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Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Adam Adamandy Kochański (5 August 1631 – 17 May 1700) was a Polish mathematician.
Adam Jarzębski (c. 1590 in Warka – c. 1648 in Warsaw) was an early Baroque Polish composer, violinist, poet, and writer.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Agronomy (Ancient Greek ἀγρός agrós 'field' + νόμος nómos 'law') is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation.
Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł (July 1, 1595 – November 12, 1656) was a Polish nobleman, a Reichfürst and a politician from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, who served as the Lesser Lithuanian Chancellor from 1619, the Grand Chancellor of Lithuania and Governor of Vilnius from 1623.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Aleksander Gieysztor (17 July 1916, Moscow, Russian Empire – 9 February 1999, Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish medievalist historian.
Alfonsas Eidintas (b. 4 January 1952 in Vaiguva, Kelmė District Municipality, Lithuania) is a historian, diplomat and novelist.
The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber from coastal areas of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski (Andreas Fricius Modrevius) (ca. September 20, 1503 – autumn, 1572) was a Polish Renaissance scholar, humanist and theologian, called "the father of Polish democracy".
Annibale Stabile (c.1535 – April 1595) was an Italian composer of the Renaissance.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Armenians in Poland have an important and historical presence going back to the 14th century.
Army of the Duchy of Warsaw refers to the military forces of the Duchy of Warsaw.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Asprilio Pacelli (or Pecelli) (1570 – 4 May 1623) was an Italian Baroque composer.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.
An atlas is a collection of maps; it is typically a bundle of maps of Earth or a region of Earth.
Augustów (Polish:; Augustavas), formerly known in English as Augustovo or Augustowo," is a city in north-eastern Poland with 30,802 inhabitants (2011).
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Östen Dahl (born 4 November 1945 in Stockholm) is a Swedish linguist and professor best known for pioneering a marker-based approach to tense and aspect in linguistic typology.
Israel ben Eliezer (born circa 1700, died 22 May 1760), known as the Baal Shem Tov (בעל שם טוב) or as the Besht, was a Jewish mystical rabbi considered the founder of Hasidic Judaism.
The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The Polish Baroque lasted from the early 17th to the mid-18th century.
Bartłomiej Pękiel (fl. from 1633; d. ca. 1670) was a notable Polish composer of classical music.
The Battle of Khotyn or Battle of Chocim or Hotin War (in Turkish: Hotin Muharebesi) was a combined siege and series of battles which took place between 2 September and 9 October 1621 between a Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth army and an invading Ottoman Imperial army.
The Battle of Vienna (Schlacht am Kahlen Berge or Kahlenberg; bitwa pod Wiedniem or odsiecz wiedeńska (The Relief of Vienna); Modern Turkish: İkinci Viyana Kuşatması, Ottoman Turkish: Beç Ḳalʿası Muḥāṣarası) took place at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna on 1683 after the imperial city had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Belarusian Arabic alphabet (Беларускі арабскі алфавіт/альфабэт, Biełaruski arabski alfabet (Taraškievica), بيَلارُصقِ ارابصقِ الفاوِت) was based on the Arabic script and was developed in the 16th century (possibly 15th).
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Bernardo Morando, also known as Bernardino or Morandi (ca. 1540 - 1600) was an Italian architect from the Republic of Venice.
Białowieża Forest (Белавежская пушча, Biełaviežskaja Pušča; Baltvyžio giria; Puszcza Białowieska) is one of the last and largest remaining parts of the immense primeval forest that once stretched across the European Plain.
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
The Black Madonna of Częstochowa (Czarna Madonna or italic, Imago thaumaturga Beatae Virginis Mariae Immaculatae Conceptae, in Claro Monte), also known as Our Lady of Częstochowa, is a revered icon of the Virgin Mary housed at the Jasna Góra Monastery in Częstochowa, Poland.
Zynoviy Bohdan Khmelnytsky (Ruthenian language: Ѕѣнові Богдан Хмелнiцкiи; modern Bohdan Zynoviy Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky; Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; 6 August 1657) was a Polish–Lithuanian-born Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (now part of Ukraine).
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Branicki Palace (Pałac Branickich) is a historical edifice in Białystok, Poland.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bribery is the act of giving or receiving something of value in exchange for some kind of influence or action in return, that the recipient would otherwise not alter.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The Bug River (Bug or Western Bug; Західний Буг, Zakhidnyy Buh, Захо́дні Буг, Zakhodni Buh; Западный Буг, Zapadnyy Bug) is a major European river which flows through three countries with a total length of.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carminic acid (C22H20O13) is a red glucosidal hydroxyanthrapurin that occurs naturally in some scale insects, such as the cochineal, Armenian cochineal, and Polish cochineal.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
Kazimierz Siemienowicz (Casimirus Siemienowicz, Kazimieras Simonavičius, Kazimierz Siemienowicz, born 1600 – 1651), was a Polish–Lithuanian general of artillery, gunsmith, military engineer, and pioneer of rocketry.
A castellan was the governor or captain of a castellany and its castle.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Centralisation (British), or centralization (both British and American), is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location or group, keeping all of the important decision-making powers within the head office or the centre of the organisation.
The chamber of deputies is the legislative body such as the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or also a unicameral legislature.
Chancellor of Poland (Kanclerz -, from cancellarius) was one of the highest officials in the historic Poland.
The Chapel of Saint Casimir is a chapel dedicated to Saint Casimir in Vilnius Cathedral.
Chervonohrad (Червоноград, former Polish name: Krystynopol, 'Krystynopil', Krisnipolye) is a mining city located in the Lviv Oblast of western Ukraine.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
A coffin portrait (Portret trumienny) was a realistic portrait of the deceased person put on coffins for the funeral and one of the elements of the castrum doloris, but removed before the burial.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
The Commission of National Education (Komisja Edukacji Narodowej, abbreviated KEN, Edukacinė komisija, Адукацыйная камісія) was the central educational authority in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, created by the Sejm and the King Stanisław August Poniatowski on October 14, 1773.
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.
A konfederacja ("confederation") was an ad hoc association formed by Polish-Lithuanian szlachta (nobility), clergy, cities, or military forces in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for the attainment of stated aims.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Constitution of 3 May 1791 (Konstytucja 3 Maja, Gegužės trečiosios konstitucija) was adopted by the Great Sejm (parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The current Constitution of Poland was adopted on 2 April 1997.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
The Cossack uprisings (also rebellions, revolts) were a series of military conflicts between the cossacks and the states claiming dominion over the territories the Cossacks lived in, namely the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russian Empire during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
Cour d'honneur (court of honor) is the architectural term for a three-sided ceremonial courtyard, created by flanking the main central block, or corps de logis, with symmetrical advancing secondary wings containing minor rooms.
Couronian colonization refers to the colonization efforts of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, a vassal of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Crown land, also known as royal domain or demesne, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown.
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.
The culture of Poland is the product of its geography and its distinct historical evolution which is closely connected to its intricate thousand-year history.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
Czesław Miłosz (30 June 1911 – 14 August 2004) was a Polish poet, prose writer, translator and diplomat.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Decentralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.
The delia is a garment worn by male szlachta (nobility) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The term Deluge (pоtор szwedzki, švedų tvanas) denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
A diary is a record (originally in handwritten format) with discrete entries arranged by date reporting on what has happened over the course of a day or other period.
Diomedes Cato (1560 to 1565 – after 1618) was an Italian-born composer and lute player, who lived and worked entirely in Poland.
The term Dnieper Ukraine ("over Dnieper land"), usually refers to territory on either side of the middle course of the Dnieper River.
The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ, Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii, Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen, Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste) was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726, On 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the Third Partition of Poland.
The Duchy of Livonia (Księstwo Inflanckie; Livonijos kunigaikštystė; Ducatus Ultradunensis; Üleväina-Liivimaa hertsogkond; Pārdaugavas hercogiste; also referred to as Polish Livonia or Inflanty) was a territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania—and later the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—that existed from 1561 to 1621.
The Duchy of Prussia (Herzogtum Preußen, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (Herzogliches Preußen, Prusy Książęce) was a duchy in the region of Prussia established as a result of secularization of the State of the Teutonic Order during the Protestant Reformation in 1525.
The Duchy of Samogitia (Žemaičių seniūnija, Žemaitėjės seniūnėjė, Księstwo żmudzkie)Grzegorz Błaszczyk, Żmudź w XVII i XVIII wieku: zaludnienie i struktura społeczna, Uniwersytet im.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
Dutch West India Company (Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWIC; Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment in Poland were developed later than in Western Europe, as the Polish bourgeoisie was weaker, and szlachta (nobility) culture (Sarmatism) together with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth political system (Golden Liberty) were in deep crisis.
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.
Eparchy is an anglicized Greek word (ἐπαρχία), authentically Latinized as eparchia, which can be loosely translated as the rule or jurisdiction over something, such as a province, prefecture, or territory.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
European studies is a field of study offered by many academic colleges and universities that focuses on current developments in European integration.
Evsey David Domar (Евсей Давидович Домашевицкий, Domashevitsky; April 16, 1914 – April 1, 1997) was a Russian American economist, famous as co-author of the Harrod–Domar model.
Ewald Friedrich Graf von Hertzberg (2 September 1725 – 22 May 1795) was a Prussian statesman.
In general, expansionism consists of policies of governments and states that involve territorial, military or economic expansion.
Feliks Gross (June 17, 1906 in Kraków - November 9, 2006 in New York City) was a Polish-American sociologist.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.
The First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
Folwark (фальварак, Falvarak; Vorwerk; Palivarkas) is a Polish word for a primarily serfdom-based farm and agricultural enterprise (a type of latifundium), often very large.
Francis Dvornik (Chomýž, 14 August 1893 – Chomýž, 4 November 1975), in Czech František Dvorník, was a priest and academic, and one of the leading twentieth-century experts on Slavic and Byzantine history, and on relations between the churches of Rome and Constantinople.
Frederick William (Friedrich Wilhelm) (16 February 1620 – 29 April 1688) was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia, from 1640 until his death in 1688.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.
The Gambia River (formerly known as the River Gambra) is a major river in West Africa, running from the Fouta Djallon plateau in north Guinea westward through Senegal and the Gambia to the Atlantic Ocean at the city of Banjul.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
George II Rákóczi (30 January 1621 – 7 June 1660), was a Hungarian nobleman, Prince of Transylvania (1648-1660), the eldest son of George I and Zsuzsanna Lorántffy.
George Sanford is a former professor of politics at the University of Bristol, England.
Gerardus Mercator (5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century German-Flemish cartographer, geographer and cosmographer.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Golden Liberty (Aurea Libertas; Złota Wolność, Auksinė laisvė), sometimes referred to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles' Democracy or Nobles' Commonwealth (Szlachecka or Złota wolność szlachecka, aureă lībertās) was a political system in the Kingdom of Poland and, after the Union of Lublin (1569), in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The grain trade refers to the local and international trade in cereals and other food grains such as wheat, maize, and rice.
A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Great Sejm, also known as the Four-Year Sejm (Polish: respectively, Sejm Wielki or Sejm Czteroletni; Lithuanian: Didysis seimas or Ketverių metų seimas) was a Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that was held in Warsaw between 1788 and 1792.
The Great Turkish War (Der Große Türkenkrieg) or the War of the Holy League (Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia.
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Prince Grigory Aleksandrovich Potemkin-Tavricheski (Григо́рий Алекса́ндрович Потёмкин-Таври́ческий; r Grigoriy Aleksandrovich Potyomkin-Tavricheskiy; A number of dates as late as 1742 have been found on record; the veracity of any one is unlikely to be proved. This is his "official" birth-date as given on his tombstone. –) was a Russian military leader, statesman, nobleman and favourite of Catherine the Great.
Grodno or Hrodna (Гродна, Hrodna; ˈɡrodnə, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.
Grosz may refer to.
Grzegorz Gerwazy Gorczycki (ca. 1665 to 1667 – 30 April 1734) was a Polish Baroque composer.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.
Heavy cavalry is a class of cavalry whose primary role was to engage in direct combat with enemy forces, and are heavily armed and armoured compared to light cavalry.
Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep), typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.
The Henrician Articles or King Henry's Articles (Polish: Artykuły henrykowskie, Latin: Articuli Henriciani) were a permanent contract between the "Polish nation" (i.e., the szlachta (nobility) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and a newly elected king upon his election to the throne that stated the fundamental principles of governance and constitutional law in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
A hereditary monarchy is a form of government and succession of power in which the throne passes from one member of a royal family to another member of the same family.
reason (translit; hejtman; hatman) is a political title from Central and Eastern Europe, historically assigned to military commanders.
Hetmans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were the highest-ranking military officers, second only to the King, in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
A hide or skin is an animal skin treated for human use.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
The history of Lithuania dates back to settlements founded many thousands of years ago, but the first written record of the name for the country dates back to 1009 AD.
The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.
The history of the Germans in Poland dates back over a millennium.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
The House of Vasa (Vasaätten, Wazowie, Vaza) was an early modern royal house founded in 1523 in Sweden, ruling Sweden 1523–1654, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1587–1668, and the Tsardom of Russia 1610–1613 (titular until 1634).
Hugo Stumberg Kołłątaj, alt.
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
Ignacy Krasicki (3 February 173514 March 1801), from 1766 Prince-Bishop of Warmia (in German, Ermland) and from 1795 Archbishop of Gniezno (thus, Primate of Poland), was Poland's leading Enlightenment poet"Ignacy Krasicki", Encyklopedia Polski (Encyclopedia of Poland), p. 325.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
An inland port is a port on an inland waterway, such as a river, lake, or canal, which may or may not be connected to the ocean.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
Międzymorze, known in English as Intermarium, was a plan pursued after World War I by Polish leader Józef Piłsudski for a federation of Central and Eastern European countries.
An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian city of Isfahan (also spelt Esfahan) has long been one of the centres for production of the famous Persian carpet (or rug).
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski (3 September 1921 – 21 July 2016) was a Polish-born polymath and inventor with 50 patents to his credit.
Jacek Hyancithus Różycki (also Rozycki, Rożycki, Rositsky, Ruziski; first name also Hyacinthus, ?Sebastian; c.1635 – 1703/1704 (precise date unknown)) was a Polish composer of Baroque music.
A Jacobin was a member of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary political movement that was the most famous political club during the French Revolution (1789–99).
Jadwiga, also known as Hedwig (Hedvig; 1373/4 – 17 July 1399), was the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, reigning from 16 October 1384 until her death.
The Jagiellonian dynasty was a royal dynasty, founded by Jogaila (the Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized as Władysław, married Queen regnant (also styled "King") Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. The dynasty reigned in several Central European countries between the 14th and 16th centuries. Members of the dynasty were Kings of Poland (1386–1572), Grand Dukes of Lithuania (1377–1392 and 1440–1572), Kings of Hungary (1440–1444 and 1490–1526), and Kings of Bohemia (1471–1526). The personal union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (converted in 1569 with the Treaty of Lublin into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) is the reason for the common appellation "Poland–Lithuania" in discussions about the area from the Late Middle Ages onward. One Jagiellonian briefly ruled both Poland and Hungary (1440–44), and two others ruled both Bohemia and Hungary (1490–1526) and then continued in the distaff line as a branch of the House of Habsburg. The Polish "Golden Age", the period of the reigns of Sigismund I and Sigismund II, the last two Jagiellonian kings, or more generally the 16th century, is most often identified with the rise of the culture of Polish Renaissance. The cultural flowering had its material base in the prosperity of the elites, both the landed nobility and urban patriciate at such centers as Kraków and Gdańsk.
The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.
Jakub Sobieski (May 5, 1590 – June 23, 1646) was a Polish noble, parliamentarian, diarist, political activist, military leader and father of King John III Sobieski.
Jan Brożek (Ioannes Broscius, Joannes Broscius or Johannes Broscius; 1 November 1585 – 21 November 1652) was a Polish polymath: a mathematician, astronomer, physician, poet, writer, musician and rector of the Kraków Academy.
Jan Chryzostom Pasek (c. 1636–1701) was a Polish nobleman and writer during the times of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Jan Kochanowski (1530 – 22 August 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to the Polish literary language.
Jan Krzysztof Kluk (September 13, 1739 – July 2, 1796) was a Polish naturalist agronomist and entomologist.
Jan Zamoyski or Zamojski (Ioannes Zamoyski de Zamoscie; 19 March 1542 – 3 June 1605) was a Polish nobleman, magnate, and the 1st ordynat of Zamość.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
Janusz Skumin Tyszkiewicz (Jonušas Skuminas Tiškevičius) (1570–1642) was a noble of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, a politician, a sponsor of Baroque music and a writer (1610+).
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; he was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.
The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johannes Hevelius Some sources refer to Hevelius as Polish.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Amos Comenius (Jan Amos Komenský; Johann Amos Comenius; Latinized: Ioannes Amos Comenius; 28 March 1592 – 15 November 1670) was a Czech philosopher, pedagogue and theologian from the Margraviate of Moravia"Clamores Eliae" he dedicated "To my lovely mother, Moravia, one of her faithful son...". Clamores Eliae, p.69, Kastellaun/Hunsrück: A. Henn, 1977.
John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent academic publisher in social sciences and humanities with its head office in Amsterdam.
John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski; Jonas III Sobieskis; Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
John Jonston (in Polish, Jan Jonston; in Latin, Joannes Jonstonus; Szamotuły, 15 September 1603 – 1675, Legnica) was a Polish scholar and physician, descended from Scottish nobility and closely associated with the Polish magnate family of the Leszczyńskis.
John Markoff (born 1942) is Professor of Sociology and History at the University of Pittsburgh.
Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz (6 February 1758, Skoki, near Brest – 21 May 1841, Paris) was a Polish poet, playwright and statesman.
Jure uxoris is a Latin phrase meaning "by right of (his) wife".
Kamianets-Podilskyi (Kamyanets-Podilsky, Kamieniec Podolski, Camenița, Каменец-Подольский, קאמענעץ־פאדאלסק) is a city on the Smotrych River in western Ukraine, to the north-east of Chernivtsi.
The Khmelnytsky Uprising (Powstanie Chmielnickiego; Chmelnickio sukilimas; повстання Богдана Хмельницького; восстание Богдана Хмельницкого; also known as the Cossack-Polish War, Chmielnicki Uprising, or the Khmelnytsky insurrection) was a Cossack rebellion within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648–1657, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukrainian lands.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania joined in a personal union established by the Union of Krewo (1385).
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Konstanty Korniakt (Κωνσταντίνος Κορνιακτός, Konstantinos Korniaktos; c. 1517 – August 1, 1603) was a notable merchant of Greek descent, active throughout Central and Eastern Europe; a leaseholder of royal tolls who collected customs duty on behalf of the king.
Kontusz (from Polish language; plural kontusze; also spelled in English language as Kontush or Kuntush from Кунтуш) (originally Hungarian Köntös - robe) - a type of outer garment worn by the Hungarian and Polish-Lithuanian male nobility (szlachta).
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.
Krzyżtopór is a castle located in the village of Ujazd, Iwaniska commune, Opatów County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Krzysztof Arciszewski (9 December 1592 in Rogalin – 7 April 1656 near Gdańsk (Danzig), Poland) was a Polish–Lithuanian nobleman, military officer, engineer, and ethnographer.
Prince Krzysztof Radziwiłł (Christopher Radvila, Kristupas Radvila) (22 March 1585, Biržai – 19 November 1640) was a Polish-Lithuanian noble (szlachcic), and a notable magnate, politician and military commander of his epoch.
Kunta Kinteh Island, formerly called James Island and St Andrew's Island, is an island in the Gambia River, 30 km from the river mouth and near Juffureh in the country of the Gambia.
The kwarta ('kvarta') or quarter tax was a tax in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on all incomes from crown estates in królewszczyzna (crown lands).
In real estate, a landed property or landed estate is a property that generates income for the owner without the owner having to do the actual work of the estate.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
The last was a large English unit of weight, mass, volume, and number.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Leopold I (name in full: Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician; I.; 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia.
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
An example of levée en masse (or, in English, "mass levy") was the policy of forced mass military conscription of all able-bodied, unmarried men between the ages of 18 and 25 adopted in the aftermath of the French Revolution of 1789.
The liberum veto (Latin for "free veto") was a parliamentary device in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Linda Gordon is an American feminist and historian.
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.
This is a list of coats of arms of Polish nobility.
This is a list of great powers during the medieval period.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
The following is a list of rulers over Lithuania—grand dukes, kings, and presidents—the heads of authority over historical Lithuanian territory.
The szlachta (szlachta) was a privileged social class in the Kingdom of Poland.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuania proper (Lithuania propria, literally: "Genuine Lithuania"; Didžioji Lietuva; ליטע, Lite) refers to a region which existed within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and where the Lithuanian language was spoken.
Lithuanian Jews or Litvaks are Jews with roots in the present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, northeastern Suwałki and Białystok region of Poland and some border areas of Russia and Ukraine.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The Lithuanian nobility was historically a legally privileged class in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania consisting of Lithuanians, from the historical regions of Lithuania Proper and Samogitia, and, following Lithuania's eastern expansion, many Ruthenian noble families (boyars).
In historical context, Litvin (літвін, ліцвін, litvin, litsvin; lietuvis; литвин, litvin, литвин, lytvyn; Litwin) is a word of Polish descent, which in Polish language means "Lithuanian".
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
Luca Marenzio (also Marentio; October 18, 1553 or 1554 – August 22, 1599) was an Italian composer and singer of the late Renaissance.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
In economics, a luxury good (or upmarket good) is a good for which demand increases more than proportionally as income rises, and is a contrast to a "necessity good", where demand increases proportionally less than income.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
Maciej Janowski (born August 6, 1991 in Wrocław, Poland. Retrieved on 2008-07-04.) is a Polish speedway rider who is a member of Poland U-21 and U-19 national teams.
Magdeburg rights (Magdeburger Recht; also called Magdeburg Law) were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (936–973) and based on the Flemish law, which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages, granted by the local ruler.
Magnate, from the Late Latin magnas, a great man, itself from Latin magnus, 'great', designates a noble or other man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities.
The magnates of Poland and Lithuania were an aristocracy of nobility (szlachta) that existed in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, from the 1569 Union of Lublin, in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, until the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
Marcin Kromer (Latin: Martinus Cromerus; 11 November 1512 – 23 March 1589) was Prince-Bishop of Warmia (Ermland), a Polish cartographer, diplomat and historian in the Kingdom of Poland and later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Marcin Mielczewski (c. 1600 – September 1651) was, together with his tutor Franciszek Lilius and Bartłomiej Pękiel, among the most notable Polish composers in the 17th century.
Marcin Odlanicki Poczobutt (Марцін Адляніцкі-Пачобут.; Martynas Počobutas) (30 October 1728 near Hrodna – 7 February 1810 in Daugavpils) was a Polish–Lithuanian jesuit, astronomer and mathematician.
Marco Scacchi (ca. 1600 – 7 September 1662) was an Italian composer and writer on music.
Marie Casimire Louise de La Grange d'Arquien (Maria Kazimiera d’Arquien), known also by the diminutive form "Marysieńka" (28 June 1641, Nevers – 30 January 1716, Blois) was queen consort to King John III Sobieski, from 1674 to 1696.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
Michał Piotr BoymHis first name is also often rendered as Michele, Michel, Miguel, Michael Peter (Transliterated also (using Wade-Giles) as Pu Che-yuen Mi-ko c. 1612–1659) was a Polish Jesuit missionary to China, scientist and explorer.
Mikołaj Zieleński (Zelenscius, fl. 1611) was a Polish composer, organist and Kapellmeister to the primate Baranowski, Archbishop of Gniezno.
Minaret (مناره, minarə, minare), from منارة, "lighthouse", also known as Goldaste (گلدسته), is a distinctive architectural structure akin to a tower and typically found adjacent to mosques.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Most Serene Republic (Serenissima Respublica in Latin) is a title attached to a number of European states through history.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Nida is a river in central Poland, a left tributary of the Vistula river, into which it flows near Nowy Korczyn). The Nida has a length of 154 kilometres and a basin area of 3,844 km2. This includes the protected area called Nida Landscape Park. The Nida itself is made of two smaller rivers, the White Nida and the Black Nida, which merge in the village of Brzegi (near Checiny). It is a typical lowland river, with little difference in the water level. The valley of the Nida is wide, and covered with meadows. In its narrowest spot, the river is only 6 m wide, while in its widest spot, it is 79 m wide. The depth ranges from 0,4 to 2,6 m. The Nida is one of the warmest rivers of Poland; in the summer, its temperature reaches up to 27 degrees C.
Nihil novi nisi commune consensu ("Nothing new without the common consent") is the original Latin title of a 1505 act or constitution adopted by the Polish Sejm (parliament), meeting in the royal castle at Radom.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Ivor Norman Richard Davies (born 8 June 1939) is a British-Polish historian noted for his publications on the history of Europe, Poland and the United Kingdom.
The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
Nowy Wiśnicz (ווישניצא Vishnitsa) is a small town in Bochnia County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,724 inhabitants (2004).
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
Nesvizh, Niasviž (Нясві́ж; Не́свиж; Nieśwież; ניעסוויז; Nesvisium) is a city in Belarus.
Old Prussians or Baltic Prussians (Old Prussian: Prūsai; Pruzzen or Prußen; Pruteni; Prūši; Prūsai; Prusowie; Prësowié) refers to the indigenous peoples from a cluster of Baltic tribes that inhabited the region of Prussia.
An old-growth forest — also termed primary forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, or late seral forest— is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Opole (Oppeln, Silesian German: Uppeln, Uopole, Opolí) is a city located in southern Poland on the Oder River and the historical capital of Upper Silesia.
The Orient is the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world, in relation to Europe.
Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies.
The Ossolineum or the National Ossoliński Institute (Zakład Narodowy im., ZNiO) is a non-profit foundation located in Wrocław, Poland since 1947, and subsidized from the state budget.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Our Lady of the Gate of Dawn (Aušros Vartų Dievo Motina, Matka Boska Ostrobramska, Маці Божая Вастрабрамская, Остробрамская икона Божией Матери) is the prominent Catholic painting of the Blessed Virgin Mary venerated by the faithful in the Chapel of the Gate of Dawn in Vilnius, Lithuania.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.
The Pact of Vilnius and Radom (Unia wileńsko-radomska, Vilniaus-Radomo sutartis) was a set of three acts passed in Vilnius, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and confirmed by the Crown Council in Radom, Kingdom of Poland in 1401.
Pacta conventa (Latin for "articles of agreement") was a contractual agreement, from 1573 to 1764 entered into between the "Polish nation" (i.e., the szlachta (nobility) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and a newly elected king upon his "free election" (''wolna elekcja'') to the throne.
A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.
A woodcut showing Henry II of England greeting the pope's legate. A papal legate or Apostolic legate (from the Ancient Roman title legatus) is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Pas kontuszowy ("kontusz sash" or the Slutsk sash) was a cloth sash used for girding a kontusz (a robe-like garment).
Paul W. Schroeder (born February 23, 1927)International Who's Who 2000, Vol.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
The Peerage of Scotland (Moraireachd na h-Alba) is the section of the Peerage of the British Isles for those peers created by the King of Scots before 1707.
The Pereyaslav Council (Переяславская рада), was an official meeting that convened for ceremonial pledge of allegiance by Cossacks to the Tsar of Muscovy in the town of Pereyaslav (now Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi in central Ukraine) in January 1654.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Pidhirtsi Castle (Підгорецький замок; zamek w Podhorcach) is a residential castle-fortress located in the village of Pidhirtsi in Lviv Oblast (province) western Ukraine, located eighty kilometers east of Lviv.
Pilica is a river in central Poland, the longest left tributary of the Vistula river, with a length of 333 kilometres (8th longest) and a basin area of 9,258 km2 (all in Poland).
Piotr Stefan Wandycz (September 20, 1923 – July 29, 2017) was a Polish-American historian, President of the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America, and professor emeritus at Yale University, specializing in Eastern and Central European history.
Piotr Skarga (less often, Piotr Powęski; 2 February 1536 – 27 September 1612) was a Polish Jesuit, preacher, hagiographer, polemicist, and leading figure of the Counter-Reformation in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.
A plantation economy is an economy based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few commodity crops grown on large farms called plantations.
Pobóg is a Polish coat of arms that was used by many noble families in medieval Poland and later under the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk, PAN) is a Polish state-sponsored institution of higher learning.
The Polish Brethren (Polish: Bracia Polscy) were members of the Minor Reformed Church of Poland, a Nontrinitarian Protestant church that existed in Poland from 1565 to 1658.
Polish cochineal (Porphyrophora polonica), also known as Polish carmine scales, is a scale insect formerly used to produce a crimson dye of the same name, colloquially known as "Saint John's blood".
The Polish Golden Age refers to the period from the late 15th century Jagiellon Poland to the death of the last of the Jagiellons, Sigismund August in 1572.
Polish heraldry is a branch of heraldry focused on studying the development of coats of arms in the lands of historical Poland (and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), as well as specifically-Polish traits of heraldry.
The Polish Hussars (or; Husaria), or Winged Hussars, were one of the main types of the cavalry in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between the 16th and 18th centuries.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish Legions (Legiony Polskie we Włoszech; also known as the Dąbrowski Legions) in the Napoleonic period, were several Polish military units that served with the French Army, mainly from 1797 to 1803, although some units continued to serve until 1815.
The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Navy was the navy of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Polish–Muscovite War or the Polish–Russian War (1605–1618), also known as the Dimitriads, was a sequence of military conflicts and eastward invasions carried out by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, or the private armies and mercenaries led by the magnates (the Commonwealth aristocracy).
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
A political system is a system of politics and government.
Polityka (Politics) is a centre-left weekly newsmagazine in Poland.
Polonia sive de situ, populis, moribus, magistratibus et Republica regni Polonici libri duo is a book by Marcin Kromer, first published in Cologne in 1577 in Latin.
Polonization (or Polonisation; polonizacja)In Polish historiography, particularly pre-WWII (e.g., L. Wasilewski. As noted in Смалянчук А. Ф. (Smalyanchuk 2001) Паміж краёвасцю і нацыянальнай ідэяй. Польскі рух на беларускіх і літоўскіх землях. 1864–1917 г. / Пад рэд. С. Куль-Сяльверставай. – Гродна: ГрДУ, 2001. – 322 с. (2004). Pp.24, 28.), an additional distinction between the Polonization (polonizacja) and self-Polonization (polszczenie się) has been being made, however, most modern Polish researchers don't use the term polszczenie się.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
Pomerelia (Pomerelia; Pomerellen, Pommerellen), also referred to as Eastern Pomerania (Pomorze Wschodnie) or as Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomorze Gdańskie), is a historical region in northern Poland.
Popular sovereignty, or sovereignty of the peoples' rule, is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Pospolite ruszenie (lit. mass mobilization; "Noble Host", motio belli, the French term levée en masse is also used) is a name for the mobilisation of armed forces during the period of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The Presidential Palace (in Polish, Pałac Prezydencki; also known as Pałac Koniecpolskich, Lubomirskich, Radziwiłłów, and Pałac Namiestnikowski) in Warsaw, Poland, is the elegant classicist latest version of a building that has stood on the Krakowskie Przedmieście site since 1643.
Pro Fide, Lege et Rege (Latin for "For Faith, Law and King") was an 18th-century motto of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and then of Poland.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Quentin Robert Duthie Skinner (born 26 November 1940, Oldham, Lancashire) is an intellectual historian.
Racibórz (Ratibor, Ratiboř, Raćibůrz) is a town in Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland.
The Radziwiłł family (Radvila; Радзівіл, Radzivił; Radziwill) was a powerful magnate family originating from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.
Radzyń Podlaski is a town in eastern Poland, about 60 km north of Lublin, with 16,140 inhabitants (2004).
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.
The Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations (Zaręczenie Wzajemne Obojga Narodów;Michał Rozbicki, European and American Constitutionalism in the Eighteenth Century, Uniwersytet Warszawski Ośrodek Studiów Amerykańskich, 1990, p.109-110Kenneth W. Thompson, Rett R. Ludwikowski, White Burkett Miller, Constitutionalism and Human Rights: America, Poland, and France, University of Virginia, 1991 also Reciprocal Warranty of Two NationsHarry E. Dembkowski, The Union of Lublin, Polish Federalism in the Golden Age, 1982, Columbia University Press,, p.199 and Mutual Pledge of the Two Nations) was an addendum to the Polish Constitution of May 3, 1791, adopted on 20 October 1791 by the Great Sejm, which stated implementing principles that had not been spelled out in the May 3rd Constitution.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Renaissance in Poland (Renesans, Odrodzenie; literally: the Rebirth) lasted from the late 15th to the late 16th century and is widely considered to have been the Golden Age of Polish culture.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Robert Burton (8 February 1577 – 25 January 1640) was an English scholar at Oxford University, best known for the classic The Anatomy of Melancholy.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Rogalin is a village in western Poland, situated on the river Warta.
A rokosz originally was a gathering of all the Polish szlachta (nobility), not merely of deputies, for a sejm.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Castle in Warsaw (Zamek Królewski w Warszawie) is a castle residency that formerly served throughout the centuries as the official residence of the Polish monarchs.
Royal elections in Poland (wolna elekcja, lit. free election) was the election of individual kings, rather than of dynasties, to the Polish throne.
Royal Prussia (Prusy Królewskie; Königlich-Preußen or Preußen Königlichen Anteils, Królewsczé Prësë) or Polish PrussiaAnton Friedrich Büsching, Patrick Murdoch.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.
Ruthenian or Old Ruthenian (see other names) was the group of varieties of East Slavic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Ruthenians and Ruthenes are Latin exonyms which were used in Western Europe for the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples, Rus' people with Ruthenian Greek Catholic religious background and Orthodox believers which lived outside the Rus'.
Ruzhany (Ружаны, Różana, Rozhinoy; former / alternative spellings include Różana and Ruzhinoy) is a small town located in Pruzhany Raion of Brest Region, Belarus.
Ruzhany Palace (палац у Ружанах, Pałac w Różanie) is a ruined palace compound in Ruzhany village, Pruzhany Raion (district), Brest Voblast (province), Western Belarus.
Rzeczpospolita Polska is a traditional and official name of the Polish State – Rzeczpospolita Polska (Res Publica Poloniae, Republic of Poland).
The San (San; Сян Sian; Saan) is a river in southeastern Poland and western Ukraine, a tributary of the Vistula River, with a length of 458 km (it is the 6th-longest Polish river) and a basin area of 16,877 km2 (14,426 km2 of it in Poland).
Sarmatian Review is an English language peer reviewed academic journal on Slavistics, which is the study of culture, history, and societies of Slavic nations (located in Central, Eastern and Southern Europe) published by the Polish Institute of Houston at Rice University three times a year in January, April, and September.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
Sarmatism (or Sarmatianism) is an ethno-cultural concept with a shade of politics designating the formation of an idea of Poland's origin from Sarmatians within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Science and Encyclopaedia Publishing Centre (previously: Science and Encyclopaedia Publishing Institute, Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos centras (MELC)) is a Lithuanian publishing house that issues encyclopedias, reference works, books, monographs, and dictionaries.
The 1793 Second Partition of Poland was the second of three partitions (or partial annexations) that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
The Peace of Thorn of 1466 (Zweiter Friede von Thorn; drugi pokój toruński) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanseatic city of Thorn (Toruń) on 19 October 1466 between the Polish king Casimir IV Jagiellon on one side, and the Teutonic Knights on the other.
A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political, or philosophical belief system, usually an offshoot of a larger group.
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
The general sejm (sejm walny, also translated as the full or ordinary sejm) was the bicameral parliament of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
A sejmik (diminutive of sejm, occasionally translated as a dietine; seimelis) was one of various local parliaments in the history of Poland.
A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or chamber of a bicameral legislature or parliament.
Michael Sendivogius (Michał Sędziwój; 1566–1636) was a Polish alchemist, philosopher, and medical doctor.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
Sigismund II Augustus (Zygmunt II August, Ruthenian: Żygimont II Awgust, Žygimantas II Augustas, Sigismund II.) (1 August 1520 – 7 July 1572) was the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the only son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548.
Sigismund III Vasa (also known as Sigismund III of Poland, Zygmunt III Waza, Sigismund, Žygimantas Vaza, English exonym: Sigmund; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599.
Silent Sejm (also Dumb Sejm and literally Mute Sejm, Нямы сойм; Sejm Niemy; Nebylusis seimas) is the name given to the session of the Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of 1 February 1717 held in Warsaw.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
The Southern Ming was a loyalist movement that was active in southern China following the Ming dynasty's collapse in 1644.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
Stanisław II Augustus (also Stanisław August Poniatowski; born Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski; 17 January 1732 – 12 February 1798), who reigned as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1764 to 1795, was the last monarch of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Stanisław Koniecpolski (1591 – 11 March 1646) was a Polish military commander, regarded as one of the most talented and capable in the history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Prince Stanisław Lubomirski (1583 – 17 June 1649) was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic).
Stanisław Wawrzyniec Staszic (baptised 6 November 1755 – 20 January 1826) was a leading figure in the Polish Enlightenment: a Catholic priest, philosopher, geologist, writer, poet, translator and statesman.
Stanisław Sylwester Szarzyński (fl. 1692–1713) was a Polish composer.
Stanislaus Hosius (Stanisław Hozjusz; 5 May 1504 – 5 August 1579) was a Polish Roman Catholic cardinal.
The title of starost or starosta (Cyrillic: старост/а, Latin: capitaneus, Starost, Hauptmann) is a Slavic term that originally referred to the administrator of the assets of a "clan, kindred, extended family".
Starostwo ("eldership"; seniūnija; translit; Starostei), from the 14th century in the Polish Crown and later through the era of the joint state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until the partitions of Poland in 1795, referred to the crown lands (królewszczyzna) administered by the official known as starosta.
Stephen Báthory (Báthory István; Stefan Batory; Steponas Batoras; 27 September 1533 – 12 December 1586) was Voivode of Transylvania (1571–76), Prince of Transylvania (1576–86), from 1576 Queen Anna Jagiellon's husband and jure uxoris King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1576-1586).
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
Szabla (plural: szable) is the Polish word for sabre.
The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.
Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom.
Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.
The Targowica Confederation (konfederacja targowicka,, Targovicos konfederacija) was a confederation established by Polish and Lithuanian magnates on 27 April 1792, in Saint Petersburg, with the backing of the Russian Empress Catherine II.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Tatra Mountains, Tatras or Tatra (Tatry either in Slovak or in Polish- plurale tantum), is a mountain range that forms a natural border between Slovakia and Poland.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
The Anatomy of Melancholy (full title: The Anatomy of Melancholy, What it is: With all the Kinds, Causes, Symptomes, Prognostickes, and Several Cures of it. In Three Maine Partitions with their several Sections, Members, and Subsections. Philosophically, Medicinally, Historically, Opened and Cut Up) is a book by Robert Burton, first published in 1621, but republished four more times over the next seventeen years with massive alterations and expansions.
The Economic History Review is a peer-reviewed history journal published quarterly by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Economic History Society.
The Third Partition of Poland (1795) was the last in a series of the Partitions of Poland and the land of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth among Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and the Russian Empire which effectively ended Polish–Lithuanian national sovereignty until 1918.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
The Time of Troubles (Смутное время, Smutnoe vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613.
Tobago is an autonomous island within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
Tomas Venclova (born 11 September 1937, Klaipėda) is a Lithuanian poet, prose writer, scholar, philologist and translator of literature.
The ton is a unit of measure.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or expo) is an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products and services, meet with industry partners and customers, study activities of rivals, and examine recent market trends and opportunities.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
Treaty of Lubowla of 1412 was a treaty between Władysław II, King of Poland, and Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary.
Truce of Deulino (also known as Peace or Treaty of Dywilino) was signed on 11 December 1618 and took effect on 4 January 1619.
The Truce or Treaty of Yam-Zapolsky (Ям-Запольский) or Jam Zapolski, signed on 15 January 1582 between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Tsardom of Russia, was one of the treaties that ended the Livonian War.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainian Baroque or Cossack Baroque or Mazepa baroque is an architectural style that emerged in Ukraine during the Hetmanate era, in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Archeparchy of Lviv is a metropolitan archeparchy of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.
The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic (abbreviated to УНР), was a predecessor of modern Ukraine declared on 10 June 1917 following the Russian Revolution.
The Union of Brest, or Union of Brześć, was the 1595-96 decision of the Ruthenian Orthodox Church eparchies (dioceses) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to break relations with the Eastern Orthodox Church and to enter into communion with, and place itself under the authority of the Pope of Rome.
The Union of Grodno was a series of acts of the Polish–Lithuanian union between Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The Union of Horodło or Pact of Horodło was a set of three acts signed in the town of Horodło on 2 October 1413.
The Union of Kraków and Vilna also known as Union of Vilnius was one of the agreements of the Polish–Lithuanian union.
In a strict sense, the Union of Krewo or "Act of Krėva" (also spelled "Union of Krevo", "Act of Kreva"; Krėvos sutartis) was a set of prenuptial promises made in the Kreva Castle on 14 August 1385 by Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, in exchange for marriage to the underage reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland.
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
The Cathedral Basilica of St Stanislaus and St Ladislaus of Vilnius (Vilniaus Šv., Bazylika archikatedralna św.) is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral of Lithuania.
Vilnius University (Vilniaus universitetas; former names exist) is the oldest university in the Baltic states and one of the oldest in Northern Europe.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Vlachs (or, or rarely), also Wallachians (and many other variants), is a historical term from the Middle Ages which designates an exonym (a name given by foreigners) used mostly for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube.
VoivodeAlso spelled "voievod", "woiwode", "voivod", "voyvode", "vojvoda", or "woiwod" (Old Slavic, literally "war-leader" or "warlord") is an Eastern European title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force.
A voivodeship is the area administered by a voivode (Governor) in several countries of central and eastern Europe.
Wacław Potocki (1621, Wola Łużańska - 1696) was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic), moralist, poet, and writer.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Warsaw Confederation, signed on 28 January 1573 by the Polish national assembly (sejm konwokacyjny) in Warsaw, was the first European act granting religious freedoms.
The Warta (Polish pronunciation: Warthe; Varta) is a river in western-central Poland, a tributary of the Oder River (Odra).
The Royal Archcathedral Basilica of Saints Stanislaus and Wenceslaus on the Wawel Hill (królewska bazylika archikatedralna śś.), also known as the Wawel Cathedral (katedra wawelska), is a Roman Catholic church located on Wawel Hill in Kraków, Poland.
Wawrzyniec Grzymała Goślicki (Laurentius Grimaldius Goslicius; between 1530 and 1540 – 31 October 1607) was a Polish nobleman, Bishop of Poznań (1601–1607), political thinker and philosopher best known for his book De optimo senatore (1568).
Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.
The Wieprz (boar; Вепр) is a river in central-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula.
Wilanów Palace or Wilanowski Palace (pałac w Wilanowie) is a royal palace located in the Wilanów district, Warsaw.
William Christian Bullitt Jr. (January 25, 1891 – February 15, 1967) was an American diplomat, journalist, and novelist.
Wojsko kwarciane (quarter army) was the term used for regular army units of Poland (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth).
Wolfgang Menzel (June 21 or 26, 1798April 23, 1873), German poet, critic and literary historian, was born at Waldenburg (Wałbrzych) in Silesia.
Wood ash is the residue powder left after the combustion of wood, such as burning wood in a home fireplace or an industrial power plant.
A world language is a language that is spoken internationally and is learned and spoken by a large number of people as a second language.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yves-Marie Bercé (30 August 1936, Mesterrieux, Gironde), is a French historian known for his work on popular revolts of the modern era.
Zamość (Yiddish: זאמאשטש Zamoshtsh) is a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship (since 1999), about from Lublin, from Warsaw and from the border with Ukraine.
Zebrzydowski's rebellion (rokosz Zebrzydowskiego), or the Sandomierz rebellion (rokosz sandomierski), was a rokosz (semi-legal rebellion) in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against King Sigismund III Vasa.
The Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung (Journal of East Central European Studies) is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the history and culture of Eastern Europe.
Ziemia (Land) is a historical unit of administration in Poland and Ruthenia.
Zolochiv (Золочів, Złoczów, זלאָטשאָוו, Zlotchov) is a small city of district significance in Lviv Oblast of Ukraine, the administrative center of Zolochiv Raion.
Zolochiv Castle was a residence of the Sobieski noble family on a hill at the confluence of two small rivers in the south-eastern part of Zolochiv (Złoczów), Galicia (now part of Ukraine's Lviv Oblast).
Commonwealth of Both Nations, Commonwealth of Lithuania-Poland, Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania, Commonwealth of Two Nations, Commonwealth of Two Peoples, Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Commonwealth of the Two Nations, First Polish Republic, First Republic of Poland, Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Lithuanian-Polish Commonwealth, Lithuanian-Polish commonwealth, Poland and Lithuania, Poland-Lithuania Commonwealth, Polish - Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish Commonwealth, Polish Empire, Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish lithuanian commonwealth, Polish – Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish-Lithuania, Polish-Lithuania Commonwealth, Polish-Lithuanian Army, Polish-Lithuanian Commmonwealth, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569-1791), Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1791), Polish-Lithuanian Republic, Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth, Polish-lithuanian commonwealth, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1791), Polish–Lithuanian Republic, Polish–lithuanian commonwealth, Regnum Serenissima Poloniae, Republic of Both Nations, Republic of Two Nations, Republic of the Two Nations, Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów, The Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania, The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (or Union), The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (or Union), United Commonwealth of the Two Nations.