Advocacy groups (also known as pressure groups, lobby groups, campaign groups, interest groups, or special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
A blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing, an architectural plan, or an engineering design, using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Capital flight, in economics, occurs when assets or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an event of economic consequence.
A complex adaptive system is a system in which a perfect understanding of the individual parts does not automatically convey a perfect understanding of the whole system's behavior.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
Corporate governance is the mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and directed.
A counterintuitive proposition is one that does not seem likely to be true when assessed using intuition, common sense, or gut feelings.
In public corporate finance, a critical accounting policy is a policy of a firm or industry which is considered to have a notably high subjective element, and that has a material impact on the financial statements.
Debate in parliamentary procedure refers to discussion on the merits of a pending question; that is, whether it should or should not be agreed to.
Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.
In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.
Deliberation is a process of thoughtfully weighing options, usually prior to voting.
The distributive tendency is the propensity of the United States Congress to lean towards distributive politics, especially to gain political support and credit claim.
Domestic policy are administrative decisions that are directly related to all issues and activity within a nation's borders.
The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into the economy.
Education policy consists of the principles and government policies in the educational sphere as well as the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Energy policy is the manner in which a given entity (often governmental) has decided to address issues of energy development including energy production, distribution and consumption.
Enterprise architecture (EA) is "a well-defined practice for conducting enterprise analysis, design, planning, and implementation, using a comprehensive approach at all times, for the successful development and execution of strategy.
Environmental policy is the commitment of an organization to the laws, regulations, and other policy mechanisms concerning environmental issues.
The European Journal of Political Economy is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on economic phenomena, including collective decision making, political behavior, and the role of institutions.
Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards.
An ex post facto law (corrupted from) is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences (or status) of actions that were committed, or relationships that existed, before the enactment of the law.
In the United States, an executive order is a directive issued by the President of the United States that manages operations of the federal government and has the force of law.
Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country.
Financial statements (or financial report) is a formal record of the financial activities and position of a business, person, or other entity.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
Gambling is the wagering of money or something of value (referred to as "the stakes") on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning money or material goods.
This is a glossary of policy debate terms.
Glyn Conrad Davis AC (born 25 July 1959) is the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Melbourne.
Governance is all of the processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government, a market or a network, over a social system (family, tribe, formal or informal organization, a territory or across territories) and whether through the laws, norms, power or language of an organized society.
Harold Dwight Lasswell (February 13, 1902 – December 18, 1978) was a leading American political scientist and communications theorist.
Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society".
A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.
A high-occupancy vehicle lane (also known as an HOV lane, carpool lane, diamond lane, 2+ lane, and transit lane or T2 or T3 lanes in Australia and New Zealand) is a restricted traffic lane reserved at peak travel times or longer for the exclusive use of vehicles with a driver and one or more passengers, including carpools, vanpools, and transit buses.
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.
Horse trading, in its literal sense, refers to the buying and selling of horses, also called "horse dealing.” Due to the difficulties in evaluating the merits of a horse offered for sale, the sale of horses offered great opportunities for dishonesty, leading to use of the term horse trading (or horsetrading) to refer to complex bargaining or other transactions, such as political vote trading.
Human population planning is the practice of intentionally managing the rate of growth of a human population.
Human resource policies are continuing guidelines on the approach an organization intends to adopt in managing its people.
A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged.
Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy.
Indemnity is a contractual obligation of one party (indemnitor) to compensate the loss occurred to the other party (indemnitee) due to the act of the indemnitor or any other party.
Information policy is the set of all public laws, regulations and policies that encourage, discourage, or regulate the creation, use, storage, access, and communication and dissemination of information.
An information system (IS) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information.
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.
In insurance, the insurance policy is a contract (generally a standard form contract) between the insurer and the insured, known as the policyholder, which determines the claims which the insurer is legally required to pay.
An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about society and proposes solutions for its normative problems.
Intention is a mental state that represents a commitment to carrying out an action or actions in the future.
In United States politics, the iron triangle comprises the policy-making relationship among the congressional committees, the bureaucracy, and interest groups.
Iteration is the act of repeating a process, to generate a (possibly unbounded) sequence of outcomes, with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target or result.
In economics, the Laffer curve illustrates a theoretical relationship between rates of taxation and the resulting levels of government revenue.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
A lottery is a form of gambling that involves the drawing of numbers for a prize.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
In politics, a mandate is the authority granted by a constituency to act as its representative.
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
Military policy (also called defence policy or defense policy) is public policy dealing with international security and the military.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is a United States environmental law that promotes the enhancement of the environment and established the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ).
Norms are concepts (sentences) of practical import, oriented to effecting an action, rather than conceptual abstractions that describe, explain, and express.
The numbers game, also known as the numbers racket, the policy racket, the Italian lottery, the policy game, or the daily number, is a form of illegal gambling or illegal lottery played mostly in poor and working class neighborhoods in the United States, wherein a bettor attempts to pick three digits to match those that will be randomly drawn the following day.
In the field Corporate diagnosis is a process that involves the three steps of publicly entering a human system, collecting valid data about experiences, and feeding back to the system toward promoting corporate performance (Zarei et al.(2014). The effective diagnosis of organizational culture, and structural and operational strengths and weaknesses are fundamental to any successful organizational development intervention. As Beckhard said in the preface to his seminal work... in our rapidly changing environment, new organization forms must be developed; more effective goal-setting and planning processes must be learned, and practiced teams of independent people must spend real time improving their methods of working, decision-making and communicating. Competing or conflicting groups must move towards a collaborative way of work. In order for these changes to occur and be maintained, a planned, managed change effort is necessary - a program of organizational development. This was written in 1969 and while much has been learnt it is just as true today. Since the beginnings of organizational development as a profession, diagnosis has moved from the purely behavioral towards a strategic and holistic business diagnostic approach, and from looking at human interventions in isolation to exploring the interactions of people in the context in which they operate. As organizations are more collaborative in nature, the traditional silo approach to diagnostics is becoming increasingly rare. Organizational development and in particular the diagnostic phase of activities is spreading from the occupational psychologists towards mainstream business. This is important for OD practitioners as the role is increasingly holistic.
The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
The Overton window, also known as the window of discourse, is the range of ideas tolerated in public discourse.
Parliamentary procedure is the body of rules, ethics and customs governing meetings and other operations of clubs, organizations, legislative bodies and other deliberative assemblies.
A pattern language is a method of describing good design practices or patterns of useful organization within a field of expertise.
A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an objective to do something.
Policy alienation refers to a framework which examines the experiences of governmental employees with new policies they have to implement.
Policy Analysis is a technique used in public administration to enable civil servants, activists, and others to examine and evaluate the available options to implement the goals of laws and elected officials.
Policy appliances are technical control and logging mechanisms to enforce or reconcile policy rules (information use rules) and to ensure accountability in information systems.
Policy debate is a form of debate competition in which teams of two advocate for and against a resolution that typically calls for policy change by the United States federal government.
Policy Governance, informally known as the Carver model, is a system for organizational governance.
Policy studies emerged in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s as a subdisicipline of political science.
A political agenda is a list of subjects or problems to which government officials as well as individuals outside the government are paying serious attention at any given time.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
In philosophy and models of scientific inquiry, postpositivism (also called postempiricism) is a metatheoretical stance that critiques and amends positivism.
A prediction (Latin præ-, "before," and dicere, "to say"), or forecast, is a statement about a future event.
A principle is a concept or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation.
Program evaluation is a systematic method for collecting, analyzing, and using information to answer questions about projects, policies and programs, particularly about their effectiveness and efficiency.
Promulgation is the formal proclamation or declaration that a new statutory or administrative law is enacted after its final approval.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Public consultation, or simply consultation, is a regulatory process by which the public's input on matters affecting them is sought.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local.
Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.
In private international law, the public policy doctrine or ordre public (lit. Fr. "public order") concerns the body of principles that underpin the operation of legal systems in each state.
Public policy schools are typically university programs which teach students policy analysis, policy studies, public policy, political economy, urban planning, public administration, public affairs, and public management.
Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.
Purchasing is the formal process of buying goods and services.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
A research institute or research center is an establishment founded for doing research.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
Science policy is concerned with the allocation of resources for the conduct of science towards the goal of best serving the public interest.
Security policy is a definition of what it means to be secure for a system, organization or other entity.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Social policy is a term which is applied to various areas of policy, usually within a governmental or political setting (such as the welfare state and study of social services).
Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
Theodore J. "Ted" Lowi (July 9, 1931 – February 17, 2017) was an American political scientist.
A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.
In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action.
The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
The voluntary sector or community sector (also non-profit sector or not-for-profit sector) is the duty of social activity undertaken by organizations that are not-for-profit and non-governmental.
Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.
Work–life balance is the term used to describe the balance that an individual needs between time allocated for work and other aspects of life.
Official Policy, Policies, Policies and Procedures, Policies and procedures, Policy (principle), Policy Development, Policy based, Policy cycle, Policy development, Policy instrument, Policy instruments, Policy maker, Policy making, Policy model, Policy or practice, Policy tool, Policy tools, Policy-maker, Policy-makers, Policymaker, Policymakers, Policymaking, Political option, Political policy, Political strategy, Political tactics, Tactical politics.