419 relations: Absolute monarchy, Albany County Sheriff's Department (New York), Alcoholic drink, American frontier, Amtrak, Amtrak Police, Ancient Greece, Arraignment, Arrest, Assistant commissioner, Assize of Arms of 1252, Athens, August Vollmer, Augustus, Australia, Austria, Authoritarianism, Auxiliary police, Aviation, Banditry, Baton (law enforcement), Bicycle, Bomb disposal, Boston, Bourgeoisie, Bow Street Runners, Brazil, Breach of the peace, British Empire, British North America, Broken windows theory, Call for service, Cameralism, Canada, Captaincy, Carabineros de Chile, Carabinieri, Castile and León, Castilian Kingdom of Toledo, Cemetery, Cesare Beccaria, Chemical weapon, Chicago Police Department, Chief constable, Chief of police, Chile, Chu (state), City of Glasgow Police, Civic Guard, Civil disorder, ..., Civil Guard, Civil Guard (Spain), Civil Police (Brazil), Civil rights movement, Club (weapon), Cohortes urbanae, Cold War, College of Policing, Commonwealth of Nations, Community emergency response team, Community policing, Confession (law), Consent decree, Constable, Constabulary, Continental Europe, Cornell Law School, Cost–benefit analysis, Counter-insurgency, Crime, Crime prevention, Criminal citation, Criminal investigation department, Criminal justice, Criminal law, Criminal procedure, Cross-training, Crowd control, Custodian helmet, Cybercrime, Deadly force, Demography, Deputy superintendent, Detective, Dominion Police, Dublin, Dublin Castle, Edwin Chadwick, Electroshock weapon, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, England, Espionage, European Union, Evidence-based policing, Evidence-based policy, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Highway Police, Federal law enforcement in the United States, Federal Police of Brazil, Federal Protective Service (United States), Federal Railroad Police, Federalism, Felony, Ferdinand II of Aragon, Field force, Fire extinguisher, Flashlight, France, Francis I of France, Fraternal Order of Police, Fraud, French colonial empire, French Revolution, Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie, Galicia (Spain), Garda Síochána, Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission, Gendarmerie, Gendarmerie (Romania), George II of Great Britain, George L. Kelling, Germany, Glasgow, Glasgow Police Act 1800, Grand Constable of France, Great Officers of the Crown of France, Handcuffs, Henry Fielding, Henry Inman (police commander), Hierarchy, Highway patrol, History of China, Home Secretary, Homicide, Hong Kong, Hundred Years' War, Independent Commission Against Corruption (Hong Kong), Independent Office for Police Conduct, Independent Police Complaints Council, India, Indian Police Service, Industrial Revolution, Intelligence-led policing, Internal affairs (law enforcement), Interpol, Investigations Police of Chile, Iranian Embassy siege, Ireland, Isabella I of Castile, Islam, Islamic dietary laws, Islamic religious police, Israel, Italy, Jacob Zuma, James Q. Wilson, James Sheptycki, Jeremy Bentham, Jerry Lee, Jin (Chinese state), Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi, John Fielding, Jurisdiction, Jury, Kansas City preventive patrol experiment, Karl Marx, Law enforcement, Law enforcement agency, Law enforcement and society, Law enforcement by country, Law Enforcement Exploring, Law enforcement in Canada, Law enforcement in the United Kingdom, Law enforcement officer, Lawrence W. Sherman, Lebanon, Light infantry, List of countries and dependencies by number of police officers, List of law enforcement agencies, List of Marshals of France, List of police-related slang terms, List of protective service agencies, Loanword, London, Los Angeles Police Department, Louis XIV of France, Macdaniel affair, Marine Police Force, Marxism, Max Weber, Mercantilism, Merit system, Metropolitan Police Act 1829, Metropolitan Police Service, Miasma theory, Michel Foucault, Middle Ages, Middle French, Military, Military aid to the civil power, Military Police (Brazil), Military Police (Russia), Military Police of Minas Gerais State, Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State, Militsiya, Minas Gerais, Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment, Miranda v. Arizona, Miranda warning, Mobile data terminal, Monopoly on violence, Montreal, Motorcycle, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, Narcotic, National Gendarmerie, National interest, National Park Service, National Police (France), National Police Corps, National Republican Guard (Portugal), New South Wales Police Force, New York City, New York City Police Department, New Zealand, Nobility, Non-lethal weapon, Norman conquest of England, North Rhine-Westphalia, North-West Mounted Police, Northern Ireland, O. W. Wilson, Officer Down Memorial Page, Ontario, Organized crime, Outline of law enforcement, Outreach, Paramilitary, Paris, Parlement, Patrick Colquhoun, PDF, Peacekeeping, Peelian principles, Penn State University Press, Philadelphia Police Department, Philipp von Hörnigk, Philippines, Pinkerton (detective agency), Police academy, Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984, Police brutality, Police certificate, Police corruption, Police firearm use by country, Police Foundation, Police foundation, Police impersonation, Police notebook, Police officer, Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland, Police power (United States constitutional law), Police rank, Police ranks of the United Kingdom, Police science, Police Service (Volunteer Police) Amendment Act 1992, Police Service of Northern Ireland, Police state, Police support volunteer, Police training officer, Polis, Political crime, Political economy, Polizeiwissenschaft, Polizia di Stato, Pool of London, Population, Pork, Posse comitatus, Posse Comitatus Act, Praetorian Guard, Prefecture of Police, Preventive police, Price, Private police, Private property, Probable cause, Problem-oriented policing, Procurator fiscal, Provost (military police), Prussia, Public administration, Public health, Public security, Quaestor, Quebec, Quebec City, Racial profiling, Racism, Radio, Ranger, Ratchet (instrument), Reeve (England), Religious police, Republic of Ireland, Richmond, Virginia, Rio de Janeiro, Riot control, Riot police, Riot shield, River Thames, Robert Peel, Rochester, Minnesota, Rodney King, Roman Empire, Royal assent, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Royal Irish Constabulary, Royal Newfoundland Constabulary, Rubber bullet, Rudy Giuliani, Salah, Santa Hermandad, Santiago de Compostela, Saudi Arabia, Schengen Agreement, Scotland, Scuba diving, Scythians, Search and seizure, Sedan (automobile), Senior Corps, Sexual assault, Sharia, Sheriff, Sheriffs in the United States, Shift work, Slang, Social class, South Africa, South Australia Police, Sovereign state, Spain, Special Air Service, Special constable, Special district (United States), Special Investigations Unit, Specialist Firearms Command, Specialist investigation department, Spring and Autumn period, Springfield, Illinois, State (polity), State police, State police (United States), State Police Services (India), States and union territories of India, States of Brazil, Statistics, Statute of Winchester, Stun grenade, Summons, Supreme Court of the United States, SWAT, Sweden, Sydney, Talavera de la Reina, Tear gas, Terry stop, Terry v. Ohio, The Hague, The Real News, Thief-taker, Tithing, Toronto Police Service, Torture, Town of Castle Rock v. Gonzales, Traffic, Trooper (police rank), Two-way radio, Undercover operation, Uniform, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States, United States Army, United States Coast Guard, United States Department of Justice, United States Marshals Service, United States Mint, United States Mint Police, United States Park Police, United States Postal Inspection Service, United States Secret Service, Urban planning, Use of force, Utilitarianism, Vehmic court, Vigilante, Vigiles, Villarreal, Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, Volunteers in Police Service, War of the Castilian Succession, War on drugs, Ward (electoral subdivision), Warrant card, Water cannon, Watts riots, West Indies, Whistle, Wichita, Kansas, William Bratton, Wolters Kluwer, Women in law enforcement, Working class, World War II, 1992 Los Angeles riots, 24/7 service. Expand index (369 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The Albany County Sheriff's Department (ACSD), is a full-service law enforcement agency servicing the citizens of Albany County, New York.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
The American frontier comprises the geography, history, folklore, and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in 1912.
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to three Canadian cities.
The Amtrak Police Department (APD) is a railroad police agency, security organization that acts as the law enforcement arm of Amtrak (the National Railroad Passenger Corporation), the government-owned passenger train system in the United States.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Arraignment is a formal reading of a criminal charging document in the presence of the defendant to inform the defendant of the charges against them.
An arrest is the act of apprehending a person and taking them into custody, usually because they have been suspected of committing or planning a crime.
Assistant commissioner is a rank used in many police forces around the globe.
The Assize of Arms of 1252, also called the Ordinance of 1252, was a proclamation of King Henry III of England concerning the enforcement of the Assize of Arms of 1181, and the appointment of constables to summon men to arms, quell breaches of the peace, and to deliver offenders to the sheriff.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
August "Gus" Vollmer (March 7, 1876 – November 4, 1955) was the first police chief of Berkeley, California and a leading figure in the development of the field of criminal justice in the United States in the early 20th century.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Auxiliary police, also called special police, are usually the part-time reserves of a regular police force.
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.
Banditry is the life and practice of bandits.
A baton or truncheon is a roughly cylindrical club made of wood, rubber, plastic or metal.
A bicycle, also called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other.
Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The Bow Street Runners have been called London's first professional police force.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Breach of the peace, or disturbing the peace, is a legal term used in constitutional law in English-speaking countries, and in a wider public order sense in the several jurisdictions of the United Kingdom.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
The broken windows theory is a criminological theory that visible signs of crime, anti-social behavior and civil disorder create an urban environment that encourages further crime and disorder, including serious crimes.
Calls for service generally refers to assignments that are typically distributed to public safety professionals that require their presence to resolve, correct or assist a particular situation.
Cameralism (German: Kameralismus) was a German science and technology of administration in the 18th and early 19th centuries.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
A Captaincy (capitanía, capitania, kapetanija) is a historical administrative division of the former Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires.
Carabiniers of Chile (Carabineros de Chile) are the Chilean national police force, who have jurisdiction over the entire national territory of Chile.
The Carabinieri (formally Arma dei Carabinieri, "Carabinieri Force" or previously Corpo dei Carabinieri Reali, "Royal Carabinieri Corps") is the fourth Italian military force charged with police duties under the authority of the Ministry of Defense.
Castile and León (Castilla y León; Leonese: Castiella y Llión; Castela e León) is an autonomous community in north-western Spain.
The Kingdom of Toledo (Spanish: Reino de Toledo) was a realm in the Iberian Peninsula, created after Alfonso VI of León's capture of Toledo in 1085.
A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred.
Cesare Bonesana-Beccaria, Marquis of Gualdrasco and Villareggio (15 March 173828 November 1794) was an Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher, and politician, who is widely considered as the most talented jurist and one of the greatest thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
The Chicago Police Department (CPD) is the law enforcement agency of the U.S. city of Chicago, Illinois, under the jurisdiction of the City Council.
Chief Constable is the rank used by the chief police officer of every territorial police force in the United Kingdom except for the City of London Police and the Metropolitan Police, as well as the chief officers of the three 'special' national police forces, the British Transport Police, Ministry of Defence Police, and Civil Nuclear Constabulary.
A chief of police is the title given to an appointed official or an elected one in the chain of command of a police department, particularly in North America.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Chu (Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state.
The City of Glasgow Police or Glasgow City Police was the police of the City of Glasgow, Scotland.
Civic Guard may refer to.
Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance or civil unrest, is an activity arising from a mass act of civil disobedience (such as a demonstration, riot, or strike) in which the participants become hostile toward authority, and authorities incur difficulties in maintaining public safety and order, over the disorderly crowd.
Civil Guard refers to various policing organisations.
The Civil Guard (Guardia Civil) is the oldest law enforcement agency in Spain.
In Brazil, the Civil Police (Polícia Civil) is the name of the investigative state police forces.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
A club (also known as a cudgel, baton, truncheon, cosh, nightstick, beating stick, or bludgeon) is among the simplest of all weapons: a short staff or stick, usually made of wood, wielded as a weapon since prehistoric times.
The cohortes urbanae (Latin meaning urban cohorts) of ancient Rome were created by Augustus to counterbalance the enormous power of the Praetorian Guard in the city of Rome and serve as a police force.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The College of Policing is a professional body for the police in England and Wales. It was established in 2012 to take over a number of training and development roles that were the responsibility of the National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA). The National Police Library also transferred over from the NPIA at that time. The college was created initially as a company limited by guarantee, but is due to be converted to an independent statutory authority following the passing of legislation by Government. The creation of a new policing professional body was announced by the Home Secretary in December 2011. Representatives from the Police Federation, the Superintendents' Association, ACPO and UNISON worked with the Home Office to create the College, ensuring that it represents the police service's desires and aspirations. As soon as Parliamentary time allows, the College of Policing will be established as a statutory body, independent of government. While the necessary legislation is prepared, the College has been established as a company limited by guarantee. The college officially launched on 4 February 2013 with Chief Constable Alex Marshall QPM as Chief Executive. Marshall has since left the college, retiring from policing in September 2017. Marshall was replaced by Mike Cunningham on 15 January 2018. The College of Policing has announced that from 2020, all new police officers in England and Wales will have to be educated to degree level. This policy will be administered through the Policing Education Qualifications Framework (PEQF) which creates three entry routes into the police.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
In the United States, community emergency response team (CERT) can refer to.
Community policing, or community-oriented policing, is a strategy of policing that focuses on building ties and working closely with members of the communities.
In the law of criminal evidence, a confession is a statement by a suspect in crime which is adverse to that person.
A consent decree is an agreement or settlement that resolves a dispute between two parties without admission of guilt (in a criminal case) or liability (in a civil case), and most often refers to such a type of settlement in the United States.
A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in criminal law enforcement.
Constabulary may have several definitions.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
Cornell Law School is the law school of Cornell University, a private Ivy League university located in Ithaca, New York.
Cost–benefit analysis (CBA), sometimes called benefit costs analysis (BCA), is a systematic approach to estimate the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives (for example in transactions, activities, functional business requirements or projects investments); it is used to determine options that provide the best approach to achieve benefits while preserving savings.
A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
Crime prevention is the attempt to reduce and deter crime and criminals.
A criminal citation is used by police in some jurisdictions in order to charge a person with a crime without the need of making a physical arrest.
A criminal investigation department (CID) is the branch of all territorial police forces within the British Police, and many other Commonwealth police forces, to which plainclothes detectives belong.
Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law.
Cross-training is athletic training in sports other than the athlete's usual sport.
Crowd control is a public security practice where large crowds are managed to prevent the outbreak of crowd crushes, affray, fights involving drunk and disorderly people or riots.
The custodian helmet is the modern name applied to the helmet worn by male police officers in England and Wales (and formerly in Scotland) and certain other places around the world.
Cybercrime, or computer oriented crime, is crime that involves a computer and a network.
Deadly force, also known as lethal force, is use of force that is likely to cause serious bodily injury or death to another person.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP), is a rank used by police forces in India.
A detective is an investigator, usually a member of a law enforcement agency.
The Dominion Police Force was the federal police force of Canada between 1868 and 1920, and was one of the predecessors of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Dublin Castle (Caisleán Bhaile Átha Cliath) off Dame Street, Dublin, Ireland, is a major Irish government complex, conference centre, and tourist attraction.
Sir Edwin Chadwick KCB (24 January 1800 – 6 July 1890) was an English social reformer who is noted for his leadership in reforming the Poor Laws in England and instituting major reforms in urban sanitation and public health.
An electroshock weapon is an incapacitating weapon.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Evidence-Based Policing (EBP) is an approach to policy making and tactical decision-making for police departments.
Evidence-based policy is a term often applied in multiple fields of public policy to refer to situations whereby policy decisions are informed by rigorously established objective evidence.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The Brazilian Federal Highway Police (Polícia Rodoviária Federal or PRF) is a federal highway patrol, subordinate to the Ministry of Justice, whose main function is fighting crime on Brazilian federal roads and highways, as well as monitoring and supervising vehicular traffic, although it has also taken on duties that go beyond its original authority, such as action within Brazilian cities and forests in conjunction with other public safety agencies.
The federal government of the United States empowers a wide range of law enforcement agencies to maintain law and public order related to matters affecting the country as a whole.
The Federal Police of Brazil (Portuguese: Polícia Federal) is a federal law enforcement agency of Brazil and one of its three federal police forces.
The Federal Protective Service (FPS) is the police division of the National Protection and Programs Directorate of the United States Department of Homeland Security.
The Brazilian Federal Railroad Police (US English) or Federal Railway Police (British English) (Polícia Ferroviária Federal) is a police agency founded in 1852 which is responsible for patrols and security on federal railways in Brazil, however the organisation does not exist formally.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The term felony, in some common law countries, is defined as a serious crime.
Ferdinand II (Ferrando, Ferran, Errando, Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
A field force in British and Indian Army military parlance is a combined arms land force operating under actual or assumed combat circumstances, usually for the length of a specific military campaign.
A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations.
A flashlight (more often called a torch outside North America) is a portable hand-held electric light.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
The Fraternal Order of Police (FOP) is a fraternal organization consisting of sworn law enforcement officers in the United States.
In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie (1625 – 14 June 1709) is considered to be the founder of the first modern police force.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
An Garda Síochána (meaning "the Guardian of the Peace"), more commonly referred to as the Gardaí ("Guardians") or "the Guards", is the police force of the Republic of Ireland.
The Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission (GSOC) is an independent statutory body in Ireland charged with overseeing the Garda Síochána, the national police force.
Wrong info! --> A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement.
The Jandarmeria Română is a military police force of Romania tasked with high-risk and specialized law enforcement duties.
George II (George Augustus; Georg II.; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
George L. Kelling is an American criminologist, a professor emeritus in the School of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University–Newark, a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, and a former fellow at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
The Glasgow Police Act 1800 was an Act of Parliament passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, which established a professional police force for the city of Glasgow.
The Grand Constable of France (Grand Connétable de France, from Latin comes stabuli for 'count of the stables'), as the First Officer of the Crown, was one of the original five Great Officers of the Crown of France (along with seneschal, chamberlain, butler, and chancellor) and Commander in Chief of the army.
The Great Officers of the Crown of France (French: Grands officiers de la couronne de France) were the most important officers of state in the French royal court during the Ancien Régime and Bourbon Restoration.
Handcuffs are restraint devices designed to secure an individual's wrists close together.
Henry Fielding (22 April 1707 – 8 October 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich, earthy humour and satirical prowess, and as the author of the picaresque novel Tom Jones.
Henry Inman (1816–1895) was an English cavalry officer, pioneer of South Australia, founder and first commander of the South Australia Police, overlander and Anglican clergyman.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
A highway patrol is either a police unit created primarily for the purpose of overseeing and enforcing traffic safety compliance on roads and highways, or a detail within an existing local or regional police agency that is primarily concerned with such duties.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, normally referred to as the Home Secretary, is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Home Office.
Homicide is the act of one human killing another.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
The Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC;; previously known as the before 1997) of Hong Kong was established by Governor Sir Murray MacLehose on 15 February 1974, when Hong Kong was under British rule.
The Independent Office for Police Conduct (IOPC) is a non-departmental public body in England and Wales which, since 8 January 2018, is responsible for overseeing the system for handling complaints made against police forces in England and Wales.
The Independent Police Complaints Council (IPCC) is a civilian body of the Government of Hong Kong, part of the two-tier system in which the Hong Kong Police Force investigates complaints made by the public against its members and the IPCC monitors those investigations.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Police Service (Bhāratīya Pulis Sevā) or IPS, is an All India Service for policing.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Intelligence-led policing (ILP) is a policing model built around the assessment and management of risk.
The internal affairs refers to a division of a law enforcement agency that investigates incidents and possible suspicions of law-breaking and professional misconduct attributed to officers on the force.
The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation.
Investigations Police of Chile (PDI) are the civilian police of Chile.
The Iranian Embassy siege took place from 30 April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in South Kensington, London.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Isabella I (Isabel, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic jurisprudence specifies which foods are halāl (حَلَال "lawful") and which are harām (حَرَامْ "unlawful").
The Islamic religious police (مطوع muṭawwiʿ, plural مطوعون muṭawwiʿūn – derived from classical Arabic: mutaṭawwiʿa/muṭṭawwiʿa) is the official vice squad of some Islamic states, who on behalf of the state, enforces Sharia law in respect to religious behavior (morality), or the precepts of Wahhabism.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born 12 April 1942) is a South African politician who served as the fourth President of South Africa from the 2009 general election until his resignation on 14 February 2018.
James Quinn Wilson (May 27, 1931 – March 2, 2012) was an American academic, political scientist, and an authority on public administration.
James Sheptycki is a Professor of Criminology at York University, Toronto, Canada.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Jerry Lee (born April 20, 1936 in Sharon, Pennsylvania) is President of the.
Jin (Old Chinese: *), originally known as Tang (唐), was a major state during the middle part of the Zhou dynasty, based near the centre of what was then China, on the lands attributed to the legendary Xia dynasty: the southern part of modern Shanxi.
Johann Heinrich Gottlob von Justi (28 December 171721 July 1771) was one of the leading German political economists in the 18th century.
Sir John Fielding (16 September 1721 – 4 September 1780) was a notable English magistrate and social reformer of the 18th century.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.
The Kansas City preventive patrol experiment was a landmark experiment carried out between 1972 and 1973 by the Kansas City Police Department of Kansas City, Missouri.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society.
A law enforcement agency (LEA), in North American English, is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws.
The first modern police force, commonly said to be the London Metropolitan Police, established in 1829, promoted the preventive role of police as a deterrent to urban crime and disorder.
In many countries, particularly those with a federal system of government, there may be several law enforcement agencies, police or police-like organizations, each serving different levels of government and enforcing different subsets of the applicable law.
Law Enforcement Exploring also known as Police Explorers is a career-oriented program that gives young adults the opportunity to explore a career in law enforcement by working with local law enforcement agencies.
Law enforcement in Canada are public-sector police forces that are associated with and commissioned to the three levels of government: municipal (both lower and upper-tier), provincial, and federal.
Law enforcement in the United Kingdom is organised separately in each of the legal systems of the United Kingdom: England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland.
A law enforcement officer (LEO) or peace officer, in North American English, is a public-sector employee whose duties primarily involve the enforcement of laws.
Lawrence W. Sherman (born October 25, 1949) is an American experimental criminologist and police educator who is the founder of evidence-based policing.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Light infantry is a designation applied to certain types of foot soldiers (infantry) throughout history, typically having lighter equipment or armament or a more mobile or fluid function than other types of infantry, such as heavy infantry or line infantry.
The following list compares the size of national police forces and police per head.
A law enforcement agency (LEA) is any agency which enforces the law.
Marshal of France (Maréchal de France, plural Maréchaux de France) is a French military distinction, rather than a military rank, that is awarded to generals for exceptional achievements.
Many slang terms, often derogatory, exist for police officers.
This is a list of government Security police and Bodyguard organizations.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), officially the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the police department of Los Angeles.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
The Macdaniel affair or Macdaniel scandal was a political scandal that occurred in the United Kingdom in 1754, when a group of bounty hunters, led by Stephen MacDaniel, were revealed to have been prosecuting innocent men to their deaths in England in order to collect reward money from bounties.
The Marine Police Force, sometimes known as the Thames River Police, claimed to be England's oldest police force and was formed by magistrate Patrick Colquhoun and Master Mariner John Harriott in 1798 to tackle theft and looting from ships anchored in the Pool of London and in the lower reaches and docks of the Thames.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).
The merit system is the process of promoting and hiring government employees based on their ability to perform a job, rather than on their political connections.
The Metropolitan Police Act 1829 (10 Geo.4, c.44) was an Act of Parliament introduced by Sir Robert Peel.
The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), commonly known as the Metropolitan Police and informally as the Met, is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement in Greater London, excluding the "square mile" of the City of London, which is the responsibility of the City of London Police.
The miasma theory (also called the miasmatic theory) is an obsolete medical theory that held that diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, ancient Greek: "pollution"), a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle French (le moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Military aid to the civil power (MACP) (sometimes to the civil authorities) is a term used to describe the use of the armed forces in support of the civil authorities of a state.
Military Police (Polícia Militar,, also known as PM) are a type of preventive state police in every state of Brazil.
The Military Police of Russia (Russian: Военная полиция России, Voennaya politsiya or VP) is the uniformed law enforcement branch of the Russian Armed Forces, which is known by the official name of Main Directorate of the Military Police (Главное управление военной полиции Минобороны РФ), and it is operated by the Russian Ministry of Defence.
The Polícia Militar de Minas Gerais (PMMG) (Minas Gerais Military Police) is a military law-enforcement organization in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
The Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State (Polícia Militar do Estado do Rio de Janeiro) (PMERJ) like other military polices in Brazil is a reserve and ancillary force of the Brazilian Army, and part of the System of Public Security and Brazilian Social Protection.
Militsiya (mʲɪˈlʲitsɨjə, міліцыя, miilits, միլիցիա, милиция, milicija, milicija, milicja, miliția, milicija/милиција, milica, милитсия, міліція, militsiya or милиция), often confused with militia, was the name of the police forces in the Soviet Union and several Warsaw Pact countries, as well as in the non-aligned SFR Yugoslavia, and the term is still commonly used in some of the individual former Soviet republics such as Belarus, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, as well as in the unrecognized republics of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria.
Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil.
The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment (MDVE) evaluated the effectiveness of various police responses to domestic violence calls in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Miranda v. Arizona,, was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court.
The Miranda warning, which also can be referred to as a person's Miranda rights, is a right to silence warning given by police in the United States to criminal suspects in police custody (or in a custodial interrogation) before they are interrogated to preserve the admissibility of their statements against them in criminal proceedings.
A mobile data terminal (MDT) or mobile digital computer (MDC) is a computerized device used in public transit vehicles, taxicabs, courier vehicles, service trucks, commercial trucking fleets, military logistics, fishing fleets, warehouse inventory control, and emergency vehicles, such as police cars, to communicate with a central dispatch office.
The monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force, also known as the monopoly on violence (Gewaltmonopol des Staates), is a core concept of modern public law, which goes back to Jean Bodin's 1576 work Les Six livres de la République and Thomas Hobbes' 1651 book Leviathan.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
A motorcycle, often called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two-> or three-wheeled motor vehicle.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.
The National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie nationale) is one of two national police forces of France, along with the National Police.
The national interest, often referred to by the French expression raison d'État ("reason of State"), is a country's goals and ambitions, whether economic, military, cultural or otherwise.
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
The National Police (Police nationale), formerly known as the Sûreté nationale, is one of two national police forces, along with the National Gendarmerie, and the main civil law enforcement agency of France, with primary jurisdiction in cities and large towns.
The National Police Corps (Cuerpo Nacional de Policía, CNP) is the national civilian police force of Spain.
The National Republican Guard (Guarda Nacional Republicana) or GNR is the national gendarmerie force of Portugal.
The New South Wales Police Force (NSW Police Force; previously the New South Wales Police Service and New South Wales Police) is the primary law enforcement agency of the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is a servant of the Crown, independent of Government, although a minister of the Crown has administration. Divided into seventy six local area commands (LAC),. Graduate Careers Australia. the NSW Police Force consists of more than 500 local police stations and covers an area of 801,600 square kilometres in a state of some seven million people. Under the Police Regulation Act, 1862, the organisation of the NSW Police Force was formally established in 1862 with the unification of all existing independent police units in the state. The authority and responsibility of the entire police force was given to the inspector general of police. The 1990s were a turbulent period in NSW police history. The Royal Commission into the New South Wales Police Service was held between 1995 and 1997. The Royal Commission uncovered hundreds of instances of bribery, money laundering, drug trafficking, and falsifying of evidence by police. The police commissioner, Tony Lauer, resigned as the level of corruption in the service became clear and his own position untenable. Peter James Ryan was recruited from the UK. Wide-ranging reforms occurred as a result of the recommendations of the Royal Commission, including the establishment of a permanent Police Integrity Commission. The current commissioner of the NSW Police Force is Mick Fuller, who replaced Andrew Scipione, on 31 March 2017, with Deputy Commissioner Dave Hudson, Deputy Commissioner Nick Kaldas, and deputy commissioner Catherine Burn. The minister for justice and police, Troy Grant, is responsible to the NSW parliament for the police portfolio. Grant is a former NSW police officer who served 22 years before entering politics. As of 30 June 2016, the police force consists of some 16,627 officers.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The City of New York Police Department, commonly known as the NYPD, is the primary law enforcement and investigation agency within the five boroughs of New York City.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than-lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons such as knives and firearms.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
The North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) was a Canadian police force, established in 1873 by the Prime Minister, Sir John Macdonald, to maintain order in the North-West Territories.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Orlando Winfield Wilson (May 15, 1900 – October 18, 1972), also known as O. W. Wilson, was an American police officer, later becoming a leader in policing.
The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. (ODMP) is a non-profit organization that maintains a website listing American law enforcement officers, prison officers and police dogs who have died in the line of duty.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to law enforcement: Law enforcement – subsystem of society that promotes adherence to the law by discovering and punishing persons who violate rules and norms governing that society.
Outreach is an activity of providing services to any populations who might not otherwise have access to those services.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
A parlement, in the Ancien Régime of France, was a provincial appellate court.
Patrick Colquhoun (14 March 1745 – 25 April 1820) was a Scottish merchant, statistician, magistrate, and founder of the first regular preventive police force in England, the Thames River Police.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
The Peelian principles summarise the ideas that Sir Robert Peel developed to define an ethical police force.
Penn State University Press, also called The Pennsylvania State University Press, was established in 1956 and is a non-profit publisher of scholarly books and journals.
The Philadelphia Police Department (PPD or Philly PD) is the police agency responsible for law enforcement and investigations within the City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Philipp Wilhelm von Hörnigk (sometimes spelt Hornick or Horneck; 23 January 1640 – 23 October 1714) was a German civil servant one of the founders of Cameralism and a supporter of the economic theory of mercantilism.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Pinkerton, founded as the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, is a private security guard and detective agency established in the United States by Scotsman Allan Pinkerton in 1850 and currently a subsidiary of Securitas AB.
A police academy is a training school for new police recruits, also known as a law enforcement academy.
The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) (1984 c. 60) is an Act of Parliament which instituted a legislative framework for the powers of police officers in England and Wales to combat crime, and provided codes of practice for the exercise of those powers.
Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members.
A police certificate is an official document issued as a result of a background check by the police or government agency of a country to enumerate any criminal records that the applicant may have.
Police corruption is a form of police misconduct in which law enforcement officers end up breaking their political contract and abuse their power for personal gain.
The use of firearms by police forces varies widely across the world, in part due to differences in gun use policy, civilian firearm laws, and recording of police activity.
The Police Foundation (National), headquartered in Washington, DC, is a national, independent non-profit organization dedicated to advancing policing through innovation and science.
In many cities, counties and states throughout the United States, local charitable organizations or "police foundations" have been created.
Police impersonation is an act of falsely portraying oneself as a member of the police, for the purpose of deception.
A police notebook, pocket notebook or PNB is a notebook used by police officers in the United Kingdom to officially record details and incidents while on patrol.
A police officer, also known as an officer, policeman, policewoman, cop, police agent, or a police employee is a warranted law employee of a police force.
The Office of the Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland (OPONI; Ombudsman Póilíní do Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster-Scots: Owersman fur tha Polis o Norlin Airlann) is a non-departmental public body intended to provide an independent, impartial police complaints system for the people and police under the Police (Northern Ireland) Acts of 1998 and 2000.
In United States constitutional law, police power is the capacity of the states to regulate behavior and enforce order within their territory for the betterment of the health, safety, morals, and general welfare of their inhabitants.
Lists of the ranks of various police agencies and forces all around the world.
Most of the police forces of the United Kingdom use a standardised set of ranks, with a slight variation in the most senior ranks for the Metropolitan Police Service and City of London Police.
Police science is the study and research which deals with police work.
The Police Service (Volunteer Police) Amendment Act 1992 was an Act of the Parliament of New South Wales, Australia, establishing a trial of volunteer police officers in the New South Wales Police Service.
The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI; Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart Éireann; Ulster Scots: Polis Servis o Norlin Airlan) is the police force that serves Northern Ireland.
Police state is a term denoting a government that exercises power arbitrarily through the power of the police force.
Police Support Volunteer (or PSV, Police Community Volunteer, PCV) is a voluntary role within the ranks of British Police Forces that involves civilian and mainly office based duties.
The Police Training Officer program (PTO) is a post-academy training program created from the educational approach known as problem-based learning.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
In criminology, a political crime or political offence is an offence involving overt acts or omissions (where there is a duty to act), which prejudice the interests of the state, its government, or the political system.
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.
Polizeiwissenschaft (German for "Police science", though "Polizei" may in this case be better translated as "Public Policy" or "Politics" in a broad sense) was a discipline born in the first third of the 18th century which lasted until the middle of the 19th century.
The Polizia di Stato (State Police or P.S.) is one of the national police forces of Italy.
The Pool of London is a stretch of the River Thames from London Bridge to below Limehouse.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).
Posse comitatus is the common-law or statute law authority of a county sheriff, or other law officer, to conscript any able-bodied man to assist him in keeping the peace or to pursue and arrest a felon, similar to the concept of the "hue and cry." Originally found in English common law, it is generally obsolete; however, it survives in the United States, where it is the law enforcement equivalent of summoning the militia for military purposes.
The Posse Comitatus Act is a United States federal law (original at) signed on June 18, 1878 by President Rutherford B. Hayes.
The Praetorian Guard (Latin: cohortes praetorianae) was an elite unit of the Imperial Roman army whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Roman emperors.
In France, a Prefecture of Police (Préfecture de police), headed by the Prefect of Police (Préfet de police), is an agency of the Government of France (and part of the French National Police) which provides the police force for one or some départements.
Preventive police is that aspect of law enforcement intended to act as a deterrent to the commission of crime.
In ordinary usage, a price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of goods or services.
Private police are law enforcement bodies that are owned and/or controlled by non-governmental entities.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
In United States criminal law, probable cause is the standard by which police authorities have reason to obtain a warrant for the arrest of a suspected criminal or the issuing of a search warrant.
Problem-oriented policing (POP), coined by University of Wisconsin–Madison professor Herman Goldstein, is a policing strategy that involves the identification and analysis of specific crime and disorder problems, in order to develop effective response strategies.
A procurator fiscal (pl. procurators fiscal), sometimes called PF or fiscal, is a public prosecutor in Scotland (who, despite the title, has little to do with fiscal issues).
Provosts (usually pronounced "Provo" in this context) are military police whose duties are policing solely within the Armed Forces, as opposed to Gendarmerie duties in the civilian population.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Public security is the function of governments which ensures the protection of citizens, persons in their territory, organizations, and institutions against threats to their well-being – and to the prosperity of their communities.
A quaestor (investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.
Racial profiling is the act of suspecting or targeting a person of a certain race on the basis of observed characteristics or behavior, rather than on individual suspicion.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Ranger most often refers to.
A ratchet, also called a noisemaker or Knarre (German) (or, when used in Judaism, a gragger or grogger (etymologically from גראַגער), raganella or ra'ashan (רעשן)), is an orchestral musical instrument played by percussionists.
Originally in Anglo-Saxon England the reeve was a senior official with local responsibilities under the Crown, e.g., as the chief magistrate of a town or district.
Religious police is the police force responsible for the enforcement of religious norms and associated religious laws.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Riot control refers to the measures used by police, military, or other security forces to control, disperse, and arrest people who are involved in a riot, demonstration, or protest.
Riot police are police who are organized, deployed, trained or equipped to confront crowds, protests or riots.
A riot shield is a lightweight protection device deployed by police and some military organizations.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 17882 July 1850) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30).
Rochester is a city founded in 1854 in the U.S. State of Minnesota and is the county seat of Olmsted County located on the Zumbro River's south fork in Southeast Minnesota.
Rodney Glen King (April 2, 1965 – June 17, 2012) was an African-American taxi driver who became known internationally as the victim of Los Angeles Police Department brutality, after a videotape was released of several police officers beating him during his arrest on March 3, 1991.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC), "Royal Gendarmerie of Canada"; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as "the Force") is the federal and national police force of Canada.
The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC, Irish: Constáblacht Ríoga na hÉireann; simply called the Irish Constabulary 1836–67) was the police force in Ireland from the early nineteenth century until 1922.
The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary (RNC) is the provincial police service for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Rubber bullets (also called rubber baton rounds) are rubber or rubber-coated projectiles that can be fired from either standard firearms or dedicated riot guns.
Rudolph William Louis Giuliani (born May 28, 1944) is an American politician, attorney, businessman, public speaker, former mayor of New York City, and attorney to President Donald Trump.
Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.
Santa Hermandad ("holy brotherhood") was a type of military peacekeeping association of armed individuals, which became characteristic of municipal life in medieval Spain, especially in Castile.
Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
Search and Seizure is a procedure used in many civil law and common law legal systems by which police or other authorities and their agents, who, suspecting that a crime has been committed, commence a search of a person's property and confiscate any relevant evidence found in connection to the crime.
A sedan (American, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand English) or saloon (British, Irish and Indian English) is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with A, B & C-pillars and principal volumes articulated in separate compartments for engine, passenger and cargo.
Senior Corps is a United States government agency under the authority of the Corporation for National and Community Service.
Sexual assault is an act in which a person coerces or physically forces a person to engage in a sexual act against their will.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated.
In the United States, a sheriff is an official in a county or independent city responsible for keeping the peace and enforcing the law.
Shift work is an employment practice designed to make use of, or provide service across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week (often abbreviated as 24/7).
Slang is language (words, phrases, and usages) of an informal register that members of special groups like teenagers, musicians, or criminals favor (over a standard language) in order to establish group identity, exclude outsiders, or both.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The South Australia Police (SAPOL) is the police force of the Australian state of South Australia.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Special Air Service (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army.
A special constable or special police constable (SC or SPC) is generally an auxiliary or part-time law enforcement officer.
Special districts (also known as special service districts, special district governments, limited purpose entities, or special-purpose districts in the United States) are independent, special-purpose governmental units that exist separately from local governments such as county, municipal, and township governments, with substantial administrative and fiscal independence.
The Special Investigations Unit (SIU or "the Unit") is the civilian oversight agency responsible for investigating circumstances involving police that have resulted in a death, serious injury, or allegations of sexual assault of a civilian in Ontario, Canada.
Specialist Firearms Command (SC&O19, SCO19 and previously known as CO19) is a part of the Specialist Crime & Operations Directorate (SC&O) within London's Metropolitan Police Service (MPS).
The Specialist Investigation Department is a branch of the Criminal Investigation Department of a British police force (although many use different names) which investigates crimes such as murder and sexual offences supplying specially trained officers to monitor known ex-offenders who have a history of sex offences.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
Springfield is the capital of the U.S. state of Illinois and the county seat of Sangamon County.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
State police or provincial police are a type of sub-national territorial police force, found particularly in North America, South Asia, and Oceania.
In the United States, state police are a police body unique to each U.S. state, having statewide authority to conduct law enforcement activities and criminal investigations.
The State Police Services, simply known as State Police or SPS are police services under the control of respective state governments of the States and territories of India.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
The Federative Republic of Brazil is a union of 27 Federative Units (Unidades Federativas, UF): 26 states (estados) and one federal district (distrito federal), where the federal capital, Brasília, is located.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
The Statute of Winchester of 1285 (13 Edw. I, St. 2; Law French: Statutum Wynton), also known as the Statute of Winton, was a statute enacted by King Edward I of England that reformed the system of Watch and Ward (watchmen) of the Assize of Arms of 1252, and revived the jurisdiction of the local courts.
A stun grenade, also known as a flash grenade, flashbang, thunderflash or sound bomb, is a non-lethal explosive device used to temporarily disorient an enemy's senses.
A summons (also known in England and Wales as a claim form and in the Australian state of New South Wales as a Court Attendance Notice (CAN)) is a legal document issued by a court (a judicial summons) or by an administrative agency of government (an administrative summons) for various purposes.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
In the United States, a SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) team is a law enforcement unit which uses specialized or military equipment and tactics.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Talavera de la Reina is a city and municipality in the western part of the province of Toledo, which in turn is part of the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha, Spain.
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace,"Mace" is a brand name for a tear gas spray is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness.
In the United States, a Terry stop is a brief detention of a person by police on reasonable suspicion of involvement in criminal activity but short of probable cause to arrest.
Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 (1968), was a decision by the United States Supreme Court which held that the Fourth Amendment prohibition on unreasonable searches and seizures is not violated when a police officer stops a suspect on the street and frisks him or her without probable cause to arrest, if the police officer has a reasonable suspicion that the person has committed, is committing, or is about to commit a crime and has a reasonable belief that the person "may be armed and presently dangerous." For their own protection, after a person has been stopped, police may perform a quick surface search of the person’s outer clothing for weapons if they have reasonable suspicion that the person stopped is armed.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Real News Network (TRNN) is a nonprofit news organization.
In English legal history, a thief-taker was a private individual hired to capture criminals.
A tithing or tything was a historic English legal, administrative or territorial unit, originally ten hides (and hence, one tenth of a hundred).
The Toronto Police Service is the police force servicing Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Castle Rock v. Gonzales, 545 U.S. 748 (2005), is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled, 7–2, that a town and its police department could not be sued under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 for failing to enforce a restraining order, which had led to the murder of a woman's three children by her estranged husband.
Traffic on roads consists of road users including pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, buses and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel.
Trooper is a rank used by several civilian state law enforcement organizations in the United States.
A two-way radio is a radio that can do both transmit and receive a signal (a transceiver), unlike a broadcast receiver which only receives content.
To go "undercover" is to avoid detection by the entity one is observing, and especially to disguise one's own identity or use an assumed identity for the purposes of gaining the trust of an individual or organization to learn or confirm confidential information or to gain the trust of targeted individuals in order to gather information or evidence.
A uniform is a type of clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States Marshals Service (USMS) is a federal law-enforcement agency within the U.S. Department of Justice.
The United States Mint is the agency that produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion.
The United States Mint Police (USMP) is a U.S. federal law enforcement agency responsible for the protection of the U.S. Treasury and the U.S. Mint.
The United States Park Police (USPP) is one of the oldest uniformed federal law enforcement agencies in the United States.
The United States Postal Inspection Service (USPIS) is the law enforcement arm of the United States Postal Service.
The United States Secret Service (also USSS or Secret Service) is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
The use of force, in the context of law enforcement, may be defined as the "amount of effort required by police to compel compliance by an unwilling subject".
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
The Vehmic courts, Vehmgericht, holy vehme, or simply Vehm, also spelt Feme, Vehmegericht, Fehmgericht, are names given to a "proto-vigilante" tribunal system of Westphalia in Germany active during the later Middle Ages, based on a fraternal organisation of lay judges called “free judges” (Freischöffen or francs-juges).
A vigilante is a civilian or organization acting in a law enforcement capacity (or in the pursuit of self-perceived justice) without legal authority.
The Vigiles or more properly the Vigiles Urbani ("watchmen of the City") or Cohortes Vigilum ("cohorts of the watchmen") were the firefighters and police of Ancient Rome.
Vila-real (Villarreal) is a city in the province of Castellón, in the Valencian Community, Spain.
The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994,, is an Act of Congress dealing with crime and law enforcement; it became law in 1994.
The Volunteers in Police Service (VIPS) is a volunteer program that provides volunteer assistance to local police.
The War of the Castilian Succession, more accurately referred to as "Second War of Castilian Succession" or simply "War of Henry IV's Succession" to avoid confussion with other Castilian succession wars, was the military conflict contested from 1475 to 1479 for the succession of the Crown of Castile fought between the supporters of Joanna 'la Beltraneja', reputed daughter of the late monarch Henry IV of Castile, and those of Henry's half-sister, Isabella, who was ultimately successful.
War on Drugs is an American term usually applied to the U.S. federal government's campaign of prohibition of drugs, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade.
A ward is a local authority area, typically used for electoral purposes.
A warrant card is proof of identification and authority carried by police officers and some other law enforcement officers including immigration officers.
A water cannon is a device that shoots a high-velocity stream of water.
The Watts riots, sometimes referred to as the Watts Rebellion, took place in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles from August 11 to 16, 1965.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
A whistle is an instrument which produces sound from a stream of gas, most commonly air.
Wichita is the largest city in the U.S. state of Kansas.
William Joseph Bratton CBE (born October 6, 1947) is an American law enforcement officer and businessman who served two terms as the New York City Police Commissioner (1994–1996 and 2014-2016).
Wolters Kluwer N.V. is a global information services company.
The integration of women into law enforcement positions can be considered a large social change.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 1992 Los Angeles riots, also known as the Rodney King riots, the South Central riots, the 1992 Los Angeles civil disturbance, the 1992 Los Angeles civil unrest, the 1992 Los Angeles Uprising, and the Battle of Los Angeles, were a series of riots, lootings, arsons, and civil disturbances that occurred in Los Angeles County, California in April and May 1992.
In commerce and industry, 24/7 or 24-7 service (usually pronounced "twenty-four seven") is service that is available any time and, usually, every day.
Armed police, Bobbies, City Police, Civilian police, Cop(police), Criminal Enforcement, Department of Police, Global policing, Law enforcement agent, Law enforcer, Law enforcers, Law inforcer, Police Department, Police Force, Police Service, Police department, Police departments, Police force, Police forces, Police protection, Police service, Police unit, Police weapons, Police work, Policeforces, Policing, Public police, Rozzer, Rozzers, Scuffer, Scuffers.