Poland, Belarusians, Bella Darvi, Ben Stiller, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berkeley, California, Beskids, Białystok, Biłgoraj, Biebrza, Biernat of Lublin, Biochemistry, Bogurodzica, Bolesław I the Tall, Bolesław Prus, Bolesław-Jerzy II, Book of Henryków, Boykos, Brandenburg-Prussia, Brest, Belarus, Breviary, British Academy of Film and Television Arts, Bronisław Malinowski, Buffalo, New York, Bydgoszcz, Canon (fiction), Carole Landis, Carroll Baker, Casimir Funk, Casimir III the Great, Casimir Pulaski, Cate Blanchett, Catholic Church, Caucasus, CBS, Cellular automaton, Celts, Census, Central Europe, Central Statistical Office (Poland), Charles Bronson, Chęciny, Chełm, Chełmno, Chełmno Land, Chemist, Chemistry, Chicago, Chile, Chinatown (1974 film), Christianity, Christianization of Poland, Christine Baranski, Chwalim, Cieszyn, Cieszyn Silesia, Cieszyn Vlachs, Cinema of Poland, Cipher, Cistercians, Civil and political rights, Classics, Collective, Columbia University Press, Commission of National Education, Communist state, Concerto, Conrad Celtes, Constitution of 3 May 1791, Constitution of Poland, Continuum hypothesis, Copernican Revolution, Counter-Reformation, Crimean Karaites, Cryptography, Cultural assimilation, Culture, Culture of Armenia, Culture of Austria, Culture of Belarus, Culture of Estonia, Culture of France, Culture of Georgia (country), Culture of Germany, Culture of Greece, Culture of Hungary, Culture of Italy, Culture of Latvia, Culture of Lithuania, Culture of Poland, Culture of Slovakia, Culture of Spain, Culture of the Czech Republic, Culture of the Netherlands, Culture of Turkey, Curitiba, Cyprian Norwid, Cyrillic script, Częstochowa, Czech language, Czech Republic, Czechs, Czesław Miłosz, Daniel Naborowski, Daniel Olbrychski, Daugavpils, David Arquette, David Ben-Gurion, David Burtka, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, Decadent movement, Dekalog, Demographics of Poland, Demonym, Detroit, Diacritic, Diaspora, Diomedes Cato, Dobrzyń Land, Dobrzyń nad Wisłą, Dutch people, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Early Middle Ages, East Prussia, East Slavic languages, Eastern Europe, Eastern Orthodox Church, Egyptology, Eight sermons before the Sejm, Elbląg, Eli Wallach, Emotion, Encyclopedia, End of World War II in Europe, English language, Enigma machine, Enlightenment in Poland, Espírito Santo, Esperanto, Estelle Getty, Ethnic group, Etymology, Europe, European Union, Exonym and endonym, Exoplanet, F. W. Winterbotham, Fables and Parables, Fallen (miniseries), Femme fatale, Figured bass, Filippo Buonaccorsi, Florian Ungler, Folk music, Folklore, Fractal, France, France–Poland relations, Francesca Caccini, Franciszek Lilius, Frédéric Chopin, Freedom of movement for workers in the European Union, French language, Function (mathematics), Functional analysis, Game theory, Głogów, Głubczyce, Gdańsk, Gerard Labuda, German language, Germanic peoples, Germanisation, Germans, Germany, Giecz, Giorgi Latso, Giovanni Francesco Anerio, Gniew, Gniezno, Golden Bear, Golden Lion, Golensizi, Gopło, Gorals, Gostyń, Great Emigration, Great Moravia, Greater Poland, Greek language, Grodno, Grodno Region, Group Theatre (New York City), Grzegorz Gerwazy Gorczycki, Gwyneth Paltrow, Hagiography, Halka, Hanover, Harvey Keitel, Helena Modjeska, Helena Rubinstein, Heliocentrism, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, Henryk Łowmiański, Henryk Górecki, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Henryk Wieniawski, Henryk Zygalski, Henryków, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Hieronim Morsztyn, Hilary Koprowski, History of Civilization in Poland, History of Gdańsk, History of Poland, History of Poland (1945–1989), History of the Jews in Poland, History of the Teller–Ulam design, Hollywood, Holy Cross Sermons, Horace, Hortulus Animae, Hugo Steinhaus, Humanism, Hungarian language, Hungarians, Hungary, Hutsuls, Iłża, Ida (film), Ignacy Łukasiewicz, Ignacy Domeyko, Ignacy Krasicki, Ilūkste, Immunology, Independence, Indigenous peoples, Industrial Revolution, Inflanty Voivodeship, Ingrid Pitt, Inowrocław, Insurgency, Ireland, Iron Age, Irreligion, Israel, Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, Italy–Poland relations, Izabella Scorupco, Jack Benny, Jagiellonian dynasty, Jagiellonian University, Jan Andrzej Morsztyn, Jan Chryzostom Pasek, Jan Długosz, Jan Kasprowicz, Jan Kochanowski, Jan Ludwik Popławski, Jan Matejko, Jan of Czarnków, Jan Potocki, Janów Lubelski, Jane Eyre (2011 film), January Uprising, Janusz Gajos, Jared Padalecki, Józef Bartłomiej Zimorowic, Józef Elsner, Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, Jean de La Fontaine, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jennifer Connelly, Jerusalem Delivered, Jerzy Andrzejewski, Jerzy Kosiński, Jerzy Różycki, Jerzy Skolimowski, Jerzy Stuhr, Jesse Eisenberg, Jews, John Amos Comenius, John Bluthal, John Jonston, John Krasinski, Josef Hofmann, Joseph Conrad, Joseph Haydn, Joseph Rotblat, Journalist, Judaism, Julian Tuwim, Juliusz Słowacki, Juliusz Zarębski, Kalisz, Karol Kurpiński, Karol Szymanowski, Karta Polaka, Kashubian language, Kashubians, Kasper Straube, Kasper Twardowski, Kazimierz Kuratowski, Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer, Kazimierz Wyka, Kerosene lamp, Kielce, Kingdom of Hungary, Kościuszko Uprising, Kociewie, Konin, Kordian, Koronowo, Krajna, Kraków, Krakowiacy, Krakowiak, Kristen Bell, Krobia, Krynica Morska, Krystyna Janda, Krzysztof Kieślowski, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof Opaliński, Krzysztof Penderecki, Kulturkampf, Kurpie, Kuyavia, Kwidzyn, L. L. Zamenhof, La liberazione di Ruggiero, Lach dialects, Lachy Sądeckie, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latinisation of names, Latvia, Laurentius Corvinus, Lechites, Lee Strasberg, Leelee Sobieski, Legnica, Lemkos, Leonid Hurwicz, Lesser Poland, Linguistics, Lipka Tatars, Lisa Kudrow, List of female Nobel laureates, List of Nobel laureates, List of Polish monarchs, List of Polish people, List of Roman Catholic bishops of Lviv, List of universities in Poland, Lithuania, Lithuanian language, Lithuanian minority in Poland, Lithuanians, Logic, Loretta Swit, Lubawa, Lublin, Lublin Voivodeship, Lubliniacy, Luca Marenzio, Lusatia, Lusatian culture, Lutheranism, Lviv, Lwów School of Mathematics, Maciej Kamieński, Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski, Macromolecule, Maggie Q, Malbork, Manhattan Project, Maps to the Stars, Marcin Mielczewski, Marco Scacchi, Maria Bello, Maria Dąbrowska, Marian Rejewski, Marie Curie, Marija Gimbutas, Martha Goldstein, Masovians, Masurians, Mathematical analysis, Mathematical model, Mathematician, Maurycy Mochnacki, Max Factor Sr., Max Fleischer, Mayim Bialik, Mazovia, Mazowsze (folk group), Mazurka, Mława, Memoir, Menachem Begin, Metropolitan Association of Upper Silesia and Dąbrowa Basin, Mia Wasikowska, Michał Żebrowski, Michał Kleofas Ogiński, Middle Ages, Mieczysław Karłowicz, Migrations from Poland since EU accession, Mikołaj Gomółka, Mikołaj Rej, Mikołaj Sęp Szarzyński, Mikołaj z Radomia, Mikołaj Zieleński, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Poland), Ministry of Interior and Administration (Poland), Minority group, Modernism, Moldova, Monte Carlo method, Moravians, Music of Poland, My Summer of Love, Name of Poland, NASA, Nation, National Security Advisor (United States), Native Polish Church, Nazi Germany, Ned Glass, New Britain, Connecticut, New England, New Jersey, New York City, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nobel Peace Prize, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nocturne, North European Plain, Northern Europe, Norway, Noteć, Notre Dame school, November Uprising, Nowe Kramsko, Nuclear disarmament, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear pulse propulsion, Number theory, Obotrites, Occupation of Poland (1939–1945), Oder, Ogg, Ohio, Oil refinery, Olędrzy, Old Believers, Old Polish language, Old Prussians, Olga Tokarczuk, Oliver Twist (2005 film), One Thousand and One Nights, Opawa, Opolans, Opole, Optics, Orava (region), Orlando, Florida, Oskar Kolberg, Ostrów Lednicki, Ostsiedlung, Oxygen, Pałuki, Paganism, Palme d'Or, Panna Maria, Texas, Paraná (state), Paraphrase, Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Partitions of Poland, Patriotism, Paul Newman, Paul Wesley, Paweł Pawlikowski, Płock, Peter Brook, Petroleum industry, Pharmacist, Physicist, Piast Concept, Piast dynasty, Piotr Skarga, Pittsburgh, Playwright, Podkarpackie Voivodeship, Podlachia, Podlachian language, Podlaskie Voivodeship, Podolia, Poet laureate, Pola Negri, Poland, Poland in the Early Middle Ages, Polans (western), Pole and Hungarian brothers be, Polemic, Poles in France, Poles in Germany, Poles in Latvia, Poles in Lithuania, Poles in Romania, Poles in Spain, Poles in the Soviet Union, Poles in the United Kingdom, Poleshuks, Polio vaccine, Polish Academy of Literature, Polish alphabet, Polish Americans, Polish Argentine, Polish Australians, Polish Brazilians, Polish Canadians, Polish Chileans, Polish cuisine, Polish diaspora, Polish Film School, Polish language, Polish literature, Polish Mexicans, Polish minority in the Czech Republic, Polish National Government (November Uprising), Polish nationality law, Polish New Zealanders, Polish opera, Polish Orthodox Church, Polish tribes, Polish Uplanders, Polish Uruguayans, Polish Venezuelans, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Political system, Polonaise, Polonization, Polymath, Polymerization, Polyphony, Pomeranians (Slavic tribe), Positivism in Poland, Poznań, President of Israel, Primary source, Prime Minister of Israel, Protestantism, Prussian deportations, Psychology, Pszów, Puławy, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, Pulsar planet, Puszcza Biała, Puszcza Zielona, Quern-stone, Racibórz, Radioactive decay, Rawicz, Recovered Territories, Reformation, Reichstein process, Renaissance, Republic of Central Lithuania, Rio Grande do Sul, Robert Prosky, Rocket, Rodzima Wiara, Roger Bacon, Roman Polanski, Romani people in Poland, Romantic nationalism, Romanticism, Romanticism in Poland, Rosa Luxemburg, Rosemary's Baby (film), Ross Martin, Royal Prussia, Russell–Einstein Manifesto, Russia, Russian Empire, Russians, Rusyns, Ruthenian language, Rzeszów, Samuel Goldwyn, Samuel Twardowski, Sandomierz, Sarah Silverman, Saxony, São Paulo (state), Sébastien Érard, Sławomir Mrożek, Słowianki, Scarlett Johansson, Schweipolt Fiol, Scientific American, Scientific Revolution, Scottish people, Sebastian Grabowiecki, Sebastian Petrycy, Second Polish Republic, Secondary school, Self-similarity, Sendivogius, Set theory, Seweryn Goszczyński, Shimon Peres, Siedlce, Sieradz, Sierpc, Sigismund III Vasa, Silesia, Silesian Gorals, Silesian language, Silesians, Silesians (tribe), Skaryszew, Slavic languages, Slavic Native Faith, Slavs, Slovak language, Slovakia, Slovaks, Slovincian language, Society of Jesus, Sodalitas Litterarum Vistulana, Sokołów Podlaski, Sons of Poland, Sorbs, Southern Europe, Sovereignty, Soviet Union, Spiš, Stanisław August Poniatowski, Stanisław Barańczak, Stanisław Dygat, Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz, Stanisław Lem, Stanisław Leszczyński, Stanisław Moniuszko, Stanisław Przybyszewski, Stanisław Sylwester Szarzyński, Stanislaw Ulam, Stare Kramsko, Starogard Gdański, Stary Sącz, State (polity), Statistics Estonia, Statistics Sweden, Stefan Banach, Stefan Kisielewski, Stefan Salvatore, Steve Carell, Street light, Subcarpathia, Sunni Islam, Suwałki Region, Svetovid, Sweden, Symbolism (arts), Szamotuły, Szlachta, Sztum, Szymon Starowolski, Tadeusz Łomnicki, Tadeusz Borowski, Tadeusz Kościuszko, Tadeusz Reichstein, Téa Leoni, Tczew, Tennessee Williams, Territorial changes of Poland immediately after World War II, Territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union, Texas Silesian, The Adventures of Mr. Nicholas Wisdom, The Decameron, The Double Life of Veronique, The Haunted Manor, The Holocaust, The Lives of the Saints, The Manuscript Found in Saragossa, The Pianist (2002 film), The Vampire Diaries, The Wild Wild West, Thermonuclear weapon, Third Partition of Poland, Three Bards, Three Colours trilogy, Tomasz Kamusella, Tomasz Zan, Tomaszów Lubelski, Topology, Torquato Tasso, Toruń, Tragedy, Treatise, Tribe, Truso, Truth, Tuchola, Tuchola Forest, Turkish language, Ukraine, Ukrainian culture, Ukrainian language, Ukrainians, Ultra, United Kingdom, United States, Unity of the Brethren, University of California Press, University of Oxford, Unua Libro, Upper Silesia, Usedom, Veleti, Vilnius, Vilnius Region, Virology, Vistula, Vistula delta Mennonites, Vistula Lagoon, Vistulans, Visual perception, Vitamin, Vitamin C, Vitello, Vlachs, Volhynia, Wacław of Szamotuły, Wacław Potocki, Wacław Sierpiński, Walddeutsche, Walloons, Waltz, Warmia, Warmiak, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Warner Bros., Warsaw, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra, Warsaw School (mathematics), Wawrzyniec Grzymała Goślicki, Węgrów, Władysław IV Vasa, Włocławek, Włodawa, Wendland, West Slavic languages, West Slavs, Western (genre), Western Asia, Western Christianity, Western Europe, Wieleń, Wieprz, William Shatner, Wisława Szymborska, Witold Gombrowicz, Witold Lutosławski, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, World Heritage site, World War II, Wrocław, Września, Wymysorys language, Yiddish, Yitzhak Shamir, Yotvingians, Young Poland, Zamość, Zawkrze, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Zbigniew Herbert, Zbigniew Morsztyn, Zofia Nałkowska, Zygmunt Krasiński, 14th century, 1854, 2004 enlargement of the European Union. Expand index (800 more) » « Shrink index
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
The Academy Honorary Award – instituted in 1948 for the 21st Academy Awards (previously called the Special Award, which was first presented in early 1929) – is given annually by the Board of Governors of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to celebrate motion picture achievements that are not covered by existing Academy Awards, although prior winners of competitive Academy Awards are not excluded from receiving the Honorary Award.
Adam Jarzębski (c. 1590 in Warka – c. 1648 in Warsaw) was an early Baroque Polish composer, violinist, poet, and writer.
Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski (Аdomas Jurgis Čartoriskis, also known as Adam George Czartoryski in English; 14 January 177015 July 1861) was a Polish nobleman, statesman and author.
Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (24 December 179826 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist.
Adam Zagajewski (born 21 June 1945 in Lwów) is a Polish poet, novelist, translator and essayist.
Adolf Rudnicki (February 19, 1912, Warsaw − November 14, 1990, Warsaw) was a Polish-Jewish author and essayist, best known for his works about The Holocaust and the Jewish resistance in Poland during World War II.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
Agnieszka Holland (born 28 November 1948) is a Polish film and television director and screenwriter.
Albert Brudzewski, also Albert Blar (of Brudzewo), Albert of Brudzewo or Wojciech Brudzewski (in Latin, Albertus de Brudzewo; c.1445–c.1497) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician, philosopher and diplomat.
Aleksander Fredro (20 June 1793 – 15 July 1876) was a Polish poet, playwright and author active during Polish Romanticism in the period of partitions by neighboring empires.
Aleksander Wolszczan (born 29 April 1946 in Szczecinek, Poland) is a Polish astronomer.
Alexandrea Borstein (born February 15, 1971 or 1973) is an American actress, writer, producer, and comedian.
Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901 – October 26, 1983), born Alfred Teitelbaum,School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews,, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews.
Alice in Wonderland is a 2010 American fantasy adventure film directed by Tim Burton from a screenplay written by Linda Woolverton.
Alice Through the Looking Glass is a 2016 American fantasy adventure film directed by James Bobin, written by Linda Woolverton and produced by Tim Burton, Joe Roth, Suzanne Todd, and Jennifer Todd.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
An Ancient Tale.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski (Andreas Fricius Modrevius) (ca. September 20, 1503 – autumn, 1572) was a Polish Renaissance scholar, humanist and theologian, called "the father of Polish democracy".
Sir Andrzej Panufnik (24 September 1914 – 27 October 1991) was a Polish composer and conductor.
Andrzej Sapkowski (born 21 June 1948) is a Polish fantasy writer.
Andrzej Seweryn (born 25 April 1946) is a Polish actor and director.
Andrzej Witold Wajda (6 March 1926 – 9 October 2016) was a Polish film and theatre director.
Anna M. Chlumsky (born December 3, 1980) is an American actress.
An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
The anti-communist resistance in Poland, also referred to as the Polish anti-Communist insurrection fought between 1944 and 1946 (and up until 1953), was an armed struggle by the Polish Underground against the Soviet takeover of Poland at the end of World War II in Europe.
Antoni Zygmund (December 25, 1900 – May 30, 1992) was a Polish mathematician.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Armenians in Poland have an important and historical presence going back to the 14th century.
"Art for art's sake" is the usual English rendering of a French slogan from the early 19th century, "l'art pour l'art", and expresses a philosophy that the intrinsic value of art, and the only "true" art, is divorced from any didactic, moral, or utilitarian function.
Art music (alternately called classical music, cultivated music, serious music, and canonic music) is music that implies advanced structural and theoretical considerationsJacques Siron, "Musique Savante (Serious music)", Dictionnaire des mots de la musique (Paris: Outre Mesure): 242.
Arthur Rubinstein (Artur Rubinstein; 28 January 188720 December 1982) was a Polish American classical pianist.
Ashes and Diamonds (Polish original: Popiół i diament, literally: Ash and Diamond) is a 1948 novel by the Polish writer Jerzy Andrzejewski, the first edition Zaraz po wojnie (Directly after the war).
Association "Polish Community" (Stowarzyszenie "Wspólnota Polska") is a Polish non-governmental and public benefit organization operating under the patronage of the Polish Senate; dedicated to strengthening the ties between Poland and Polonia - Poles and people of Polish origin living abroad.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is an example of a reversible-deactivation radical polymerization.
Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).
The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.
In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that the Cartesian product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty.
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
Łęczyca (in full The Royal Town of Łęczyca; Królewskie Miasto Łęczyca; לונטשיץ) is a town of 14,362 inhabitants in central Poland.
Łowicz is a town in central Poland with 28,811 inhabitants (2016).
Łukasz de Bnin Opaliński (Luca Opalinius; 1612–1666) was a Polish nobleman, poet, political activist and one of the most important Polish political writers of the 17th century.
Łuków is a city in eastern Poland with 30,727 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2005).
Śląsk Song and Dance Ensemble (full name: Polish National Song and Dance Ensemble "Śląsk" in memory of Stanisław Hadyna, in Polish: Zespół Pieśni i Tańca "Śląsk" im. Stanisława Hadyny) is one of the largest Polish folk ensembles.
The Ślęża (Zobten or Zobtenberg, later also Siling) is a mountain in the Sudeten Foreland (Polish: Przedgórze Sudeckie) in Lower Silesia, from Wrocław, southern Poland.
Ślęza (Polish; German Lohe) is a 78.6 km long river in Lower Silesia, southern Poland, a left tributary of the Oder.
Świecie (Schwetz) is a town in northern Poland with 25,968 inhabitants (2006), situated in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (since 1999); it was in Bydgoszcz Voivodeship from 1975 to 1998.
Żuławy Wiślane (fens, plural from "żuława") is the alluvial delta area of Vistula, in large part reclaimed artificially by means of dykes, pumps, channels (over 17000 km of total length) and extensive drainage system.
Baby Doll is a 1956 American black comedy drama film directed by Elia Kazan, and starring Carroll Baker, Karl Malden and Eli Wallach.
Balladyna is a tragedy written by Juliusz Słowacki in 1834 and published in 1839 in Paris.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Bamberg is a town in Upper Franconia, Germany, on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main.
Bambrzy (Poznańskie Bambry, German: Posener Bamberger) are Poles who are partly descended from Germans who moved from the area of Bamberg (Upper Franconia, Germany) to villages surrounding Poznań, Poland.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The Polish Baroque lasted from the early 17th to the mid-18th century.
Bartłomiej Pękiel (fl. from 1633; d. ca. 1670) was a notable Polish composer of classical music.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
The epithet "Bavarian Geographer" (Geographus Bavarus) is the conventional name for the anonymous author of a Latin medieval text containing a list of the tribes in central-eastern Europe, headed Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii.
Bóbr (Bobr, Bober) is a river which runs through the north of the Czech Republic and the southwest of Poland, a left tributary of the Oder.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Belarusian minority in Poland is composed of 47,000 people according to the Polish census of 2011.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Bajla Węgier (October 23, 1928 – September 11, 1971), better known as Bella Darvi, was a Polish film actress and stage performer who was active in France and the United States.
Benjamin Edward Meara Stiller (born November 30, 1965) is an American actor, comedian, writer, producer, and director.
Benoit B.  Mandelbrot  (20 November 1924 – 14 October 2010) was a Polish-born, French and American mathematician and polymath with broad interests in the practical sciences, especially regarding what he labeled as "the art of roughness" of physical phenomena and "the uncontrolled element in life".
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California.
The Beskids or Beskid Mountains (Beskidy, Czech and Beskydy, Rusyn: Бескиды (Beskidy), Бескиди (Beskydy)) is a traditional name for a series of mountain ranges in the Carpathians, stretching from the Czech Republic in the west along the border of Poland with Slovakia up to Ukraine in the east.
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
Biłgoraj (בילגאריי, Bilgoray, Білґорай) is a town in south-eastern Poland with about 27,100 inhabitants (2014).
Biebrza (Bebras, Bobra) is a river in north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Narew river (near Wizna), with a length of 164 kilometres and a basin area of 7,092 km2 (7,067 in Poland).
Biernat of Lublin (Polish: Biernat z Lublina, Latin Bernardus Lublinius, ca. 1465 – after 1529) was a Polish poet, fabulist, translator and physician.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Bogurodzica ("Mother of God/Theotokos") is the oldest Polish hymn.
Bolesław I the Tall (Bolesław I Wysoki) (b. 1127 – d. Leśnica, 7 or 8 December 1201) was a Duke of Wroclaw from 1163 until his death in 1201.
Bolesław Prus (pronounced: bɔ'lεswaf 'prus; 20 August 1847 – 19 May 1912), born Aleksander Głowacki, is a leading figure in the history of Polish literature and philosophy and a distinctive voice in world literature.
Bolesław-Jerzy II (1305/1310 – April 7, 1340) was a ruler of the Polish Piast dynasty who ruled the originally Ruthenian principality of Galicia.
The Book of Henryków (Księga henrykowska, Liber fundationis claustri Sancte Marie Virginis in Heinrichau) is a Latin chronicle of the Cistercian abbey in Henryków in Lower Silesia.
Boykos (Бойки, Bojkowie, Pujďáci), or simply Highlanders (verkhovyntsi) are a Ukrainian ethnographic group located in the Carpathian Mountains of Ukraine, Slovakia, Hungary, and Poland.
Brandenburg-Prussia (Brandenburg-Preußen) is the historiographic denomination for the Early Modern realm of the Brandenburgian Hohenzollerns between 1618 and 1701.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
The Breviary (Latin: breviarium) is a book in many Western Christian denominations that "contains all the liturgical texts for the Office, whether said in choir or in private." Historically, different breviaries were used in the various parts of Christendom, such as Aberdeen Breviary, Belleville Breviary, Stowe Breviary and Isabella Breviary, although eventually the Roman Breviary became the standard within the Roman Catholic Church.
The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) is an independent charity that supports, develops and promotes the art forms of the moving image – film, television and game in the United Kingdom.
Bronisław Kasper Malinowski (7 April 1884 – 16 May 1942) was a Polish-British anthropologist, often considered one of the most important 20th-century anthropologists.
Buffalo is the second largest city in the state of New York and the 81st most populous city in the United States.
Bydgoszcz (Bromberg; Bydgostia) is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers.
In fiction, canon is the material accepted as officially part of the story in the fictional universe of that story.
Carole Landis (born Frances Lillian Mary Ridste; January 1, 1919 – July 5, 1948) was an American film and stage actress, who worked as a contract-player for Twentieth Century-Fox in the 1940s.
Carroll Baker (born May 28, 1931) is a retired American actress of film, stage, and television.
Kazimierz Funk (February 23, 1884 – November 19, 1967 Casimir Funk A Biographical Sketch (1884–1967). Journal of Nutrition 1972 Sep;102(9):1105–13.. Available from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/102/9/1105.full.pdf), commonly anglicized as Casimir Funk, was a Polish biochemist, generally credited with being among the first to formulate (in 1912) the concept of vitamins, which he called "vital amines" or "vitamines".
Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370.
Kazimierz Michał Władysław Wiktor Pułaski of Ślepowron (Casimir Pulaski; March 4 or March 6, 1745Makarewicz, 1998 October 11, 1779) was a Polish nobleman, soldier and military commander who has been called, together with his Hungarian friend Michael Kovats de Fabriczy, "the father of the American cavalry".
Catherine Elise Blanchett, (born 14 May 1969) is an Australian actress and theatre director.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation.
A cellular automaton (pl. cellular automata, abbrev. CA) is a discrete model studied in computer science, mathematics, physics, complexity science, theoretical biology and microstructure modeling.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Central Statistical Office (Główny Urząd Statystyczny; GUS) is Poland's chief government executive agency charged with collecting and publishing statistics related to the country's economy, population, and society, at the national and local levels.
Charles Bronson (born Charles Dennis Buchinsky; Karolis Dionyzas Bučinskis; November 3, 1921 – August 30, 2003) was an American actor.
Chęciny (Yiddish: חענטשין – Khantchin or Chentshin) is a town in Kielce County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Poland, with 4,252 inhabitants (2006).
Chełm (Kulm, Холм) is a city in eastern Poland with 63,949 inhabitants (2015).
Chełmno (older Culm) is a town in northern Poland near the Vistula river with 20,000 inhabitants and the historical capital of Chełmno Land.
Chełmno land (ziemia chełmińska,, Old Prussian: Kulma, Kulmo žemė) is a historical region, located in central-northern Poland.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Chinatown is a 1974 American neo-noir mystery film, directed by Roman Polanski from a screenplay by Robert Towne, starring Jack Nicholson and Faye Dunaway.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Christianization of Poland (Polish: chrystianizacja Polski) refers to the introduction and subsequent spread of Christianity in Poland.
Christine Jane Baranski (born May 2, 1952) is an American actress, singer and producer.
Chwalim (Altreben) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kargowa, within Zielona Góra County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland.
Cieszyn (Těšín, Teschen, Tessin) is a border town in southern Poland on the east bank of the Olza River, and the administrative seat of Cieszyn County, Silesian Voivodeship.
Cieszyn Silesia or Těšín Silesia or Teschen Silesia (Polish:, Czech: or, German: Teschener Schlesien or Olsagebiet) is a historical region in south-eastern Silesia, centered on the towns of Cieszyn and Český Těšín and bisected by the Olza River.
Cieszyn Vlachs (Wałasi cieszyńscy, Těšínští Valaši) are a Polish ethnographic group (subgroup of Silesians) living around the towns of Cieszyn and Skoczów, one of the four major ethnographic groups in Cieszyn Silesia, the one mostly associated with wearing Cieszyn folk costume but not the only one speaking Cieszyn Silesian dialect.
The history of cinema in Poland is almost as long as history of cinematography, and it has universal achievements, even though Polish movies tend to be less commercially available than movies from several other European nations.
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
A collective is a group of entities that share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together to achieve a common objective.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Commission of National Education (Komisja Edukacji Narodowej, abbreviated KEN, Edukacinė komisija, Адукацыйная камісія) was the central educational authority in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, created by the Sejm and the King Stanisław August Poniatowski on October 14, 1773.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
A concerto (plural concertos, or concerti from the Italian plural) is a musical composition usually composed in three movements, in which, usually, one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band.
Conrad Celtes (Konrad Celtes; Conradus Celtis (Protucius); 1 February 1459 – 4 February 1508) was a German Renaissance humanist scholar and Neo-Latin poet.
The Constitution of 3 May 1791 (Konstytucja 3 Maja, Gegužės trečiosios konstitucija) was adopted by the Great Sejm (parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The current Constitution of Poland was adopted on 2 April 1997.
In mathematics, the continuum hypothesis (abbreviated CH) is a hypothesis about the possible sizes of infinite sets.
The Copernican Revolution was the paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic model of the heavens, which described the cosmos as having Earth stationary at the center of the universe, to the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
The Crimean Karaites or Krymkaraylar (Crimean Karaim: Кърымкъарайлар sg. къарай – qaray; Trakai Karaim: sg. karaj, pl. karajlar; קראי מזרח אירופה; Karaylar), also known as Karaims and Qarays, are an ethnic group derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Karaite Judaism in Central and Eastern Europe, especially in the territory of the former Russian Empire.
Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
The culture of Armenia encompasses many elements that are based on the geography, literature, architecture, dance, and music of the people.
Austrian culture has largely been influenced by its past and present neighbours: Italy, Poland, Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia.
The culture of Belarus is the product of a millennium of development under the impact of a number of diverse factors.
The culture of Estonia combines an indigenous heritage, represented by the country's Finnic national language Estonian, with Nordic cultural aspects.
The culture of Paris,in France and of the French people has been shaped by geography, by profound historical events, and by foreign and internal forces and groups.
The culture of Georgia has evolved over the country's long history, providing it with a unique national culture and a strong literary tradition based on the Georgian language and alphabet.
German culture has spanned the entire German-speaking world.
The culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, beginning in Mycenaean Greece, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire.
The culture of Hungary varies across Hungary, starting from the capital city of Budapest on the Danube, to the Great Plains bordering Ukraine.
Italy is considered the birthplace of Western civilization and a cultural superpower.
The culture of Latvia combines traditional Latvian and Livonian heritage with influences of the country's varied historical heritage.
The culture of Lithuania combines an indigenous heritage, represented by the unique Lithuanian language, with Nordic cultural aspects and Christian traditions resulting from historical ties with Poland.
The culture of Poland is the product of its geography and its distinct historical evolution which is closely connected to its intricate thousand-year history.
The culture of Slovakia has various folk traditions influenced by its location in Central Europe.
The cultures of Spain are European cultures based on a variety of historical influences, primarily based on pre-Roman Celtic and Iberian culture.
This article is about the culture of the Czech Republic.
The culture of the Netherlands is diverse, reflecting regional differences as well as the foreign influences built up by centuries of the Dutch people's mercantile and explorative spirit.
The culture of Turkey combines a heavily diverse and heterogeneous set of elements that have been derived from the various cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean (West Asian) and Central Asian region and to a lesser degree, Eastern European, and Caucasian traditions.
Curitiba (Tupi: "Pine Nut Land") is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Paraná.
Cyprian Kamil Norwid, a.k.a. Cyprian Konstanty Norwid (24 September 1821 – 23 May 1883), was a nationally esteemed Polish poet, dramatist, painter, and sculptor.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Częstochowa,, is a city in southern Poland on the Warta River with 240,027 inhabitants as of June 2009.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
Czesław Miłosz (30 June 1911 – 14 August 2004) was a Polish poet, prose writer, translator and diplomat.
Daniel Naborowski (1573–1640) was a Polish Baroque poet.
Daniel Marcel Olbrychski (born 27 February 1945) is a Polish actor best known for leading roles in several Andrzej Wajda movies and also known for playing a defector and spymaster Vassily Orlov, alongside Hollywood actress Angelina Jolie in the movie Salt.
Daugavpils (Daugpiļs; Даугавпилс; see other names) is a city in southeastern Latvia, located on the banks of the Daugava River, from which the city gets its name.
David Arquette (born September 8, 1971) is an American actor, film director, producer, screenwriter, fashion designer, and professional wrestler.
David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
David Michael Burtka (born May 29, 1975) is an American actor and professional chef.
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543).
The Decadent Movement was a late 19th-century artistic and literary movement, centered in Western Europe, that followed an aesthetic ideology of excess and artificiality.
Dekalog (also known as Dekalog: The Ten Commandments and The Decalogue) is a 1989 Polish television drama series directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski and co-written by Kieślowski with Krzysztof Piesiewicz, with music by Zbigniew Preisner.
The demographics of Poland constitute all demographic features of the population of Poland, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.
Diomedes Cato (1560 to 1565 – after 1618) was an Italian-born composer and lute player, who lived and worked entirely in Poland.
Dobrzyń Land (ziemia dobrzyńska) is a historic region, with the capital in the town of Dobrzyń nad Wisłą, in central-northern Poland, within the Greater Poland, between Mazovia and Prussia.
Dobrzyń nad Wisłą (Dobrin an der Weichsel) is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken throughout Eastern Europe, Northern Asia, and the Caucasus.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. علم المصريات) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD.
Sejm Sermons or the Eight sermons before the Sejm, (Kazania sejmowe) is a political treatise by Polish Jesuit Piotr Skarga, published in 1597.
Elbląg (Elbing; Old Prussian: Elbings) is a city in northern Poland on the eastern edge of the Żuławy region with 124,257 inhabitants (December 31, 2011).
Eli Herschel Wallach (December 7, 1915 – June 24, 2014) was an American film, television and stage actor whose career spanned more than six decades, beginning in the late 1940s.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.
The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment in Poland were developed later than in Western Europe, as the Polish bourgeoisie was weaker, and szlachta (nobility) culture (Sarmatism) together with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth political system (Golden Liberty) were in deep crisis.
Espírito Santo (meaning "Holy Spirit") is a state in southeastern Brazil.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Estelle Getty (née Scher; also known as Estelle Gettleman; July 25, 1923 – July 22, 2008) was an American actress and comedian, who appeared in film, television, and theatre.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
Frederick William Winterbotham (16 April 1897 – 28 January 1990) was a British Royal Air Force officer (latterly a Group Captain) who during World War II supervised the distribution of Ultra intelligence.
Fables and Parables (Bajki i przypowieści, 1779), by Ignacy Krasicki (1735–1801), is a work in a long international tradition of fable-writing that reaches back to antiquity.
Fallen is a 2006 ABC Family miniseries based on the four-book series of novels by Thomas Sniegoski The Fallen, and broken into three parts.
A femme fatale, sometimes called a maneater, is a stock character of a mysterious and seductive woman whose charms ensnare her lovers, often leading them into compromising, dangerous, and deadly situations.
Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols (often accidentals) indicate intervals, chords, and non-chord tones that a musician playing piano, harpsichord, organ, lute (or other instruments capable of playing chords) play in relation to the bass note that these numbers and symbols appear above or below.
Filippo Buonaccorsi, called "Callimachus" (Latin: Philippus Callimachus Experiens, Bonacursius;; 2 May 1437 – 1 November 1496) was an Italian humanist and writer.
Florian Ungler (died 1536 in Kraków) and Kasper Hochfeder were printers from Bavaria that after 1510 became pioneers of printing and publishing in the Polish language.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
In mathematics, a fractal is an abstract object used to describe and simulate naturally occurring objects.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Polish–French relations date back several centuries, although they really only became relevant in the times of the French Revolution and the reign of Napoleon I. Poles were allies of Napoleon; a large Polish community settled in France in the 19th century, and Poles and French were also allies during the interwar period.
Francesca Caccini (18 September 1587 – after 1641) was an Italian composer, singer, lutenist, poet, and music teacher of the early Baroque era.
Franciszek (Franciscus) Lilius (ca. 1600 – 1657) was a Polish composer, a descendant of the Italian Giglis family.
Frédéric François Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano.
The freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communautaire of the European Union.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.
Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
Głogów (Glogau, rarely Groß-Glogau, Hlohov) is a town in southwestern Poland.
Głubczyce (Hlubčice or sparsely Glubčice, Leobschütz, Silesian German: Lischwitz) is a town in Opole Voivodeship in southern Poland, near the border with the Czech Republic.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Gerard Labuda (Gerard Labùda; 28 December 1916 – 1 October 2010) was a Polish historian whose main fields of interest were the Middle Ages and the Western Slavs.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giecz is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Dominowo, within Środa Wielkopolska County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.
Giorgi Latso (born Giorgi Latsabidze, გიორგი ლაცაბიძე,; 15 April 1978) is a Georgian-American classical pianist, composer and doctor of musical arts.
Giovanni Francesco Anerio (Rome, 7 July 1569 - Graz, 11 June 1630) was an Italian composer of the Roman School, of the very late Renaissance and early Baroque eras.
Gniew (Mewe; Gniéw) is a town situated on the left bank of the Vistula River, in the Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, with 6,870 inhabitants (2016).
Gniezno (Gnesen) is a city in central-western Poland, about east of Poznań, with about 70,000 inhabitants.
The Golden Bear (Goldener Bär) is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival.
The Golden Lion (Leone d'Oro) is the highest prize given to a film at the Venice Film Festival.
The Golensizi (Golęszycy, Gołęszycy, Golęszyce, Gołęszyce, Gołężyce, Holasici, Golensizen) were a tribe of West Slavs, specifically of the Lechitic tribes (one of the Silesian tribes), living in the Early Middle Ages and inhabiting southern territories of what was later known as Upper Silesia, on the upper Oder River.
Gopło is a lake in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, north-central Poland, near the city of Gniezno.
The Gorals (Górale; Gorali; Cieszyn Silesian: Gorole; literally "highlanders") are an ethnographic (or ethnic) group primarily found in their traditional area of southern Poland, northern Slovakia, and in the region of Cieszyn Silesia in the Czech Republic (Silesian Gorals).
Gostyń (Gostyn, 1941-45: Gostingen) is a town in Greater Poland Voivodeship (from 1975 to 1998 in Leszno Voivodship), in Gostyń County.
The Great Emigration (Wielka Emigracja) involved the emigration of thousands of Poles, particularly from the political and cultural elites, from 1831 to 1870, after the failure of the November Uprising and of other uprisings (1846, 1863).
Great Moravia (Regnum Marahensium; Μεγάλη Μοραβία, Megálī Moravía; Velká Morava; Veľká Morava; Wielkie Morawy), the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, chiefly on what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland (including Silesia), and Hungary.
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Grodno or Hrodna (Гродна, Hrodna; ˈɡrodnə, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.
Grodno/Hrodna Region (Гродзенская вобласць, Hrodzienskaja vobłasć; Гродненская область, Grodnenskaya oblast) is one of the regions of Belarus.
The Group Theatre was a theater collective based in New York City and formed in 1931 by Harold Clurman, Cheryl Crawford and Lee Strasberg.
Grzegorz Gerwazy Gorczycki (ca. 1665 to 1667 – 30 April 1734) was a Polish Baroque composer.
Gwyneth Kate Paltrow (born September 27, 1972) is an American actress, singer, and food writer.
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
Halka is an opera by Polish composer Stanisław Moniuszko to a libretto written by Włodzimierz Wolski, a young Warsaw poet with radical social views.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
Harvey Keitel (born May 13, 1939) is an American actor and producer.
Helena Modjeska (October 12, 1840 – April 8, 1909), whose actual Polish surname was Modrzejewska, was a renowned actress who specialized in Shakespearean and tragic roles.
Helena Rubinstein (born Chaja Rubinstein; December 25, 1872 – April 1, 1965) was a Polish American businesswoman, art collector, and philanthropist.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (26 October 1800, Parchim, Mecklenburg-Schwerin – 24 April 1891, Berlin) was a German Field Marshal.
Henryk Łowmiański (August 22, 1898 near Ukmergė - September 4, 1984 in Poznań) was a Polish historian of the medieval period.
Henryk Mikołaj Górecki (English pronunciation Go-RET-ski; December 6, 1933 – November 12, 2010) was a Polish composer of contemporary classical music.
Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (also known by the pseudonym "Litwos"; 5 May 1846 – 15 November 1916) was a Polish journalist, novelist and Nobel Prize laureate.
Henryk Wieniawski (10 July 1835 – 31 March 1880) was a Polish violinist and composer.
Henryk Zygalski (15 July 1908 in Posen – 30 August 1978 in Liss) was a Polish mathematician and cryptologist who worked at breaking German Enigma ciphers before and during World War II.
Henryków (Heinrichau) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Ziębice, within Ząbkowice Śląskie County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Hieronim Morsztyn (1581–1623) was a Polish poet.
Hilary Koprowski (5 December 191611 April 2013) was a Polish virologist and immunologist active in the United States; inventor of the world's first effective live polio vaccine.
History of Civilization in Poland (Dzieje Cywilizacji w Polsce) is a cycle of twelve oil sketches on canvas and wood, created by the Polish nominal painter Jan Matejko in 1889 with accompanying commentaries.
Gdańsk (or;; Kashubian: Gduńsk; Danzig) is one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.
The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet dominance and communist rule imposed after the end of World War II over Poland, as reestablished within new borders.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
This article chronicles the history and origins of the Teller–Ulam design, the technical concept behind modern thermonuclear weapons, also known as hydrogen bombs.
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.
The Holy Cross Sermons (Kazania świętokrzyskie) are the oldest extant prose text in the Polish language, dating probably from the late 13th, or from the early 14th century.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
Hortulus Animae (Little Garden of the Soul, Seelengärtlein, Jardin des Âmes, Raj duszny) was the Latin title of a prayer book also available in German.
Władysław Hugo Dionizy Steinhaus (January 14, 1887 – February 25, 1972) was a Jewish-Polish mathematician and educator.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hutsuls (гуцули, hutsuly; Hucuł, plural Huculi, Hucułowie; huțul, plural huțuli) is an ethno-cultural group of Ukrainians,Encyclopedia of Ukraine: Richard T.Schaefer (ed.), 2008, Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, Volume 1, SAGE Publications, p. 1341.
Iłża is a small town in Masovian Voivodeship, Poland.
Ida is a 2013 Polish drama film directed by Paweł Pawlikowski and written by Pawlikowski and Rebecca Lenkiewicz.
Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz (8 March 1822 – 7 January 1882) was a Polish pharmacist, engineer, businessman, inventor, and philanthropist.
Ignacy Domeyko or Domejko, pseudonym: Żegota (Ignacio Domeyko,; born near Nieśwież, now Karelichy District, Belarus, 31 July 1802 – 23 January 1889, Santiago de Chile) was a Polish geologist, mineralogist and educator.
Ignacy Krasicki (3 February 173514 March 1801), from 1766 Prince-Bishop of Warmia (in German, Ermland) and from 1795 Archbishop of Gniezno (thus, Primate of Poland), was Poland's leading Enlightenment poet"Ignacy Krasicki", Encyklopedia Polski (Encyclopedia of Poland), p. 325.
Ilūkste (Alūksta, Ilūkšta; Illuxt) is a town and a seat of Ilūkste Municipality, southeastern Latvia.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Inflanty Voivodeship (Województwo inflanckie), or Livonian Voivodeship (Livonijos vaivadija), also known as Polish Livonia, was an administrative division and local government in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, since it was formed in the 1620s out of the Wenden Voivodeship and lasted until the First Partition of Poland in 1772.
Ingrid Pitt (born Ingoushka Petrov; 21 November 193723 November 2010) was a Polish-British actress, author, and writer best known for her work in horror films of the 1960s and 1970s.
Inowrocław (Hohensalza) is a city in north-central Poland with a total population of 74,803 in 2014.
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה, HaLishka HaMerkazit LiStatistika), abbreviated CBS, is an Israeli government office established in 1949 to carry out research and publish statistical data on all aspects of Israeli life, including population, society, economy, industry, education, and physical infrastructure.
Italy–Poland relations are cultural and political relations between Italy and Poland.
Izabella Scorupco (born Izabela Dorota Skorupko, June 4, 1970) is a Polish actress, singer and model.
Jack Benny (born February 14, 1894 – December 26, 1974) was an American comedian, vaudevillian, radio, television and film actor, and violinist.
The Jagiellonian dynasty was a royal dynasty, founded by Jogaila (the Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized as Władysław, married Queen regnant (also styled "King") Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. The dynasty reigned in several Central European countries between the 14th and 16th centuries. Members of the dynasty were Kings of Poland (1386–1572), Grand Dukes of Lithuania (1377–1392 and 1440–1572), Kings of Hungary (1440–1444 and 1490–1526), and Kings of Bohemia (1471–1526). The personal union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (converted in 1569 with the Treaty of Lublin into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) is the reason for the common appellation "Poland–Lithuania" in discussions about the area from the Late Middle Ages onward. One Jagiellonian briefly ruled both Poland and Hungary (1440–44), and two others ruled both Bohemia and Hungary (1490–1526) and then continued in the distaff line as a branch of the House of Habsburg. The Polish "Golden Age", the period of the reigns of Sigismund I and Sigismund II, the last two Jagiellonian kings, or more generally the 16th century, is most often identified with the rise of the culture of Polish Renaissance. The cultural flowering had its material base in the prosperity of the elites, both the landed nobility and urban patriciate at such centers as Kraków and Gdańsk.
The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.
Jan Andrzej Morsztyn (1621–93) was a Polish poet, member of the landed nobility, and official in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Jan Chryzostom Pasek (c. 1636–1701) was a Polish nobleman and writer during the times of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Jan Długosz (1 December 1415 – 19 May 1480), also known as Ioannes, Joannes, or Johannes Longinus or Dlugossius, was a Polish priest, chronicler, diplomat, soldier, and secretary to Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków.
Jan Kasprowicz (December 12, 1860 – August 1, 1926) was a poet, playwright, critic and translator; a foremost representative of Young Poland.
Jan Kochanowski (1530 – 22 August 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to the Polish literary language.
Jan Ludwik Popławski (17 January 1854 in Bystrzejowice Pierwsze – 12 March 1908 in Warsaw) was a Polish journalist, author, politician and one of the first chief activists and ideologues of the right-wing National Democracy political camp.
Jan Alojzy Matejko (also known as Jan Mateyko; June 24, 1838 – November 1, 1893) was a Polish painter known for paintings of notable historical Polish political and military events.
Jan(ko) of Czarnków (Jan(ko) z Czarnkowa) (ca. 1320–1387), of Nałęcz coat of arms, was a Polish chronicler, Deputy Chancellor of the Crown and Archdeacon of Gniezno.
Count Jan Potocki (8 March 1761 – 23 December 1815) was a Polish nobleman, Polish Army Captain of Engineers, ethnologist, Egyptologist, linguist, traveler, adventurer, and popular author of the Enlightenment period, whose life and exploits made him a legendary figure in his homeland.
Janów Lubelski is a town in eastern Poland.
Jane Eyre is a 2011 British romantic drama film directed by Cary Fukunaga and starring Mia Wasikowska and Michael Fassbender.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
Janusz Gajos (born 23 September 1939 in Dąbrowa Górnicza) is a Polish actor.
Jared Tristan Padalecki (born July 19, 1982) is an American actor, best known for his role as Sam Winchester on Supernatural.
Józef Bartłomiej Zimorowic (August 20, 1597 – October 14, 1677) was a Polish poet and historian of the Baroque era, most famous for his pastoral poems Sielanki nowe ruskie (New Ruthenian Pastorals), first published in Kraków in 1663.
Józef Antoni Franciszek Elsner (sometimes Józef Ksawery Elsner; baptismal name, Joseph Anton Franz Elsner; 1 June 176918 April 1854) was a composer, music teacher, and music theoretician, active mainly in Warsaw.
Józef Ignacy Kraszewski (28 July 1812 – 19 March 1887) was a Polish writer, publisher, historian, journalist, scholar, painter and author who produced more than 200 novels and 150 novellas, short stories, and art reviews.
Jean de La Fontaine (8 July 162113 April 1695) was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jennifer Lynn Connelly (born December 12, 1970) is an American actress who began her career as a child model.
Jerusalem Delivered (La Gerusalemme liberata) is an epic poem by the Italian poet Torquato Tasso, first published in 1581, that tells a largely mythified version of the First Crusade in which Christian knights, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, battle Muslims in order to take Jerusalem.
Jerzy Andrzejewski (19 August 1909 – 19 April 1983) was a prolific Polish author.
Jerzy Kosiński (June 14, 1933 – May 3, 1991), born Józef Lewinkopf, was a Polish-American novelist and two-time President of the American Chapter of P.E.N., who wrote primarily in English.
Jerzy Witold Różycki (July 24, 1909 in Vilshana, Ukraine – January 9, 1942 in Mediterranean Sea, near the Balearic Islands) was a Polish mathematician and cryptologist who worked at breaking German Enigma-machine ciphers before and during World War II.
Jerzy Skolimowski (born 5 May 1938) is a Polish film director, screenwriter, dramatist and actor.
Jerzy Oskar Stuhr (born 18 April 1947) is one of the most popular, influential and versatile Polish film and theatre actors.
Jesse Adam Eisenberg (born October 5, 1983) is an American actor, author, and playwright.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Amos Comenius (Jan Amos Komenský; Johann Amos Comenius; Latinized: Ioannes Amos Comenius; 28 March 1592 – 15 November 1670) was a Czech philosopher, pedagogue and theologian from the Margraviate of Moravia"Clamores Eliae" he dedicated "To my lovely mother, Moravia, one of her faithful son...". Clamores Eliae, p.69, Kastellaun/Hunsrück: A. Henn, 1977.
John Bluthal (born 28 March 1929) is a British radio, stage, television and film actor and voice artist, whose work has mostly been in comedy.
John Jonston (in Polish, Jan Jonston; in Latin, Joannes Jonstonus; Szamotuły, 15 September 1603 – 1675, Legnica) was a Polish scholar and physician, descended from Scottish nobility and closely associated with the Polish magnate family of the Leszczyńskis.
John Burke Krasinski (born October 20, 1979) is an American actor, screenwriter, producer, and director.
Josef Casimir Hofmann (originally Józef Kazimierz Hofmann; January 20, 1876February 16, 1957) was a Polish American pianist, composer, music teacher, and inventor.
Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language.
(Franz) Joseph HaydnSee Haydn's name.
Sir Joseph Rotblat (4 November 1908 – 31 August 2005) was a Polish physicist, a self-described "Pole with a British passport".
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Julian Tuwim (September 13, 1894 – December 27, 1953), known also under the pseudonym "Oldlen" as a lyricist,.
Juliusz Słowacki (23 August 1809 – 3 April 1849) was a Polish Romantic poet.
Juliusz Zarębski (3 March 185415 September 1885) was a Polish composer and pianist.
Kalisz (Old Greek: Καλισία, Latin: Calisia, Yiddish: קאַליש, Kalisch) is a city in central Poland with 101,625 inhabitants (December 2017), the capital city of the Kalisz Region.
Karol Kazimierz Kurpiński (March 6, 1785, WłoszakowiceSeptember 18, 1857, Warsaw) was a Polish composer, conductor and pedagogue.
Karol Maciej Szymanowski (3 October 188229 March 1937) was a Polish composer and pianist, the most celebrated Polish composer of the early 20th century.
Karta Polaka, literally meaning Pole's Card, but also translated as Polish Charter or Polish Card, is a document confirming belonging to the Polish nation, which may be given to individuals who cannot obtain dual citizenship in their own countries while belonging to the Polish nation according to conditions defined by law; and, who do not have prior Polish citizenship or permission to reside in Poland.
Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa; język kaszubski, język pomorski, język kaszubsko-słowiński) is a West Slavic language belonging to the Lechitic subgroup along with Polish and Silesian.
The Kashubs (Kaszëbi; Kaszubi; Kaschuben; also spelled Kaszubians, Kassubians, Cassubians, Cashubes, and Kashubians, and formerly known as Kashubes) are a West Slavic ethnic group in Pomerelia, north-central Poland.
Kasper Straube (also Kaspar or Caspar, also known as The Printer of the Turrecrematas) was a German 15th century printer from Bavaria.
Kasper Twardowski (ca. 1592 – ca. 1641) OCLC ResearchWorks Online Computer Library Center, WorldCat Identities, Dublin OH, USA.
Kazimierz Kuratowski (Polish pronunciation:, 2 February 1896 – 18 June 1980) was a Polish mathematician and logician.
Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer (12 February 1865 – 18 January 1940) was a Polish poet, novelist, playwright, journalist and writer.
Kazimierz Wyka (1910–1975) was a Polish literary historian, literary critic, and professor at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków following World War II.
A kerosene lamp (also known as a paraffin lamp in some countries) is a type of lighting device that uses kerosene (paraffin) as a fuel.
Kielce is a city in south central Poland with 199,475 inhabitants.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kościuszko Uprising was an uprising against Imperial Russia and the Kingdom of Prussia led by Tadeusz Kościuszko in the Commonwealth of Poland and the Prussian partition in 1794.
Kociewie is an ethnocultural region in the eastern part of Tuchola Forest, in northern Poland, Pomerania, south of Gdańsk.
Konin is a city in central Poland, on the Warta River.
Kordian (Kordian: Część pierwsza trylogii.; English: Kordian: First Part of a Trilogy: The Coronation Plot) is a drama written in 1833, and published in 1834, by Juliusz Słowacki, one of the "Three Bards" of Polish literature.
Koronowo (archaic Polnisch Krone) is a town on the Brda River in Poland, located in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, 25 km from Bydgoszcz, with 11,029 inhabitants (2010).
Krajna is a forested historical region in Poland, situated in the border area between the Greater Poland, Kuyavian-Pomeranian and Pomeranian Voivodeships.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The Krakowiacy are a subethnic group of the Polish nation, who reside in the historic province of Lesser Poland, in the area of the city of Kraków.
The Krakowiak is a fast, syncopated Polish dance in duple time from the region of Kraków and Little Poland.
Kristen Anne Bell (born July 18, 1980) is an American actress.
Krobia is a town situated in the western part of Poland, in Greater Poland Voivodeship.
Krynica Morska (Kahlberg) is a town and coextensive municipality (gmina) on the Vistula Spit in northern Poland with 1,364 inhabitants (2006).
Krystyna Janda (born 18 December 1952, in Starachowice, Poland) is a Polish film and theater actress best known internationally for playing leading roles in several films by Polish director Andrzej Wajda, including Man of Marble (Człowiek z marmuru, 1976) and Man of Iron (Człowiek z żelaza, 1981).
Krzysztof Kieślowski (27 June 1941 – 13 March 1996) was a Polish film director and screenwriter.
Krzysztof "Kris" Matyjaszewski (born April 8, 1950) is a Polish-American chemist.
Krzysztof Opaliński (21 January 1611 – 6 December 1655) was a Polish nobleman, politician, writer, satirist and Governor of Poznań.
Krzysztof Eugeniusz Penderecki (born 23 November 1933) is a Polish composer and conductor.
Kulturkampf ("culture struggle") is a German term referring to power struggles between emerging constitutional democratic nation states and the Roman Catholic Church over the place and role of religion in modern polity, usually in connection with secularization campaigns.
Kurpie is one of a number of ethnic regions in Poland, noted for its unique traditional customs, such as its own types of traditional costume, traditional dance and distinctive type of architecture and livelihoods.
Kuyavia (Kujawy, Kujawien, Cuiavia), also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć River and Lake Gopło.
Kwidzyn (Latin: Quedin; Marienwerder; Prussian: Kwēdina) is a town in northern Poland on the Liwa river in the Powiśle (right bank of Vistula) region, with 40,008 inhabitants (2004).
Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof; –), credited as L. L. Zamenhof and sometimes as the pseudonymous Dr.
La liberazione di Ruggiero dall'isola d'Alcina (En. "The Liberation of Ruggiero from the island of Alcina") is a comic opera in four scenes by Francesca Caccini, first performed 3 February 1625 at the Villa di Poggio Imperiale in Florence, with a libretto by Ferdinando Saracinelli, based on Ludovico Ariosto's Orlando Furioso.
The Lachian dialects (Lach dialects, lašská nářečí, lašstina, gwary laskie, not to be confused with the Lechitic language group) are a group of West Slavic dialects that form a transition between the Polish and Czech language.
Lachy Sądeckie are a group of ethnic Poles who live in southern Lesser Poland.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Laurentius Corvinus (Laurentius Rabe; Wawrzyniec Korwin; 1465–1527) was a Silesian scholar who lectured as an "extraordinary" (i.e. untenured) professor at the University of Krakow when Nicolaus Copernicus began to study there.
Lechites, or Lekhites, is a name given to certain West Slavic peoples, including the ancestors of modern Poles and the historical Pomeranians and Polabians, speakers of the Lechitic languages.
Lee Strasberg (born Israel Strasberg; November 17, 1901February 17, 1982) was a Polish-born American actor, director, and theatre practitioner.
Liliane Rudabet Gloria Elsveta "Leelee" Sobieski (born June 10, 1983) is an American former film and television actress.
Legnica (archaic Polish: Lignica, Liegnitz, Lehnice, Lignitium) is a city in southwestern Poland, in the central part of Lower Silesia, on the Kaczawa River (left tributary of the Oder) and the Czarna Woda.
Lemkos (Лeмки, Łemkowie, Lemko: Лeмкы, translit. Lemkŷ; sing. Лeмкo, Lemko) are an ethnic sub-group inhabiting a stretch of the Carpathian Mountains known as Lemkivshchyna.
Leonid "Leo" Hurwicz (August 21, 1917 – June 24, 2008) was a Polish American economist and mathematician.
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
The Lipka Tatars (also known as Lithuanian Tatars, Polish Tatars, Lipkowie, Lipcani or Muślimi) are a group of Tatars who originally settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the beginning of the 14th century.
Lisa Valerie Kudrow (born July 30, 1963) is an American actress, comedian, writer, and producer.
As of 2017, Nobel Prizes have been awarded to 844 men, 48 women (Marie Curie won it twice), and 27 organizations.
The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
This is a partial list of notable Polish or Polish-speaking or -writing persons.
The Latin Archdiocese of Lviv (Archidioecesis Leopolitanus Latinorum) was erected on August 28, 1412 in the city of Lwow (today Lviv).
This is a list of universities in Poland.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The Lithuanian minority in Poland consists of 8,000 people (according to the Polish census of 2011) living chiefly in the Podlaskie Voivodeship in the north-eastern part of Poland.
Lithuanians (lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Loretta Jane Swit (born November 4, 1937) is an American stage and television actress known for her character roles.
Lubawa (Löbau in Westpreußen, Old Prussian: Lūbawa) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
Lublin Voivodeship, or Lublin Province (in Polish, województwo lubelskie), is a voivodeship, or province, located in southeastern Poland.
The Lubliniacy are a subethnic group of the Polish nation, who reside in the historic province of Lesser Poland, in the area of the city of Lublin.
Luca Marenzio (also Marentio; October 18, 1553 or 1554 – August 22, 1599) was an Italian composer and singer of the late Renaissance.
Lusatia (Lausitz, Łužica, Łužyca, Łużyce, Lužice) is a region in Central Europe.
The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300 BC – 500 BC) in most of today's Poland and parts of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, eastern Germany, and western Ukraine.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
The Lwów school of mathematics (lwowska szkoła matematyczna) was a group of Polish mathematicians who worked between the two World Wars in Lwów, Poland (since 1945 Lviv, Ukraine).
Maciej Kamieński (13 October 1734, Sopron – 25 January 1825, Warsaw) was Polish classical composer of Slovak origin.
Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski (in Latin, Matthias Casimirus Sarbievius; Lithuanian: Motiejus Kazimieras Sarbievijus; Sarbiewo, Poland, 24 February 1595 Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski's biography by Mirosław Korolko in: – 2 April 1640, Warsaw, Poland), was Europe's most prominent Latin poet of the 17th century, and a renowned theoretician of poetics.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Margaret Denise Quigley (born May 22, 1979), professionally known as Maggie Q, is an American actress, model and animal rights activist.
Malbork (Marienburg; Civitas Beatae Virginis) is a town in northern Poland in the Żuławy region (Vistula delta), with 38,478 inhabitants (2006).
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Maps to the Stars is a 2014 internationally co-produced satirical drama film directed by David Cronenberg, and starring Julianne Moore, Mia Wasikowska, John Cusack, Robert Pattinson, Olivia Williams, Sarah Gadon, and Evan Bird.
Marcin Mielczewski (c. 1600 – September 1651) was, together with his tutor Franciszek Lilius and Bartłomiej Pękiel, among the most notable Polish composers in the 17th century.
Marco Scacchi (ca. 1600 – 7 September 1662) was an Italian composer and writer on music.
Maria Elena Bello (born April 18, 1967) is an American actress and writer.
Maria Dąbrowska (6 October 1889 – 19 May 1965) was a Polish writer, novelist, essayist, journalist and playwright,Marcel Cornis-Pope, John Neubauer, Benjamins Publishing, 2010.
Marian Adam Rejewski (16 August 1905 – 13 February 1980) was a Polish mathematician and cryptologist who reconstructed the Nazi German military Enigma cipher machine sight-unseen in 1932.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
Marija Gimbutas (Marija Gimbutienė; January 23, 1921 – February 2, 1994) was a Lithuanian-American archaeologist and anthropologist known for her research into the Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures of "Old Europe" and for her Kurgan hypothesis, which located the Proto-Indo-European homeland in the Pontic Steppe.
Martha Goldstein (born Martha Svendsen; June 10, 1919 – February 14, 2014) was an American harpsichordist and pianist, who gave concerts in the United States, North Africa, the Middle East, and Europe.
The Masovians or Mazovians (Polish: Mazowszanie; Masovian: Masovsany) are a Lechitic tribe or an ethnic group associated with the region of Mazovia.
The Masurians or Mazurs (Mazurzy, Masuren, Masurian: Mazurÿ) are a small 5,000-15,000 strong Lechitic sub-ethnic group traditionally present in what is now the present-day Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland.
Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.
A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.
Maurycy Mochnacki (born 13 September 1803 in Bojaniec near Żółkiew – died on 20 December 1834 in Auxerre) was a Polish literary, theatre and music critic, publicist, journalist, pianist, historian and independence activist.
Maksymilian Faktorowicz (15 September 1872 – 30 August 1938), also known as Max Factor Sr., was a Polish-Jewish businessman, entrepreneur and inventor.
Max Fleischer (born Majer Fleischer;; July 19, 1883 – September 25, 1972) was a Polish-American animator, inventor, film director and producer.
Mayim Chaya Bialik (born December 12, 1975) is an American actress, author, and neuroscientist.
Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.
Mazowsze (in Polish "Państwowy Zespół Ludowy Pieśni i Tańca "Mazowsze"" – "State Folk Group of Song and Dance 'Mazowsze'") is a famous Polish folk group.
The mazurka (in Polish mazurek, plural mazurki) is a Polish folk dance in triple meter, usually at a lively tempo, and with "strong accents unsystematically placed on the second or third beat".
Mława (מלאווע Mlave; 1941-45 Mielau) is a town in north-central Poland with 30,957 inhabitants in 2012.
A memoir (US: /ˈmemwɑːr/; from French: mémoire: memoria, meaning memory or reminiscence) is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or events, both public or private, that took place in the subject's life.
Menachem Begin (Menaḥem Begin,; Menakhem Volfovich Begin; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel.
The Metropolitan Association of Upper Silesia and Dąbrowa Basin, usually referred to in Poland as the Silesian Metropolis (Górnośląsko-Zagłębiowska Metropolia; Metropolia Silesia), See also: Further information: is an association of municipalities composed of 14 neighbouring cities in the Polish Province of Silesia.
Mia Wasikowska (born 25 October 1989) is an Australian actress.
Michał Żebrowski (born 17 June 1972) is a Polish actor and singer.
Michał Kleofas Ogiński (25 September 176515 October 1833)Don Michael Randel, The Harvard Bibliographical Dictionary of music, Cambridge University Press, 1996, p. 649.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mieczysław Karłowicz (11 December 18768 February 1909) was a Polish composer and conductor.
Since the fall of Communism in 1989, the nature of migration to and from Poland has been in flux.
Mikołaj Gomółka (c. 1535 – after 30 April 1591, most probably 5 March 1609) was a Polish Renaissance composer, member of the royal court of Sigismund II Augustus, where he was a singer, flutist and trumpeter.
Mikołaj Rej or Mikołaj Rey of Nagłowice (4 February 1505 – between 8 September/5 October 1569) was a Polish poet and prose writer of the emerging Renaissance in Poland as it succeeded the Middle Ages, as well as a politician and musician.
Mikołaj Sęp Szarzyński (c. 1550 – c. 1581) was an influential Polish poet of the late Renaissance who wrote in both Polish and Latin.
Mikołaj Radomski, also called Mikołaj z Radomia and Nicholas of Radom, was an early 15th-century Polish composer.
Mikołaj Zieleński (Zelenscius, fl. 1611) was a Polish composer, organist and Kapellmeister to the primate Baranowski, Archbishop of Gniezno.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych) is the Polish government department tasked with maintaining Poland's international relations and coordinating its participation in international and regional supra-national political organisations such as the European Union and United Nations.
Ministry of the Interior and Administration (Ministerstwo Spraw Wewnętrznych i Administracji) is an administration structure controlling main administration and security branches of the Polish government.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Monte Carlo methods (or Monte Carlo experiments) are a broad class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated random sampling to obtain numerical results.
Moravians (Czech: Moravané or colloquially Moraváci) are a West Slavic ethnographic group from the Moravia region of the Czech Republic, who speak the Moravian dialects of the Czech language or Common Czech or a mixed form of both.
The Music of Poland covers diverse aspects of music and musical traditions which have originated, and are practiced in Poland.
My Summer of Love is a 2004 British drama film directed by Pawel Pawlikowski and co-written by Pawlikowski and Michael Wynne.
The ethnonyms for the Poles (people) and Poland (their country) include endonyms (the way Polish people refer to themselves and their country) and exonyms (the way other peoples refer to the Poles and their country).
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA) or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor,The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1.
Native Polish Church, Rodzimy Kościół Polski (RKP) – a West Slavic pagan religious association that refers to ethnic, pre-Christian beliefs of the Slavic people.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Ned Glass (born Nusyn Glass, April 1, 1906 – June 15, 1984) was a Polish-born American character actor who appeared in more than eighty films and on television more than one hundred times, frequently playing nervous, cowardly, or deceitful characters.
New Britain is a city in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
A nocturne (from the French which meant nocturnal, from Latin nocturnus) is usually a musical composition that is inspired by, or evocative of, the night.
The North European Plain (Norddeutsches Tiefland or Norddeutsche Tiefebene, North German Plain; Nizina Środkowoeuropejska, Middle European Plain) is a geomorphological region in Europe, mostly in Poland, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands (Low Countries), and a small part of northern France and Czech republic.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Noteć is a river in central Poland with a length of (7th longest) and a basin area of.
The Notre Dame school or the Notre Dame school of polyphony refers to the group of composers working at or near the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris from about 1160 to 1250, along with the music they produced.
The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
Nowe Kramsko (Neu Kramzig) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Babimost, within Zielona Góra County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland.
Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons.
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
Nuclear pulse propulsion or external pulsed plasma propulsion, is a hypothetical method of spacecraft propulsion that uses nuclear explosions for thrust.
Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
The Obotrites (Obotriti) or Obodrites (Obodrzyce meaning: at the waters), also spelled Abodrites (Abodriten), were a confederation of medieval West Slavic tribes within the territory of modern Mecklenburg and Holstein in northern Germany (see Polabian Slavs).
The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during the Second World War (1939–1945) began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, and it was formally concluded with the defeat of Germany by the Allies in May 1945.
The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
Olędrzy (Singluar form: Olęder; Holländer, Hauländer) were people, often of Dutch or German ancestry, who lived in settlements in Poland organized under a particular type of law.
In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.
Old Polish language (język staropolski) is the period in the history of the Polish language between the 9th and the 16th centuries, followed by the Middle Polish language.
Old Prussians or Baltic Prussians (Old Prussian: Prūsai; Pruzzen or Prußen; Pruteni; Prūši; Prūsai; Prusowie; Prësowié) refers to the indigenous peoples from a cluster of Baltic tribes that inhabited the region of Prussia.
Olga Tokarczuk (born 29 January 1962) is a Polish writer, activist, and public intellectual who has been described as one of the most critically acclaimed and commercially successful authors of her generation.
Oliver Twist is a 2005 drama film directed by Roman Polanski.
One Thousand and One Nights (ʾAlf layla wa-layla) is a collection of Middle Eastern folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age.
Opawa is an inner suburb of Christchurch, New Zealand, located 2.5 kilometres south-east of the city centre.
Opolans (Opolanie; Opolané; Opolanen) were the West Slavic tribe that lived in the region of upper Odra.
Opole (Oppeln, Silesian German: Uppeln, Uopole, Opolí) is a city located in southern Poland on the Oder River and the historical capital of Upper Silesia.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Orava is the traditional name of a region situated in northern Slovakia (as Orava) and partially also in southern Poland (as Orawa).
Orlando is a city in the U.S. state of Florida and the county seat of Orange County.
Henryk Oskar Kolberg (22 February 1814 – 3 June 1890) was a Polish ethnographer, folklorist, and composer active during the foreign Partitions of Poland.
Ostrów Lednicki is an island in the southern portion of Lake Lednica in Poland, located between the cities of Gniezno and Poznań.
Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pałuki is a historic and ethnographic region lying in central Poland, part of Greater Poland, among Pomerania and Cuiavia.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.
Panna Maria (Polish for Virgin Mary) is a small unincorporated community in Karnes County, Texas, United States.
Paraná is one of the 26 states of Brazil, in the south of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the province of Misiones, Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line.
A paraphrase is a restatement of the meaning of a text or passage using other words.
The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Patriotism or national pride is the ideology of love and devotion to a homeland, and a sense of alliance with other citizens who share the same values.
Paul Leonard Newman (January 26, 1925 – September 26, 2008) was an American actor, voice actor, film director, producer, race car driver, IndyCar owner, entrepreneur, philanthropist, and activist.
Paweł Tomasz Wasilewski (born July 23, 1982), known professionally as Paul Wesley and formerly as Paul Wasilewski, is a Polish-American actor, director, and producer.
Paweł Aleksander Pawlikowski (born 15 September 1957) is a Polish filmmaker, who has lived and worked most of his life in the UK.
Płock (pronounced) is a city on the Vistula river in central Poland.
Peter Stephen Paul Brook, CH, CBE (born 21 March 1925) is an English theatre and film director who has been based in France since the early 1970s.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
Pharmacists, also known as chemists (Commonwealth English) or druggists (North American and, archaically, Commonwealth English), are health professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
The Piast concept is a political idea of Polish state based on its initial territories under the Piast dynasty, and containing mostly Polish population.
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.
Piotr Skarga (less often, Piotr Powęski; 2 February 1536 – 27 September 1612) was a Polish Jesuit, preacher, hagiographer, polemicist, and leading figure of the Counter-Reformation in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
A playwright or dramatist (rarely dramaturge) is a person who writes plays.
Podkarpackie Voivodeship or Podkarpackie Province (in Polish: województwo podkarpackie), also known as Subcarpathian Voivodeship or Subcarpathia Province, is a voivodeship, or province, in extreme-southeastern Poland.
Podlachia or Podlasie, (Podlasie, Падляшша Padliašša, Palenkė) is a historical region in the eastern part of Poland.
Podlachian language (Pudlaśka mova) is a microlanguage of Belarusians, Poles and Poleshuks which live in Podlachia.
Podlaskie Voivodeship or Podlasie Province (Województwo podlaskie) is a voivodeship (province) in northeastern Poland.
Podolia or Podilia (Подíлля, Podillja, Подо́лье, Podolʹje., Podolya, Podole, Podolien, Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova (i.e. northern Transnistria).
A poet laureate (plural: poets laureate) is a poet officially appointed by a government or conferring institution, typically expected to compose poems for special events and occasions.
Pola Negri (born Barbara Apolonia Chałupec; 3 January 18971 August 1987) was a Polish stage and film actress who achieved worldwide fame during the silent and golden eras of Hollywood and European film for her tragedienne and femme fatale roles.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The most important phenomenon that took place within the lands of Poland in the Early Middle Ages, as well as other parts of Central Europe was the arrival and permanent settlement of the West Slavs.
The Polans (also known as Polanes, Polanians;, derived from Old Slavic pole, "field" or "plain", see polje) were a West Slavic tribe, part of the Lechitic group, inhabiting the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century.
"Pole and Hungarian brothers be" (the Polish version) and "Pole and Hungarian, two good friends" (Hungarian version) are respective forms of a popular bilingual saying about the traditional kinship, brotherhood, and camaraderie between the Polish and Hungarian peoples.
A polemic is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position.
Poles in France form one of the largest Polish diaspora communities in Europe.
Poles in Germany are the second largest Polish diaspora (Polonia) in the world and the biggest in Europe.
The Polish minority in Latvia numbers about 51,548 and (according to the Latvian data from 2011) forms 2.3% of the population of Latvia.
The Polish minority in Lithuania numbered 200,317 persons, according to the Lithuanian census of 2011, or 6.6% of the total population of Lithuania.
According to the 2011 census, 2,543 Poles live in Romania, mainly in the villages of Suceava County (Suczawa).
Polish-Spaniards or Poles in Spain are citizens and/or residents of Spain whose ethnic origins lie fully or partially in Poland.
The Polish minority in the Soviet Union refers to people of Polish descent who used to reside in the Soviet Union before its 1991 dissolution (in the Autumn of Nations), and who live in post-Soviet, sovereign countries of Europe and Asia as their significant minorities at present time, including the Kresy macroregion (Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine), Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan among others.
The Polish community in the United Kingdom since the mid-20th century largely stems from the Polish presence in the British Isles during the Second World War, when Poles made a substantial contribution to the Allied war effort.
Poleshuks (West Polesian: Полэшукы, Poleshuki, Поліщуки, Polishchuky, Палешукі, Paleshuki, Poleshchuki/Poleshchuki, is the name given to the people who populated the swamps of Polesia (Polesie, also Polissia). The Poleshuk's microlanguage is close to the Rusyn, Ukrainian, and Belarusian languages; it maintains many local peculiarities of other languages and dialects of the area.
Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio).
The Polish Academy of Literature (Polska Akademia Literatury, PAL) was one of the most important state institutions of literary life in the Second Polish Republic, operating between 1933–1939 with the headquarters in Warsaw.
The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography.
Polish Americans are Americans who have total or partial Polish ancestry.
Polish Argentines (polaco-argentinos) are Argentine citizens of full or partial Polish ancestry or Poland-born people who reside in Argentina.
Polish Australians refers to Australian citizens or residents of full or partial Polish ancestry, or Polish citizens living in Australia.
Polish Brazilians (polono-brasileiros) refers to Brazilians of full or partial Polish ancestry who are aware of such ancestry and remain connected, to some degree, to Polish culture, or Polish-born people permanently residing in Brazil.
Polish Canadians are citizens of Canada with Polish ancestry, and Poles who immigrated to Canada from abroad.
Polish Chileans include immigrants to Chile from Poland and their descendants who recognize their Polish ancestry.
Polish cuisine is a style of cooking and food preparation originating in or widely popular in Poland.
The Polish diaspora refers to Poles who live outside Poland.
Polish Film School (Polska Szkoła Filmowa) refers to an informal group of Polish film directors and screenplay writers active between 1955 and approximately 1963.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polish literature is the literary tradition of Poland.
There is a small Polish diaspora in Mexico.
The Polish minority in the Czech Republic (Polska mniejszość narodowa w Republice Czeskiej, Polská národnostní menšina v České republice) is a Polish national minority living mainly in the Zaolzie region of western Cieszyn Silesia.
Polish National Government of 1831 was a Polish supreme authority during the November Uprising against the Russian occupation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Polish nationality law is based primarily on the principle of jus sanguinis.
Polish New Zealanders refers to New Zealand citizens or residents of full or partial Polish ancestry, or Polish citizens living in New Zealand.
Polish opera may be broadly understood to include operas staged in Poland and works written for foreign stages by Polish composers, as well as opera in the Polish language.
The Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church, commonly known as the Polish Orthodox Church (Polski Autokefaliczny Kościół Prawosławny), or (Orthodox) Church of Poland is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches in full communion.
"Polish tribes" is a term used sometimes to describe the tribes of West Slavs that lived in the territories that became Polish from around the mid-6th century to the creation of Polish state by the Piast dynasty.
Polish Uplanders (Pogórzanie; also known as Western Pogorzans and Eastern Pogorzans), are a distinctive subethnic group of Poles that mostly live in the Central Beskidian Range of the Subcarpathian highlands.
A Polish Uruguayan is a Uruguayan citizen of full or partial Polish ancestry.
Polish Venezuelans (Polscy Wenezuelczycy, polaco-venezolanos) are Venezuelan citizens of full or partial Polish ancestry.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
A political system is a system of politics and government.
The polonaise (polonez) is a dance of Polish origin, in 4 time.
Polonization (or Polonisation; polonizacja)In Polish historiography, particularly pre-WWII (e.g., L. Wasilewski. As noted in Смалянчук А. Ф. (Smalyanchuk 2001) Паміж краёвасцю і нацыянальнай ідэяй. Польскі рух на беларускіх і літоўскіх землях. 1864–1917 г. / Пад рэд. С. Куль-Сяльверставай. – Гродна: ГрДУ, 2001. – 322 с. (2004). Pp.24, 28.), an additional distinction between the Polonization (polonizacja) and self-Polonization (polszczenie się) has been being made, however, most modern Polish researchers don't use the term polszczenie się.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.
The Pomeranians (Pomoranen; Pòmòrzónie; Pomorzanie) were a group of West Slavic tribes who lived along the shore of the Baltic Sea between the mouths of the Oder and Vistula Rivers (the latter Farther Pomerania and Pomerelia).
Positivism in Poland was a socio-cultural movement that defined progressive thought in literature and social sciences of partitioned Poland, following the suppression of the 1863 January Uprising against the occupying army of Imperial Russia.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
The President of the State of Israel (נְשִׂיא מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Nesi Medinat Yisra'el, or נְשִׂיא הַמְדִינָה, Nesi HaMedina, literally President of the State) is the head of state of Israel.
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.
The Prime Minister of Israel (רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה״מ; رئيس الحكومة, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of government of Israel and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Prussian deportations (or Prussian expulsions of Poles, rugi pruskie, Polenausweisungen) were the mass expulsions of ethnic Poles (and to a lesser extent, Polish Jews) from the German-controlled Prussia between 1885 and 1890.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Pszów (Pschow) is a town in Wodzisław County, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland, with 14,035 inhabitants (2004).
Puławy is a city in eastern Poland, in Lublin Province of northern Lesser Poland, located at the confluence of the Wisła and Kurówka rivers.
The Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs is an international organization that brings together scholars and public figures to work toward reducing the danger of armed conflict and to seek solutions to global security threats.
Pulsar planets are planets that are found orbiting pulsars, or rapidly rotating neutron stars.
Puszcza Biała (White Wilderness) is the name given to the forest that extends in Poland from Pułtusk to Ostrów Mazowiecka.
Puszcza Zielona (Green Wilderness) is a forest in Poland which extends from the Narew River and the border of what was once East Prussia.
Quern-stones are stone tools for hand-grinding a wide variety of materials.
Racibórz (Ratibor, Ratiboř, Raćibůrz) is a town in Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Rawicz (Rawitsch) is a town in central Poland with 21,398 inhabitants (2004).
Recovered Territories (Ziemie Odzyskane, literally "Regained Lands") was an official term used by the People's Republic of Poland to describe the territory of the former Free City of Danzig and the parts of pre-war Germany that became part of Poland after World War II.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Reichstein process in chemistry is a combined chemical and microbial method for the production of ascorbic acid from D-glucose that takes place in several steps.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Republic of Central Lithuania or Middle Lithuania (Republika Litwy Środkowej, Vidurio Lietuvos Respublika, Рэспубліка Сярэдняе Літвы / Respublika Siaredniaje Litvy), or Central Lithuania (Litwa Środkowa, Vidurio Lietuva or Vidurinė Lietuva, Сярэдняя Літва / Siaredniaja Litva), was a short-lived political entity, which did not gain international recognition.
Rio Grande do Sul (lit. Great Southern River) is a state located in the southern region of Brazil.
Robert Prosky (born Robert Joseph Porzuczek, December 13, 1930 – December 8, 2008) was a Polish-American actor and comedian.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Rodzima Wiara (meaning "Native Faith") is a Polish rodnover religious organization, founded in 1996 by Stanisław Potrzebowski in Wrocław as Zrzeszenie Rodzimej Wiary (meaning "Union of Native Faith").
Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.
Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański (born 18 August 1933) is a French-Polish film director, producer, writer, and actor.
Romani people in Poland (Romowie, commonly known as Gypsies Cyganie) are one of Poland's recognized ethnic minorities.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Romanticism in Poland, a literary, artistic and intellectual period in the evolution of Polish culture, began around 1820, coinciding with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz's first poems in 1822.
Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28.
Rosemary's Baby is a 1968 American psychological horror film with supernatural horror elements written and directed by Roman Polanski, based on the bestselling 1967 novel of the same name by Ira Levin.
Ross Martin (born Martin Rosenblatt, March 22, 1920 – July 3, 1981) was a Polish-born American radio, voice, stage, film and television actor.
Royal Prussia (Prusy Królewskie; Königlich-Preußen or Preußen Königlichen Anteils, Królewsczé Prësë) or Polish PrussiaAnton Friedrich Büsching, Patrick Murdoch.
The Russell–Einstein Manifesto was issued in London on 9 July 1955 by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Rusyns, also known as Ruthenes (Rusyn: Русины Rusynŷ; also sometimes referred to as Руснакы Rusnakŷ – Rusnaks), are a primarily diasporic ethnic group who speak an East Slavic language known as Rusyn.
Ruthenian or Old Ruthenian (see other names) was the group of varieties of East Slavic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Rzeszów (Ряшiв, Ŕašiv; Resche (antiquated); Resovia; ריישע, rayshe) is the largest city in southeastern Poland, with a population of 189,637 (01.03.2018).
Samuel Goldwyn (born Szmuel Gelbfisz; שמואל געלבפֿיש; c. August 27, 1879 – January 31, 1974), also known as Samuel Goldfish, was a Polish American film producer of Jewish descent.
Samuel Twardowski (before 1600 – 1661) was a Polish poet, diarist, and essayist who gained popularity in 17th century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, called by his contemporaries 'Polish Virgil'.
Sandomierz (pronounced:; Tsoizmer צויזמער) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 25,714 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship (since 1999).
Sarah Kate Silverman (born December 1, 1970) is an American stand-up comedian, actress, producer, and writer.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus.
Sébastien Érard (born Sebastian Erhard, 5 April 1752 – 5 August 1831) was a French instrument maker of German origin who specialised in the production of pianos and harps, developing the capacities of both instruments and pioneering the modern piano.
Sławomir Mrożek (29 June 1930 – 15 August 2013) was a Polish dramatist, writer and cartoonist.
Słowianki is a settlement in the administrative district of Gmina Połczyn-Zdrój, within Świdwin County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland.
Scarlett Ingrid Johansson (born November 22, 1984) is an American actress and singer.
Schweipolt Fiol (also Sebald Vehl or Veyl; born approximately in 1460? - died 1525 or 1526) was a German-born 15th century pioneer of printing in Eastern Europe, founder of the Ukrainian Cyrillic script typography.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.
Sebastian Grabowiecki (c. 1543 – 1607) was a Polish Catholic priest and poet.
Sebastian Petrycy of Pilzno (1554–1626) was a Polish philosopher and physician.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.
In mathematics, a self-similar object is exactly or approximately similar to a part of itself (i.e. the whole has the same shape as one or more of the parts).
Michael Sendivogius (Michał Sędziwój; 1566–1636) was a Polish alchemist, philosopher, and medical doctor.
Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.
Seweryn Goszczyński (1803-1876) was a Polish Romantic prose writer and poet.
Shimon Peres (שמעון פרס,; born Szymon Perski; August 2, 1923 – September 28, 2016) was an Israeli politician who served as the ninth President of Israel (2007–2014), the Prime Minister of Israel (twice), and the Interim Prime Minister, in the 1970s to the 1990s.
Siedlce (שעדליץ, Седлец) is a city in eastern Poland with 76,585 inhabitants.
Sieradz (Syradia, 1941-45 Schieratz) is a town on the Warta river in central Poland with 42,762 inhabitants (2016).
Sierpc (Sichelberg) is a town in Poland, in the north-west part of the Masovian Voivodeship, about 125 km northwest of Warsaw.
Sigismund III Vasa (also known as Sigismund III of Poland, Zygmunt III Waza, Sigismund, Žygimantas Vaza, English exonym: Sigmund; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Silesian Gorals (Górale śląscy, Slezští Goralé, Cieszyn Silesian: Gorole; literally "highlanders") are a Polish ethnographic group (subgroup of both Gorals and Silesians) living in Silesian Beskids and Moravian-Silesian Beskids within historical region of Cieszyn Silesia.
Silesian or Upper Silesian (Silesian: ślōnskŏ gŏdka, ślůnsko godka (Silesian pronunciation), Slezština, język śląski / etnolekt śląski, Wasserpolnisch) is a West Slavic lect, part of its Lechitic group.
Silesians (Silesian: Ślůnzoki; Silesian German: Schläsinger; Ślązacy; Slezané; Schlesier) are the inhabitants of Silesia, a historical region in Central Europe divided by the current national boundaries of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic.
Silesians (Ślężanie) were a tribe of West Slavs, specifically of the Lechitic/Polish group, inhabiting territories of Lower Silesia, near Ślęża mountain and Ślęza river, on the both banks of the Oder, up to the area of modern city of Wrocław.
Skaryszew is a town in Radom County, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland, with 3,922 inhabitants (2004).
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
The Slavic Native Faith, also known as Rodnovery, is a modern Pagan religion.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The Slovaks or Slovak people (Slováci, singular Slovák, feminine Slovenka, plural Slovenky) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovak language.
Slovincian is the language formerly spoken by the Slovincians (Słowińcë, Słowińcy, Slowinzen, Lebakaschuben), a West Slavic tribe living between lakes Gardno and Łebsko near Słupsk in Pomerania.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Sodalitas Litterarum Vistulana ("Literary Sodality of the Vistula") was an international academic society modelled after the Roman Academy, founded around 1488 in Cracow by Conrad Celtes, a German humanist scholar who in other areas founded several similar societies.
Sokołów Podlaski is a town in Poland, in Masovian Voivodeship, about east of Warsaw.
The Sons of Poland is a Polish-American fraternal benefit society which was organized in 1903.
Sorbs (Serbja, Serby, Sorben), known also by their former autonyms Lusatians and Wends, are a West Slavic ethnic group predominantly inhabiting their homeland in Lusatia, a region divided between Germany (the states of Saxony and Brandenburg) and Poland (the provinces of Lower Silesia and Lubusz).
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spiš (Latin: Cips/Zepus/Scepus, Zips, Szepesség, Spisz) is a region in north-eastern Slovakia, with a very small area in south-eastern Poland (14 villages).
Stanisław II Augustus (also Stanisław August Poniatowski; born Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski; 17 January 1732 – 12 February 1798), who reigned as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1764 to 1795, was the last monarch of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Stanisław Barańczak (November 13, 1946 – December 26, 2014) was a Polish poet, literary critic, scholar, editor, translator and lecturer.
Stanisław Dygat (1914–1978) was a Polish writer.
Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz (24 February 188518 September 1939), commonly known as Witkacy, was a Polish writer, painter, philosopher, playwright, novelist, and photographer active in the interwar period.
Stanisław Herman Lem (12 or 13 September 1921 – 27 March 2006) was a Polish writer of science fiction, philosophy, and satire, and a trained physician.
Stanisław I Leszczyński (also Anglicized and Latinized as Stanislaus I, Stanislovas Leščinskis, Stanislas Leszczynski; 20 October 1677 – 23 February 1766) was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire.
Stanisław Moniuszko (May 5, 1819, Ubiel, Minsk Governorate – June 4, 1872, Warsaw, Congress Poland) was a Polish composer, conductor and teacher.
Stanisław Przybyszewski (7 May 1868 – 23 November 1927) was a Polish novelist, dramatist, and poet of the decadent naturalistic school.
Stanisław Sylwester Szarzyński (fl. 1692–1713) was a Polish composer.
Stanisław Marcin Ulam (13 April 1909 – 13 May 1984) was a Polish-American scientist in the fields of mathematics and nuclear physics.
Stare Kramsko (Krammensee) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Babimost, within Zielona Góra County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland.
Starogard Gdański (meaning approximately "the old stronghold"; Kashubian/Pomeranian: Starogarda; Preußisch Stargard) is a town in Eastern Pomerania in northwestern Poland with 48,328 inhabitants (2004).
Stary Sącz - is a town in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland, seat of the municipality Stary Sącz.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Statistics Estonia (Statistikaamet) is the Estonian government agency responsible for producing official statistics regarding Estonia.
Statistics Sweden (Statistiska centralbyrån, SCB) is the Swedish government agency responsible for producing official statistics regarding Sweden.
Stefan Banach (30 March 1892 – 31 August 1945) was a Polish mathematician who is generally considered one of the world's most important and influential 20th-century mathematicians.
Stefan Kisielewski (March 7, 1911 in Warsaw – September 27, 1991 in Warsaw, Poland), nicknames Kisiel, Julia Hołyńska, Teodor Klon, Tomasz Staliński, was a Polish writer, publicist, composer and politician, and one of the members of Znak, one of the founders of the Unia Polityki Realnej, the Polish libertarian and conservative political party.
Stefan Salvatore is a fictional character from L. J. Smith's novel series The Vampire Diaries.
Steven John Carell (born August 16, 1962) is an American actor, comedian, producer, writer, and director.
A street light, light pole, lamppost, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or path.
Subcarpathia (Podkarpacie; Прикарпаття, Prykarpattia; Vněkarpatské sníženiny; Karpatenvorland) denotes the depression area at the outer (western, northern and eastern) base of the Carpathian arc.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Suwałki Region (Suwalszczyzna, Suvalkų kraštas, Suvalkija) is a small region around the city of Suwałki (known in Lithuanian as Suvalkai) in northeastern Poland near the border with Lithuania.
Svetovid, Svantovit or Sventovit is a Slavic deity of war, fertility and abundance primarily venerated on the island of Rügen into the 12th century.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.
Szamotuły (Samter) is a town in Poland, in Greater Poland Voivodeship, about northwest of the centre of Poznań.
The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.
Sztum (Stuhm) is a town in northern Poland in the Powiśle region, located in the Pomeranian Voivodeship.
Szymon Starowolski (1588 – 1656; Simon Starovolscius) was a writer, scholar and historian in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Tadeusz Łomnicki (18 July 1927 in Podhajce near Ternopil (now Pidhaitsi, Ukraine) – 22 February 1992 in Poznań) was a Polish actor, one of the most notable stage and film artists of his time in Poland.
Tadeusz Borowski (12 November 1922 – 1 July 1951) was a Polish writer and journalist.
Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko (Andrew Thaddeus Bonaventure Kosciuszko; February 4 or 12, 1746 – October 15, 1817) was a Polish-Lithuanian military engineer, statesman, and military leader who became a national hero in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and the United States.
Tadeusz Reichstein (20 July 1897 – 1 August 1996) was a Polish-Swiss chemist and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate (1950).
Elizabeth Téa Pantaleoni (born February 25, 1966), better known by her stage name Téa Leoni, is an American actress and producer.
Tczew (Dërszewò) is a town on the Vistula River in Eastern Pomerania, Kociewie, northern Poland with 60,279 inhabitants (June 2009).
Thomas Lanier "Tennessee" Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983) was an American playwright.
The territorial changes of Poland immediately after World War II were very extensive, the Oder-Neisse Line became Poland's western border and the Curzon Line its eastern border.
17 days after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union invaded the eastern regions of the Second Polish Republic, which Poland re-established during the Polish–Soviet War and referred to as the "Kresy", and annexed territories totaling with a population of 13,299,000 inhabitants including Lithuanians,Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, Jews, Czechs and others.
Texas Silesian (Silesian: teksasko gwara) is a dialect of the Silesian language used by Texas Silesians in American settlements from 1852http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/hlp04 to the present.
The Adventures of Mr.
The Decameron (Italian title: "Decameron" or "Decamerone"), subtitled "Prince Galehaut" (Old Prencipe Galeotto and sometimes nicknamed "Umana commedia", "Human comedy"), is a collection of novellas by the 14th-century Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375).
The Double Life of Veronique (La double vie de Véronique, Podwójne życie Weroniki) is a 1991 French-Polish-Norwegian drama film directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski and starring Irène Jacob.
The Haunted Manor (Straszny dwór) is an opera in four acts composed by Polish composer Stanisław Moniuszko in 1861–1864.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Lives of the Saints from the Old and New Testaments (Żywoty świętych starego i nowego zakonu) is a hagiography by Polish Jesuit Piotr Skarga (written in 1577, first published in 1579).
The Manuscript Found in Saragossa (also known in English as The Saragossa Manuscript) is a frame-tale novel written in French at the turn of 18th and 19th century by Polish author Count Jan Potocki (1761–1815).
The Pianist is a 2002 biographical drama film co-produced and directed by Roman Polanski, scripted by Ronald Harwood, and starring Adrien Brody.
The Vampire Diaries is an American supernatural drama television series developed by Kevin Williamson and Julie Plec, based on the popular book series of the same name written by L. J. Smith.
The Wild Wild West is an American Science Fiction/Spy/Western television series that ran on the CBS television network for four seasons (104 episodes) from September 17, 1965, to April 4, 1969.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
The Third Partition of Poland (1795) was the last in a series of the Partitions of Poland and the land of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth among Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and the Russian Empire which effectively ended Polish–Lithuanian national sovereignty until 1918.
The Three Bards are the national poets of Polish Romantic literature.
The Three Colours trilogy (Trzy kolory, Trois couleurs) is the collective title of three films directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski, two made in French and one primarily in Polish: Three Colours: Blue (1993), Three Colours: White (1994), and Three Colours: Red (1994).
Tomasz Kamusella FRHistS (born 1967, Kędzierzyn, Upper Silesia, Poland) is a Polish scholar pursuing interdisciplinary research in language politics, nationalism and ethnicity.
Tomasz Zan (21 December 1796 Miasata, Molodechno, Russian Empire (now Belarus) – 19 July 1855 Kakoŭčyna, Orsha, Russian Empire), was a Polish poet and activist.
Tomaszów Lubelski (Томашів, Tomashiv) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 20,261 inhabitants (2004).
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.
Torquato Tasso (11 March 1544 – 25 April 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered, 1581), in which he depicts a highly imaginative version of the combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the Siege of Jerusalem.
Toruń (Thorn) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River.
Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences.
A treatise is a formal and systematic written discourse on some subject, generally longer and treating it in greater depth than an essay, and more concerned with investigating or exposing the principles of the subject.
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
Truso, situated on Lake Drużno, was an Old Prussian (Pomesanian) town near the Baltic Sea just east of the Vistula River.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
Tuchola (Tuchel; Tëchòlô) is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship in northern Poland.
The Tuchola Forest, also known as Tuchola Pinewoods, (literal translation of Bory Tucholskie; Tëchòlsczé Bòrë; Tuchler or Tucheler Heide) is a large forest near the town of Tuchola (Tucheln) in northern Poland, which lies between the Brda and Wda Rivers.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainian culture and customs of Ukraine and ethnic Ukrainians.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ultra was the designation adopted by British military intelligence in June 1941 for wartime signals intelligence obtained by breaking high-level encrypted enemy radio and teleprinter communications at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Unity of the Brethren (Jednota bratrská; Latin: Unitas Fratrum), also known as the Czech or Bohemian Brethren, is a Protestant movement founded in the middle 15th century, whose roots are in the pre-Reformation work of Petr Chelčický and Jan Hus.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
International Language (язык), usually referred to as Unua Libro (English: First Book) and translated into English as Dr.
Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk; Silesian Polish: Gůrny Ślůnsk; Horní Slezsko; Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Oberschläsing; Silesia Superior) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic.
Usedom (Usedom, Uznam) is a Baltic Sea island in Pomerania, divided since 1945 between Germany and Poland.
The Veleti (Wieleten; Wieleci) or Wilzi(ans) (also Wiltzes; German: Wilzen) were a group of medieval Lechitic tribes within the territory of modern northeastern Germany, related to Polabian Slavs.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vilnius Region (Vilniaus kraštas, Wileńszczyzna, Віленшчына, also formerly known in English: as Wilno Region or Vilna Region) is the territory in the present-day Lithuania and Belarus that was originally inhabited by ethnic Baltic tribes and was a part of Lithuania proper, but came under East Slavic and Polish cultural influences over time.
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Vistula delta Mennonites settled in the delta of the Vistula between the mid-16th century and 1945.
The Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany; Калининградский залив or Kaliningradskiy Zaliv; Frisches Haff; Aistmarės) is a brackish water lagoon on the Baltic Sea roughly 56 miles (90 km) long, 6 to 15 miles (10 to 19 km) wide, and up to 17 feet (5 m) deep, separated from Gdańsk Bay by the Vistula Spit.
The Vistulans, or Vistulanians (Wiślanie), were an early medieval West Slavic tribe inhabiting western part of modern Lesser Poland.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Witelo (also Erazmus Ciołek Witelo; Witelon; Vitellio; Vitello; Vitello Thuringopolonis; Vitulon; Erazm Ciołek); born ca.
Vlachs (or, or rarely), also Wallachians (and many other variants), is a historical term from the Middle Ages which designates an exonym (a name given by foreigners) used mostly for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube.
Volhynia, also Volynia or Volyn (Wołyń, Volýn) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling between south-eastern Poland, parts of south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine.
Wacław z Szamotuł (Szamotuły, near Poznań, c. 1520 – c. 1560, Pińczów), also called Wacław Szamotulski and (in Latin) Venceslaus Samotulinus, was a Polish composer.
Wacław Potocki (1621, Wola Łużańska - 1696) was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic), moralist, poet, and writer.
Wacław Franciszek Sierpiński (14 March 1882 – 21 October 1969) was a Polish mathematician.
Walddeutsche (Walddeutsche ("Forest Germans") or Taubdeutsche ("Deaf Germans"); Głuchoniemcy ("deaf-mutes", a pun)), is the name for a group of people, mostly of German origin, who settled during the 14th-17th century on the territory of present-day Sanockie Pits, Poland, a region which was previously only sparsely inhabited because the land was difficult to farm.
Walloons (Wallons,; Walons) are a Romance ethnic people native to Belgium, principally its southern region of Wallonia, who speak French and Walloon.
The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance, normally in time, performed primarily in closed position.
Warmia (Warmia, Latin: Varmia,, Old Prussian: Wārmi, Varmė) is a historical region in northern Poland.
The Warmiak are a Polish ethnic group from Warmia who are mostly Roman Catholics and who speak their own dialect of Polish, called gwara warmińska (see: Dialects of the Polish language).
Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship or Warmia-Masuria Province or Warmia-Mazury Province (in Województwo warmińsko-mazurskie,.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra (Orkiestra Filharmonii Narodowej w Warszawie) is a Polish orchestra based in Warsaw.
Warsaw School of Mathematics is the name given to a group of mathematicians who worked at Warsaw, Poland, in the two decades between the World Wars, especially in the fields of logic, set theory, point-set topology and real analysis.
Wawrzyniec Grzymała Goślicki (Laurentius Grimaldius Goslicius; between 1530 and 1540 – 31 October 1607) was a Polish nobleman, Bishop of Poznań (1601–1607), political thinker and philosopher best known for his book De optimo senatore (1568).
Węgrów is a town in eastern Poland with 12,561 inhabitants (31 December 2003).
Władysław IV Vasa (Władysław IV Waza; Vladislovas Vaza; r; Vladislaus IV Vasa or Ladislaus IV Vasa; 9 June 1595 – 20 May 1648) was a Polish prince from the Royal House of Vasa.
Włocławek (Leslau) is a city located in central Poland along the Vistula (Wisła) River and is bordered by the Gostynińsko-Włocławski Park Krajobrazowy.
Włodawa (וולאָדאַווע Vlodave, Володава Volodava) is a town in eastern Poland on the Bug River, close to the borders with Belarus and Ukraine.
The Wendland is a region in Germany on the borders of the present states of Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt.
The West Slavic languages are a subdivision of the Slavic language group.
The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages.
The Western is a genre of various arts which tell stories set primarily in the later half of the 19th century in the American Old West, often centering on the life of a nomadic cowboy or gunfighter armed with a revolver and a rifle who rides a horse.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Western Christianity is the type of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Wieleń (Filehne) is a town in Czarnków-Trzcianka County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland.
The Wieprz (boar; Вепр) is a river in central-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula.
William Shatner (born March 22, 1931) is a Canadian actor, author, producer, and director.
Maria Wisława Anna SzymborskaVioletta Szostak gazeta.pl, 2012-02-09.
Witold Marian Gombrowicz (August 4, 1904 – July 24, 1969) was a Polish writer and playwright.
Witold Roman Lutosławski (25 January 1913 – 7 February 1994) was a Polish composer and orchestral conductor.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Września (Wreschen) is a town in west-central Poland with 28,600 inhabitants (1995).
Wymysorys (Wymysiöeryś), also known as Vilamovian or Wilamowicean, is a variety of High German, spoken in the small town of Wilamowice, Poland (Wymysoü in Wymysorys), on the border between Silesia and Lesser Poland, near Bielsko-Biała.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yitzhak Shamir (יצחק שמיר,; born Yitzhak Yezernitsky; October 22, 1915 – June 30, 2012) was an Israeli politician and the seventh Prime Minister of Israel, serving two terms, 1983–84 and 1986–1992.
Yotvingians, or Sudovians (also called Suduvians, Jatvians, or Jatvingians in English; Jotvingiai, Sūduviai; Jātvingi; Jaćwingowie, Яцвягі, Ятвяги Sudauer), were a Baltic people with close cultural ties in the 13th century to the Lithuanians and Prussians.
Young Poland (Młoda Polska) was a modernist period in Polish visual arts, literature and music, covering roughly the years between 1890 and 1918.
Zamość (Yiddish: זאמאשטש Zamoshtsh) is a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship (since 1999), about from Lublin, from Warsaw and from the border with Ukraine.
Zawkrze Zawkrze Land (ziemia zawkrzańska), is a small historic region of Poland (ziemia), located in northern Mazovia, along the border with Masuria.
Zbigniew Kazimierz "Zbig" Brzezinski (March 28, 1928 – May 26, 2017) was a Polish-American diplomat and political scientist.
Zbigniew Herbert (29 October 1924 – 28 July 1998) was a Polish poet, essayist, drama writer and moralist.
Zbigniew Morsztyn (Morstin, Morstyn) (ca. 1628 – December 13, 1689) was a Polish poet.
Zofia Nałkowska (Warsaw, Congress Poland, 10 November 1884 – 17 December 1954, Warsaw) was a Polish prose writer, dramatist, and prolific essayist.
Count Zygmunt Krasiński (19 February 1812 – 23 February 1859), a Polish nobleman traditionally ranked with Adam Mickiewicz and Juliusz Słowacki as one of Poland's Three National Bards — the trio of great Romantic poets who influenced national consciousness during the period of Poland's political bondage.
As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was the century lasting from January 1, 1301, to December 31, 1400.
The 2004 enlargement of the European Union was the largest single expansion of the European Union (EU), in terms of territory, number of states, and population to date; however, it was not the largest in terms of gross domestic product.
Ethnic Poles, Ethnic Polish, POLES, People of Poland, Polacy, Polander, Poles (people), Polish Nation, Polish People, Polish descent, Polish nation, Polish people, Polonophone, Subject of Ethnic Poles, The Poles.