324 relations: A. J. P. Taylor, Adam Zamoyski, Adolph Joffe, Adrian Carton de Wiart, Aftermath of World War I, Aleksei Brusilov, Alexander II of Russia, Alexander Imich, Alexander Yegorov (soldier), Alfred E. Senn, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, Allies of World War II, Andrzej Paczkowski, Anna M. Cienciala, Anti-communism, Anti-Polish sentiment, Anton Denikin, Antoni Czubiński, Arkhangelsk, Armistice, Auta River, Aviel Roshwald, Babruysk, Bar, Vinnytsia Oblast, Barysaw, Battle of Bereza Kartuska, Battle of Daugavpils, Battle of Dęblin and Mińsk Mazowiecki, Battle of Komarów, Battle of Lwów (1920), Battle of Radzymin (1920), Battle of the Niemen River, Battle of Warsaw (1920), Battle of Zadwórze, Belarus, Berezina River, Blue Army (Poland), Bohdan Urbankowski, Bolsheviks, Boris Savinkov, Brest Fortress, Brest, Belarus, British Military Mission to Poland, Brody, Budapest, Bug River, Byaroza, Cambridge University Press, Camps for Russian prisoners and internees in Poland (1919–24), Ceasefire, ..., Central and Eastern Europe, Central Europe, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Scribner's Sons, Cieszyn Silesia, Cipher, Columbia Encyclopedia, Columbia University, Commander-in-chief, Commissar, Communist Party of Germany, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Congress of Vienna, Congress Poland, Conscription, Controversies of the Polish–Soviet War, Cossacks, Counterattack, Curzon Line, Czechoslovakia, Daugava, Daugavpils, David Lloyd George, Desna River, Dictatorship of the proletariat, Directorate of Ukraine, Dmitry Merezhkovsky, Dnieper, Dniester, Dubno, Duchy of Warsaw, Dzerkalo Tyzhnia, E. H. Carr, Eastern Belorussia, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Ukraine, Edgar Vincent, 1st Viscount D'Abernon, Edward Rydz-Śmigły, Encyclopædia Britannica, Estonian War of Independence, Ferdinand Foch, First Polish Army (1920), Franco-Polish alliance (1921), Free State of Fiume, French Military Mission to Poland, French Third Republic, Galicia (Eastern Europe), Gazeta Wyborcza, Gdańsk, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, German Revolution of 1918–19, God's Playground, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Greater Poland uprising (1918–1919), Grigori F. Krivosheev, Grodno, HarperCollins, Hayk Bzhishkyan, Head of state, Imperial Russian Army, Imperialism, Interallied Mission to Poland, Intermarium, Internetowa encyklopedia PWN, Internment, Interwar period, J. F. C. Fuller, Jan Bury, Jan Kowalewski, January Uprising, Janusz Cisek, Józef Haller, Józef Kowalski (supercentenarian), Józef Piłsudski, Jean Jules Jusserand, Jerzy Lukowski, Joanna Michlic, Joseph Stalin, Kaunas, Kazimierz Sosnkowski, Khmelnytskyi Oblast, Khreshchatyk, Kiev, Kiev Offensive (1920), Kievan Rus', Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, Kingdom of Poland (1917–1918), Kingdom of Romania, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Kościuszko's Squadron, Kresy, L'Humanité, Labour Party (UK), Latvia, Latvian War of Independence, League of Nations, Leon Trotsky, Leopold Skulski, Lida, Liepāja, List of battles of the Polish–Soviet War, List of cryptographers, Lithuania, Lithuanian Wars of Independence, Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Lityn, Lublin, Lviv, Manevychi, Marc Ferro, Margaret MacMillan, Marian Kukiel, Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia, Maxime Weygand, Mazovia, Miłosna, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Mikhail Meltyukhov, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Military intelligence, Minsk, Mitteleuropa, Modlin (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki), Modlin Fortress, Morgenthau Report, Multilingualism, Munich, Naczelnik Państwa, Narew, National Democracy, Navahrudak, Neman, Neutral country, Nikolai Bukharin, Norman Davies, Ober Ost, Op. cit., Order of Polonia Restituta, Orlando Figes, Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Partitions of Poland, Peace of Riga, Peter Kenez, Pimlico, Pinsk, Pinsk Marshes, Piotr S. Wandycz, Podolia, Pogrom, Poles in the Soviet Union, Polesia, Polish cavalry, Polish contribution to World War II, Polish Operation of the NKVD, Polish People's Republic, Polish prisoners and internees in Soviet Russia and Lithuania (1919–21), Polish School of Mathematics, Polish–Czechoslovak border conflicts, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish–Lithuanian War, Polish–Ukrainian War, Polonization, Poznań, Pravda, Pripyat River, Prometheism, Proto-state, Provisional Polish Revolutionary Committee, Puppet state, Red Army, Referendum, Renault FT, Republic of Central Lithuania, Richard Pipes, Richard Woytak, Right of asylum, Robert Service (historian), Roman Dmowski, Ronald Grigor Suny, Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Russian Revolution, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Second Polish Republic, Sejm, Sejny, Self-determination, Semyon Budyonny, Sergey Kamenev, Sharhorod, Siege of Zamość, Silesian Uprisings, Slovak Soviet Republic, Smolensk, Solidus (coin), Southern Bug, Southwestern Front (RSFSR), Sovereign state, Soviet invasion of Poland, Soviet Union, Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19, Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty, Spa Conference of 1920, Spartacist uprising, Sphere of influence, Staff (military), Stanisław Bułak-Bałachowicz, Stanisław Grabski, Stanisław Leśniewski, Stéphane Courtois, Stefan Mazurkiewicz, Stephen F. Cohen, Suwałki, Symon Petliura, Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski, Tank, Tehran Conference, Ternopil, The Warsaw Voice, Timothy D. Snyder, Trades Union Congress, Transylvania, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of Warsaw (1920), Triple Entente, Ukraine, Ukrainian People's Republic, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Ultimatum, Union of Lublin, United Kingdom, United States, University of Kansas, University of Lviv, University of Toronto Press, University of Warsaw, Vadim Yakovlev, Verkhnyadzvinsk, Vilnius, Vilnius Region, Virtuti Militari, Vistula, Vladimir Lenin, Volhynia, Volodymyr-Volynskyi, W. Bruce Lincoln, Wacław Sierpiński, Waldemar Rezmer, Warsaw, Władysław Grabski, Władysław Sikorski, West Ukrainian People's Republic, Western Belorussia, Western betrayal, Western Front (RSFSR), Western Ukraine, White Eagle, Red Star, White movement, Winston Churchill, Wkra, World revolution, World War I, Yalta Conference, Yaruha, Ukraine, Yevhen Petrushevych, Zamość, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Zbigniew Karpus, Zbruch River, Zhlobin, Zhytomyr, Zinaida Gippius, 16th Army (RSFSR), 1919 Polish coup d'état attempt in Lithuania, 1st Cavalry Army. Expand index (274 more) » « Shrink index
Alan John Percivale Taylor (25 March 1906 – 7 September 1990) was an English historian who specialised in 19th- and 20th-century European diplomacy.
Adam Zamoyski is an American-born British historian author.
Adolph Abramovich Joffe (Адо́льф Абра́мович Ио́ффе, alternative transliterations Adolf Ioffe or, rarely, Yoffe) (10 October 1883 in Simferopol – 16 November 1927 in Moscow) was a Communist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and a Soviet diplomat of Karaite descent.
Lieutenant General Sir Adrian Paul Ghislain Carton de Wiart (5 May 1880 – 5 June 1963) was a British Army officer born of Belgian and Irish parents.
The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Eurasia (Europe and Asia), Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved.
Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Алексе́й Алексе́евич Бруси́лов; – 17 March 1926) was a Russian general most noted for the development of new offensive tactics used in the 1916 Brusilov Offensive, which was his greatest achievement.
Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.
Alexander Herbert Imich (February 4, 1903 – June 8, 2014) was a Polish Jewish-born American chemist, parapsychologist, and writer, who was the president of the Anomalous Phenomena Research Center in New York City.
Alexander Ilyich Yegorov or Egorov (Алекса́ндр Ильи́ч Его́ров, Alexandr Iljič Jegorov) (– February 23, 1939), was a Soviet military leader during the Russian Civil War, when he commanded the Red Army's Southern Front and played an important part in defeating the White forces in Ukraine.
Alfred Erich Senn (April 12, 1932 – March 8, 2016) was a professor of history at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched during the Russian Civil War in 1918.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Anna Maria Cienciala (November 8, 1929 – December 24, 2014) was a Polish-American historian and author.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Polonophobia, anti-Polonism, antipolonism, and anti-Polish sentiment are terms for a variety of hostile attitudes and acts toward Polish persons and culture.
Anton Ivanovich Denikin (p; 8 August 1947) was a Russian Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian Army (1916) and afterwards a leading general of the White movement in the Russian Civil War.
Antoni Czubiński (22 November 1928 in Konin, Poland – 10 February 2003 in Poznań, Poland) was a Polish historian and director of the Western Institute (Instytut Zachodni) in Poznań from 1978 to 1990.
Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.
An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting.
The Auta (Авута Avuta; Аута Auta) is a river that flows through Belarus into the Dysna River near the village of Bychinshchina.
Aviel Roshwald is an American historian and Professor of history at Georgetown University.
Babruysk, Babrujsk, or Bobruisk (Бабру́йск, Łacinka: Babrujsk, Бобру́йск, Bobrujsk, באברויסק) is a city in the Mogilev Region of eastern Belarus on the Berezina river.
Bar (Бар; Bar; Barium; Βάρ; Bar; Бар) is a town located on the Riv River in the Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of central Ukraine.
Barysaw (officially transliterated as Barysaŭ, Бары́саў; Бори́сов, Borisov, Borysów) is a city in Belarus situated near the Berezina River in the Minsk Region.
The Battle of Bereza Kartuska was fought between the combined forces of the Second Polish Republic and the Soviet Russia around the village Bereza Kartuska (now Byaroza, Belarus) first on 14 February 1919, and again, between July 21 and July 26, 1920.
Battle of Daugavpils (also known as the Battle of Dyneburg) was the final battle in the Polish-Soviet campaign of 1919.
The Battle of Deblin and Minsk Mazowiecki took place on August 16–18, 1920, during the Polish-Soviet War.
The Battle of Komarów, or the Zamość Ring, was one of the most important battles of the Polish-Soviet War.
During the Polish-Soviet War of 1920 the city of Lwów (modern Lviv, Ukraine) was attacked by the forces of Alexander Ilyich Yegorov.
The Battle of Radzymin (Bitwa pod Radzyminem) took place during the Polish–Soviet War (1919–21).
The Battle of the Niemen River was the second-greatest battle of the Polish–Soviet War.
The Battle of Warsaw refers to the decisive Polish victory in 1920 during the Polish–Soviet War.
Battle of Zadwórze (sometimes referred to as the "Polish Thermopylae") was a battle of the Polish-Soviet War.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Berezina or Biarezina (Бярэ́зіна) is a river in Belarus and a tributary of the Dnieper River.
The Blue Army (Polish: Błękitna Armia), or Haller's Army was a Polish military contingent created in France during the latter stages of World War I. The name came from the French-issued blue military uniforms worn by the soldiers.
Bohdan Urbankowski (born 19 May 1943 in Warsaw) is a Polish writer, poet and philosopher.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Boris Viktorovich Savinkov (Russian: Бори́с Ви́кторович Са́винков; 19 January 1879 – 7 May 1925) was a Russian writer and revolutionary.
Brest Fortress (Брэсцкая крэпасць,; Брестская крепость,; Twierdza brzeska), formerly known as Brest-Litovsk Fortress, is a 19th-century Russian fortress in Brest, Belarus, the former Byelorussian SSR.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
The British Military Mission to Poland was an effort by Britain to aid the nascent Second Polish Republic after it achieved its independence in November, 1918, at the end of the First World War.
Brody (Броди; Brody; Brody; Brody; Brody) is a city in Lviv Oblast (region) of western Ukraine.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
The Bug River (Bug or Western Bug; Західний Буг, Zakhidnyy Buh, Захо́дні Буг, Zakhodni Buh; Западный Буг, Zapadnyy Bug) is a major European river which flows through three countries with a total length of.
Biaroza (Бяро́за, official Belarusian romanization standard: Biaroza, formerly Бяро́за-Карту́зская; Beryoza; Bereza) is a town of 31 000 inhabitants (1995) in Western Belarus in Brest Region and the administrative center of the Byaroza District.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Camps for Russian prisoners and internees in Poland that existed during 1919–1924 housed two main categories of detainees: the personnel of the Imperial Russian Army and civilians, captured by Germany during World War I and left on Polish territory after the end of the war; and the Soviet military personnel captured during the Polish–Soviet War, the vast majority of them captured as a result of the battles of 1920.
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe (the Visegrád Group), the Baltic states, and Southeastern Europe, usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) in Europe.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Scribner's Sons, or simply Scribner's or Scribner, is an American publisher based in New York City, known for publishing American authors including Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Kurt Vonnegut, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Stephen King, Robert A. Heinlein, Thomas Wolfe, George Santayana, John Clellon Holmes, Don DeLillo, and Edith Wharton.
Cieszyn Silesia or Těšín Silesia or Teschen Silesia (Polish:, Czech: or, German: Teschener Schlesien or Olsagebiet) is a historical region in south-eastern Silesia, centered on the towns of Cieszyn and Český Těšín and bisected by the Olza River.
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Commissar (or sometimes Kommissar) is an English transliteration of the Russian комиссáр, which means commissary.
The Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period until it was banned in 1956.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Controversies of the Polish-Soviet War, fought in 1919–20, concern the behaviour of the military forces and crimes they committed.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
A counterattack is a tactic employed in response to an attack, with the term originating in "war games".
The history of the Curzon Line, with minor variations, goes back to the period following World War I. It was drawn for the first time by the Supreme War Council as the demarcation line between the newly emerging states, the Second Polish Republic, and the Soviet Union.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Daugava (Daugova) or Western Dvina is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, Russia, flowing through Russia, Belarus, and Latvia and into the Gulf of Riga.
Daugavpils (Daugpiļs; Даугавпилс; see other names) is a city in southeastern Latvia, located on the banks of the Daugava River, from which the city gets its name.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.
Desna (Десна́; Десна) is a river in Russia and Ukraine, a major left tributary of the Dnieper river.
In Marxist sociopolitical thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power.
The Directorate, or Directory (Dyrektoriya) was a provisional collegiate revolutionary state committee of the Ukrainian People's Republic, initially formed on November 13–14, 1918 during a session of the Ukrainian National Union in rebellion against Skoropadsky's regime.
Dmitry Sergeyevich Merezhkovsky (p; – December 9, 1941) was a Russian novelist, poet, religious thinker, and literary critic.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
The Dniester or Dnister River is a river in Eastern Europe.
Dubno (Ду́бно, Dubno) is a city located on the Ikva River in Rivne Oblast (province) of western Ukraine.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (Дзеркало тижня; Зеркало недели, Zerkalo Nedeli), usually referred to in English as the Mirror Weekly, is one of Ukraine’s most influential analytical newspapers published weekly in Kiev, the nation's capital.
Edward Hallett "Ted" Carr (28 June 1892 – 3 November 1982) was an English historian, diplomat, journalist and international relations theorist, and an opponent of empiricism within historiography.
East Belarus usually refers to the part of Belarus that was part of the Soviet Union between 1919 and 1939, as opposed to West Belarus that was part of the Second Polish Republic at that time.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Eastern Ukraine or East Ukraine (Східна Україна, Skhidna Ukrayina; Восточная Украина, Vostochnaya Ukraina) generally refers to territories of Ukraine east of the Dnieper river, particularly Kharkiv, Luhansk and Donetsk oblasts.
Edgar Vincent, 1st Viscount D'Abernon, (19 August 1857 – 1 November 1941) was a British politician, diplomat, art collector and author.
Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły (11 March 1886 – 2 December 1941; nom de guerre Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza), also called Edward Śmigły-Rydz, was a Polish politician, statesman, Marshal of Poland and Commander-in-Chief of Poland's armed forces, as well as painter and poet.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Estonian War of Independence (Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army and its allies, most notably the White Russian Northwestern Army, Latvia, and the United Kingdom, against the Soviet Western Front offensive and the aggression of the Baltische Landeswehr.
Marshal Ferdinand Jean Marie Foch (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929) was a French general and military theorist who served as the Supreme Allied Commander during the First World War.
The First Army was a field army of the Polish Army that existed during the Polish–Soviet War.
The Franco-Polish alliance was the military alliance between Poland and France that was active between 1921 and 1940.
The Free State of Fiume was an independent free state which existed between 1920 and 1924.
The French Military Mission to Poland was an effort by France to aid the nascent Second Polish Republic after it achieved its independence in November, 1918, at the end of the First World War.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Gazeta Wyborcza (meaning Electoral Newspaper in English) is a newspaper published in Warsaw, Poland.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925), known as Lord Curzon of Kedleston between 1898 and 1911 and as Earl Curzon of Kedleston between 1911 and 1921, and commonly as Lord Curzon, was a British Conservative statesman.
The German Revolution or November Revolution (Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.
God's Playground: A History of Poland is a history book in two volumes written by Norman Davies, covering a thousand-year history of Poland.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Greater Poland uprising of 1918–1919, or Wielkopolska uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku; Großpolnischer Aufstand) or Posnanian War was a military insurrection of Poles in the Greater Poland region (German: Grand Duchy of Poznań or Provinz Posen) against German rule.
Grigoriy Fedotovich Krivosheyev (Григорий Федотович Кривошеев, born in 1929) is a Russian military historian and a retired Colonel General of the Russian military.
Grodno or Hrodna (Гродна, Hrodna; ˈɡrodnə, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Hayk Bzhishkyan (Հայկ Բժշկյան, Persian هایک پزشکیان, Russian: Гайк Бжишкян, also known as Guy Dmitrievich Guy, Gai Dmitrievich Gai (Гай Дмитриевич Гай), Gaya Gai (Гая Гай), or Bzhishkyan, – 11 December 1937), was a Soviet military commander of the Russian Civil War and Polish-Soviet War.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
Interallied Mission to Poland was a diplomatic mission launched by British Prime Minister David Lloyd George on July 21, 1920, at the height of the Polish-Soviet War, weeks before the decisive Battle of Warsaw.
Międzymorze, known in English as Intermarium, was a plan pursued after World War I by Polish leader Józef Piłsudski for a federation of Central and Eastern European countries.
Internetowa encyklopedia PWN (Polish for Internet PWN Encyclopedia) is a free online Polish-language encyclopedia published by Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Major-General John Frederick Charles "Boney" Fuller, CB, CBE, DSO (1 September 1878 – 10 February 1966) was a senior British Army officer, military historian, and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorizing principles of warfare.
Jan Bury (born October 1, 1963 in Przeworsk) is a Polish politician.
Lt. Col. Jan Kowalewski (23 October 1892 – 31 October 1965) was a Polish cryptologist, intelligence officer, engineer, journalist, military commander, and creator and first head of the Polish Cipher Bureau.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
Janusz Waldemar Cisek (born 1955 in Stalowa Wola) is a Polish historian, academic lecturer, former executive director of the Józef Piłsudski Institute of America in New York City and of the Polish Army Museum in Warsaw, and former Polish under-secretary of state at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Józef Haller von Hallenburg (13 August 1873 – 4 June 1960) was a Lieutenant General of the Polish Army, a legionary in the Polish Legions, harcmistrz (the highest Scouting instructor rank in Poland), the President of the Polish Scouting and Guiding Association (ZHP), and a political and social activist.
Józef Kowalski (2 February 1900 – 7 December 2013) was a Polish supercentenarian and the second-to-last surviving veteran of the 1919–1921 Polish-Soviet War (Alexander Imich was the last).
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; he was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.
Jean Adrien Antoine Jules Jusserand (18 February 185518 July 1932) was a French author and diplomat.
Jerzy (George) Tadeusz Lukowski (or Łukowski) is a Polish-British historian at University of Birmingham.
Joanna Beata Michlic is an American scholar of Polish-Jewish history and the Holocaust in Poland.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
General Kazimierz Sosnkowski (19 November 1885 in Warsaw – 11 October 1969 in Arundel, Quebec) was a Polish nobleman, independence fighter, diplomat, architect, politician and a Polish Army general.
Khmelnytskyi Oblast (Хмельницька область, translit. Khmel’nyts’ka oblast’; also referred to as Khmelnychchyna—Хмельниччина) is an oblast (province) of western Ukraine.
Khreshchatyk (Хрещатик, Khreshchatyk) is the main street of Kyiv, Ukraine.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
The 1920 Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation), sometimes considered to have started the Soviet-Polish War, was an attempt by the armed forces of the newly re-emerged Poland led by Józef Piłsudski, in alliance with the Ukrainian leader Symon Petliura, to seize the territories of modern-day Ukraine which fell under the Soviet control after the Bolshevik Revolution.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kingdom or Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (Old East Slavic: Галицко-Волинскоє князство, Галицько-Волинське князівство, Regnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae), also known as the Kingdom of Ruthenia (Old East Slavic: Королѣвство Русь, Королівство Русі, Regnum Russiae) since 1253, was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia, of present-day western Ukraine, which was formed after the conquest of Galicia by the Prince of Volhynia Roman the Great, with the help of Leszek the White of Poland.
The Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Polskie), also known informally as the Regency Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Regencyjne), was a proposed puppet state of the German Empire during World War I.The Regency Kingdom has been referred to as a puppet state by Norman Davies in Europe: A history; by Jerzy Lukowski and Hubert Zawadzki in A Concise History of Poland; by Piotr J. Wroblel in Chronology of Polish History and Nation and History; and by Raymond Leslie Buell in Poland: Key to Europe ("The Polish Kingdom... was merely a pawn ").
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
The name Kościuszko's Squadron or Kościuszko's Escadrille, taken from the Polish hero Tadeusz Kościuszko, has been borne by several units of the Polish Air Force throughout its history.
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.
L'Humanité ("Humanity"), is a French daily newspaper.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
The Latvian War of Independence (Latvijas brīvības cīņas, literally, "Latvia's freedom struggles"), sometimes called the Latvian War of Liberation (Latvijas atbrīvošanas karš, "War of Latvian Liberation"), was a series of military conflicts in Latvia between 5 December 1918, after the newly proclaimed Republic of Latvia was invaded by Soviet Russia, and the signing of the Latvian-Soviet Riga Peace Treaty on 11 August 1920.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Leopold Skulski; (15 November 1878, Zamość – Brest, 11 June 1940) served as prime minister of Poland for six months from 13 December 1919 until 9 June 1920 in the interim Legislative Sejm during the formation of sovereign Second Polish Republic following World War I.
Lida (Лі́да; Ли́да; Lyda; Lida; לידא) is a city in western Belarus in Hrodna Voblast, situated west of Minsk.
Liepāja (pronounced) (Libau; see other names) is a city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea.
List of battles of the Polish-Soviet War by chronology.
List of cryptographers.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The Lithuanian Wars of Independence, also known as the Freedom Struggles (Laisvės kovos), refer to three wars Lithuania fought defending its independence at the end of World War I: with Bolshevik forces (December 1918 – August 1919), Bermontians (June 1919 – December 1919), and Poland (August 1920 – November 1920).
The Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (LBSSR; Lietuvos–Baltarusijos Tarybinė Socialistinė Respublika; Літоўска–Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка; Литовско–Белорусская ССР; Litewsko–Białoruska Republika Radziecka) or Litbel (Lit-Bel) was a Soviet socialist republic that existed within the territories of modern Belarus and eastern Lithuania for approximately five months during 1919.
Lityn is a town in Vinnytsia Oblast (province), located in the historic region of the Podilia.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
Manevychi (Маневичі; Maniewicze; Manewytschi; Yiddish: מנייביץ) is an urban-type settlement and the administrative center of Manevychi Raion in Volyn Oblast in the western Ukraine.
Marc Ferro (born 24 December 1924 in Paris) is a French historian.
Margaret Olwen MacMillan, (born 23 December 1943) is a Canadian historian and professor at the University of Oxford.
Marian Włodzimierz Kukiel (pseudonyms: Marek Kąkol, Stach Zawierucha; 15 May 1885 in Dąbrowa Tarnowska – 15 August 1972 in London) was a Polish major general, historian, social and political activist.
The massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia (rzeź wołyńska, literally: Volhynian slaughter; Волинська трагедія., Volyn tragedy), were part of an ethnic cleansing operation carried out in Nazi German-occupied Poland by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) against Poles in the area of Volhynia, Polesia, Lublin region and Eastern Galicia beginning in 1943 and lasting up to 1945.
Maxime Weygand (21 January 1867 – 28 January 1965) was a French military commander in World War I and World War II.
Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.
Miłosna (Liebenau) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Godkowo, within Elbląg County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Mikhail Ivanovich Meltyukhov (Russian: Михаил Иванович Мельтюхов), (born 14 March 1966), is a Russian military historian.
Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Михаи́л Никола́евич Тухаче́вский; – June 12, 1937) was a leading Soviet military leader and theoretician from 1918 to 1937.
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
Mitteleuropa, meaning Middle Europe, is one of the German terms for Central Europe.
Modlin was a village near Warsaw in Poland near the banks of rivers Narew and Vistula.
Modlin Fortress (Polish Twierdza Modlin) is one of the biggest 19th century fortresses in Poland.
The Morgenthau report was a report compiled by Henry Morgenthau, Sr., as member of the "Mission of the United States to Poland" which was appointed by the American Commission to Negotiate Peace formed by President Woodrow Wilson in the aftermath of World War I. The mission consisted of three American members: former US ambassador Henry Morgenthau, Brigadier General Edgar Jadwin of Engineer Corps, and professor of law Homer H. Johnson from Cleveland; and from the British side Sir Stuart M. Samuel.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Naczelnik Państwa (Chief of State) was the title of Poland's head of state in the early years of the Second Polish Republic.
The Narew River (Нараў Naraŭ; Lithuanian: Narvė, Narevas, Naruva, Naura; Нарва Narva), in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, is a right tributary of the Vistula river.
National Democracy (Narodowa Demokracja, also known from its abbreviation ND as "Endecja") was a Polish political movement active from the second half of the 19th century under the foreign partitions of the country until the end of the Second Polish Republic.
Navahrudak (Навагрудак), more commonly known by its Russian name Novogrudok (Новогрудок) (Naugardukas; Nowogródek; נאָווהאַרדאָק Novhardok) is a city in the Grodno Region of Belarus.
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (– 15 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, Soviet politician and prolific author on revolutionary theory.
Ivor Norman Richard Davies (born 8 June 1939) is a British-Polish historian noted for his publications on the history of Europe, Poland and the United Kingdom.
Ober Ost is short for Oberbefehlshaber der gesamten Deutschen Streitkräfte im Osten, German for "Supreme Commander of All German Forces in the East" during World War I. It also has an implied double meaning, as in its own right, "Ober Ost" translates into "Upper East," which describes its geographic region in reference to the German Empire.
The Order of Polonia Restituta (Order Odrodzenia Polski, Order of the Rebirth of Poland) is a Polish state order established 4 February 1921.
Orlando Guy Figes (born Islington, 20 November 1959) is a British historian and writer known for his works on Russian history.
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
The Peace of Riga, also known as the Treaty of Riga (Traktat Ryski), was signed in Riga on 18 March 1921, between Poland, Soviet Russia (acting also on behalf of Soviet Belarus) and Soviet Ukraine.
Peter Kenez (born 1937) is a historian specializing in Russian history and Eastern Europe.
Pimlico is a small area within central London in the City of Westminster.
Pinsk (Пі́нск, Pinsk; Пи́нск; Пи́нськ, Pyns'k; Pińsk; Yiddish/פינסק, Pinskas) is a city in Belarus, in the Polesia region, traversed by the river Pina, at the confluence of the Pina and Pripyat rivers.
The Pinsk Marshes (Пінскія балоты, Pinskiya baloty), also known as the Pripet Marshes (Прыпяцкія балоты, Prypiackija baloty) and the Rokitno Marshes, are a vast natural region of wetlands along the forested basin of the Pripyat River and its tributaries from Brest to the west to Mogilev to the northeast and Kiev to the southeast.
Piotr Stefan Wandycz (September 20, 1923 – July 29, 2017) was a Polish-American historian, President of the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America, and professor emeritus at Yale University, specializing in Eastern and Central European history.
Podolia or Podilia (Подíлля, Podillja, Подо́лье, Podolʹje., Podolya, Podole, Podolien, Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova (i.e. northern Transnistria).
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
The Polish minority in the Soviet Union refers to people of Polish descent who used to reside in the Soviet Union before its 1991 dissolution (in the Autumn of Nations), and who live in post-Soviet, sovereign countries of Europe and Asia as their significant minorities at present time, including the Kresy macroregion (Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine), Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan among others.
Polesia, Polesie or Polesye (Палессе Paliessie, Полісся Polissia or Polisia, Polesie, Поле́сье Poles'e) is a natural and historical region starting from the farthest edges of Central Europe and into Eastern Europe, stretching from parts of Eastern Poland, touching similarly named Podlasie, straddling the Belarus–Ukraine border and into western Russia.
The Polish cavalry (jazda, kawaleria, konnica) can trace its origins back to the days of medieval mounted knights.
The European theatre of World War II opened with the German invasion of Poland on Friday September 1, 1939 and the Soviet invasion of Poland on September 17, 1939.
The Polish Operation of the Soviet security service in 1937–1938 was a mass operation of the NKVD carried out in the Soviet Union against Poles (labeled by the Soviets as "agents") during the period of the Great Purge.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
Polish prisoners of war and internees in Soviet Russia and Lithuania — Polish soldiers and citizens who were captured and interned during the Polish-Soviet War and remained in the custody of Soviet and Lithuanian authorities.
The Polish School of Mathematics was the mathematics community that flourished in Poland in the 20th century, particularly during the Interbellum between World Wars I and II.
Border conflicts between Poland and Czechoslovakia began in 1918 between the Second Polish Republic and First Czechoslovak Republic, both freshly created states.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Lithuanian War was an armed conflict between newly independent Lithuania and Poland in the aftermath of World War I. The conflict primarily concerned territorial control of the Vilnius Region, including Vilnius, and the Suwałki Region, including the towns of Suwałki, Augustów, and Sejny.
The Polish–Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the Second Polish Republic and Ukrainian forces (both West Ukrainian People's Republic and Ukrainian People's Republic).
Polonization (or Polonisation; polonizacja)In Polish historiography, particularly pre-WWII (e.g., L. Wasilewski. As noted in Смалянчук А. Ф. (Smalyanchuk 2001) Паміж краёвасцю і нацыянальнай ідэяй. Польскі рух на беларускіх і літоўскіх землях. 1864–1917 г. / Пад рэд. С. Куль-Сяльверставай. – Гродна: ГрДУ, 2001. – 322 с. (2004). Pp.24, 28.), an additional distinction between the Polonization (polonizacja) and self-Polonization (polszczenie się) has been being made, however, most modern Polish researchers don't use the term polszczenie się.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.
The Pripyat River or Prypiat River (Прип’ять Prypyat′,; Прыпяць Prypiać,; Prypeć,; Припять Pripyat′) is a river in Eastern Europe, approximately long.
Prometheism or Prometheanism (Polish: Prometeizm) was a political project initiated by Poland's Józef Piłsudski.
A proto-state, also known as a quasi-state, is a political entity that does not represent a fully institutionalized or autonomous sovereign state.
Provisional Polish Revolutionary Committee (Tymczasowy Komitet Rewolucyjny Polski, Polrewkom; Польревком) (July–August 1920) was a revolutionary committee created under the patronage of Soviet Russia with the goal to establish a Soviet Polish Socialist Republic of Councils (Sowiecka Polska Socjalistyczna Republika Rad).
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
The Renault FT (frequently referred to in post-World War I literature as the FT-17, FT17, or similar) was a French light tank that was among the most revolutionary and influential tank designs in history.
The Republic of Central Lithuania or Middle Lithuania (Republika Litwy Środkowej, Vidurio Lietuvos Respublika, Рэспубліка Сярэдняе Літвы / Respublika Siaredniaje Litvy), or Central Lithuania (Litwa Środkowa, Vidurio Lietuva or Vidurinė Lietuva, Сярэдняя Літва / Siaredniaja Litva), was a short-lived political entity, which did not gain international recognition.
Richard Edgar Pipes (Ryszard Pipes; July 11, 1923 – May 17, 2018) was a Polish American academic who specialized in Russian history, particularly with respect to the Soviet Union, who espoused a strong anti-communist point of view throughout his career.
Richard Andrew Woytak (Poland, December 18, 1940 – March 6, 1998, Monterey, California, United States) was an American historian who specialized in European history of the Interbellum and World War II.
The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.
Robert John Service (born 29 October 1947) is a British historian, academic, and author who has written extensively on the history of the Soviet Union, particularly the era from the October Revolution to Stalin's death.
Roman Stanisław Dmowski (9 August 1864 – 2 January 1939) was a Polish politician, statesman, and co-founder and chief ideologue of the right-wing National Democracy ("ND": in Polish, "Endecja") political movement.
Ronald Grigor Suny (born September 25, 1940) is director of the Eisenberg Institute for Historical Studies, the Charles Tilly Collegiate Professor of Social and Political History at the University of Michigan, and Emeritus Professor of political science and history at the University of Chicago.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
Sejny (Seinai) is a town in north-eastern Poland and the capital of Sejny County, in Podlaskie Voivodeship, close to the northern border with Lithuania and Belarus.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (a; – October 26, 1973) was a Russian cavalryman, a military commander during the Russian Civil War and World War II, and a close political ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.
Sergey Sergeyevich Kamenev (Серге́й Серге́евич Ка́менев; April 4 (16), 1881 – August 25, 1936), was a Soviet military leader with the Komandarm 1st rank.
Sharhorod, also known as Shargorod, is a town in Vinnytsia Oblast, Ukraine.
Siege of Zamość was part of The Deluge.
The Silesian Uprisings (Aufstände in Oberschlesien; Powstania śląskie) were a series of three armed uprisings of the Poles and Polish Silesians of Upper Silesia, from 1919 to 1921, against German rule; the resistance hoped to break away from Germany in order to join the Second Polish Republic, which had been established in the wake of World War I. In the latter-day history of Poland after World War II, the insurrections were celebrated as centrepieces of national pride.
The Slovak Soviet Republic (Slovak: Slovenská republika rád, Hungarian: Szlovák Tanácsköztársaság, Ukrainian: Словацька Радянська Республіка, literally: "Slovak Republic of Councils") was a short-lived Communist state in southeast Slovakia in existence from 16 June 1919 to 7 July 1919.
Smolensk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, west-southwest of Moscow.
The solidus (Latin for "solid"; solidi), nomisma (νόμισμα, nómisma, "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire.
The Southern Bug, also called Southern Buh (Південний Буг, Pivdennyi Buh; Южный Буг, Yuzhny Bug), and sometimes Boh River, is a navigable river located in Ukraine.
The Southwestern Front was a front of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War and the Polish-Soviet War, which existed between January 10, 1920 and December 5, 1920.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet westward offensive of 1918–1919 was part of the campaign by the proto-Soviet Union into areas abandoned by the Ober Ost garrisons that were being withdrawn to Germany following that country's defeat in World War I. The initially successful offensive against the Republic of Estonia ignited the Estonian War of Independence which ended with the Soviet recognition of Estonia.
The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty, also known as the Moscow Peace Treaty, was signed between Lithuania and Soviet Russia on July 12, 1920.
The Spa Conference was a meeting between the Supreme War Council and the government of the Weimar Republic in Spa, Belgium on 5–16 July 1920.
The Spartacist uprising (Spartakusaufstand), also known as the January uprising (Januaraufstand), was a general strike (and the armed battles accompanying it) in Germany from 4 to 15 January 1919.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit.
Stanisław Bułak-Bałachowicz (Станіслаў Булак-Балаховіч, Станисла́в Була́к-Балахо́вич; 12 November 1883 – 28 November 1940) was a notable general, military commander and veteran of World War I, Russian Civil War, Estonian War of Independence, Polish-Bolshevik War and the Invasion of Poland at the start of World War II.
Stanisław Grabski (April 5, 1871 in Borów, Łowicz County – May 6, 1949 in Sulejówek) was a Polish economist and politician, member of the Sejm, associated with the National Democracy political camp.
Stanisław Leśniewski (March 30, 1886 – May 13, 1939) was a Polish mathematician, philosopher and logician.
Stéphane Courtois (born 25 November 1947) is a French historian and university professor, a Director of research at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), Professor at the Catholic Institute of Higher Studies (ICES) in La Roche-sur-Yon, and Director of a collection specialized in the history of communist movements and regimes.
Stefan Mazurkiewicz (25 September 1888 – 19 June 1945) was a Polish mathematician who worked in mathematical analysis, topology, and probability.
Stephen Frand Cohen (born November 25, 1938) is an American scholar and professor emeritus of Russian studies at Princeton University and New York University.
Suwałki (Suvalkai, סואוואַלק) is a city in northeastern Poland with 69,210 inhabitants (2011).
Symon Vasylyovych Petliura (Си́мон Васи́льович Петлю́ра; May 10, 1879 – May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician and journalist.
Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski (19 May 1866 – 18 October 1928) was a Polish military commander, diplomat, and politician, a general of the Austro-Hungarian Army and then the Polish Army.
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.
The Tehran Conference (codenamed Eureka) was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran.
Ternopil (Ternopil',; Tarnopol; Ternopol'; Tarnopol; Ternepol/Tarnopl; Tarnopol) is a city in western Ukraine, located on the banks of the Seret River.
Warsaw Voice: Polish and Central European Review (shortly The Warsaw Voice) is an English-language newspaper printed in Poland, concentrating on news about Poland and its neighbours.
Timothy David Snyder (born 1969) is an American author and historian specializing in the history of Central and Eastern Europe, and the Holocaust.
The Trades Union Congress (TUC) is a national trade union centre, a federation of trade unions in England and Wales, representing the majority of trade unions.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
The Treaty of Warsaw (also the Polish-Ukrainian or Petliura-Piłsudski Alliance or Agreement) of April 1920 was a military-economical alliance between the Second Polish Republic, represented by Józef Piłsudski, and the Ukrainian People's Republic, represented by Symon Petliura, against Bolshevik Russia.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic (abbreviated to УНР), was a predecessor of modern Ukraine declared on 10 June 1917 following the Russian Revolution.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
An ultimatum (the last one) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance.
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Kansas, also referred to as KU or Kansas, is a public research university in the U.S. state of Kansas.
The University of Lviv (Львівський університет, Uniwersytet Lwowski, Universität Lemberg, briefly known as the Theresianum in the early 19th-century), presently the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка) is the oldest university foundation in Ukraine, dating from 1661 when the Polish King, John II Casimir, granted it its first royal charter.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
The University of Warsaw (Uniwersytet Warszawski, Universitas Varsoviensis), established in 1816, is the largest university in Poland.
Vadim Yakovlev was a Russian Cossack cavalry commander, in the rank of yesaul.
Verkhnyadzvinsk (Верхнядзві́нск, Drisa, Dryssa) or Verkhnedvinsk (Верхнедви́нск) is a city in Belarus in the northwest of Vitebsk Region; it is the administrative center of the Verkhnyadzvinsk Raion.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vilnius Region (Vilniaus kraštas, Wileńszczyzna, Віленшчына, also formerly known in English: as Wilno Region or Vilna Region) is the territory in the present-day Lithuania and Belarus that was originally inhabited by ethnic Baltic tribes and was a part of Lithuania proper, but came under East Slavic and Polish cultural influences over time.
The War Order of Virtuti Militari (Latin: "For Military Virtue", Polish: Order Wojenny Virtuti Militari) is Poland's highest military decoration for heroism and courage in the face of the enemy at war.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Volhynia, also Volynia or Volyn (Wołyń, Volýn) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling between south-eastern Poland, parts of south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine.
Volodymyr-Volynskyi (Володимир-Волинський, Włodzimierz Wołyński, Влади́мир-Волы́нский, לודמיר, Lodomeria) is a small city located in Volyn Oblast, in north-western Ukraine.
William Bruce Lincoln (September 6, 1938 – April 9, 2000) was a scholar and author who wrote a number of widely-read books on Russian history.
Wacław Franciszek Sierpiński (14 March 1882 – 21 October 1969) was a Polish mathematician.
Waldemar Rezmer (born 1949) is a Polish historian.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Władysław Dominik Grabski (7 July 1874 – 1 March 1938) was a Polish National Democratic politician, economist and historian.
Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski (20 May 1881 – 4 July 1943) was a Polish military and political leader.
The West Ukrainian People's Republic (Західноукраїнська Народна Республіка., Zakhidnoukrayins’ka Narodna Respublika, ZUNR) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia.
Western Belorussia or Western Belarus (Заходняя Беларусь: Zachodniaja Biełaruś; Zachodnia Białoruś; Западная Белоруссия: Zapadnaja Belorussija) is a historical region of modern-day Belarus comprising the territory which belonged to the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period in accordance with the international peace treaties.
The concept of Western betrayal refers to the view that the United Kingdom and France failed to meet their legal, diplomatic, military and moral obligations with respect to the Czechoslovak and Polish nations during the prelude to and aftermath of World War II.
The Western Front was a front of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War and Polish-Soviet War, which existed between February 12, 1919 and April 8, 1924.
Western Ukraine or West Ukraine (Західна Україна) is a geographical and historical relative term used in reference to the western territories of Ukraine.
White Eagle, Red Star: The Polish–Soviet War, 1919–20 is a 1972 book by Norman Davies covering the Polish–Soviet War.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Wkra is a river in north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Narew river, with a length of 255 kilometres and a basin area of 5,348 km² - all within Poland.
World revolution is the far-left Marxist concept of overthrowing capitalism in all countries through the conscious revolutionary action of the organized working class.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Yaruha is an urban-type settlement in southern Ukraine located near the Dniester River, and thus the border with Moldova.
Yevhen Petrushevych (Євген Петрушевич) (June 3, 1863 in Busk, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Kronland of Austro-Hungary – August 29, 1940 in Berlin, Germany) was a Ukrainian lawyer, politician, and president of the Western Ukrainian National Republic formed after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918.
Zamość (Yiddish: זאמאשטש Zamoshtsh) is a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship (since 1999), about from Lublin, from Warsaw and from the border with Ukraine.
Zbigniew Kazimierz "Zbig" Brzezinski (March 28, 1928 – May 26, 2017) was a Polish-American diplomat and political scientist.
Zbigniew Klemens Karpus (born 1954) is a Polish historian.
Zbruch River (Збруч, Zbrucz) is a river in Western Ukraine, a left tributary of the Dniester.
Zhlobin (Жло́бін; Жло́бин, Żłobin, Žlobinas) is a city in the Zhlobin District of Gomel Region of Belarus, on the Dnieper river.
Zhytomyr (Žytomyr; Žitomir; Żytomierz; Žitomir) is a city in the north of the western half of Ukraine.
Zinaida Nikolayevna Gippius (– 9 September 1945) was a Russian poet, playwright, novelist, editor and religious thinker, one of the major figures in Russian symbolism.
The 16th Army was a field army of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War era.
The Polish coup d'état attempt in Lithuania refers to a failed attempt by Polish statesman Józef Piłsudski to overthrow the existing Lithuanian government of Prime Minister Mykolas Sleževičius, and install a pro-Polish cabinet that would agree to a union with Poland.
The 1st Cavalry Army (Первая конная армия) was a prominent Red Army military formation.
Polish - Soviet War, Polish Soviet War, Polish – Soviet War, Polish-Bolshevic War, Polish-Bolshevik War, Polish-Bolshevik war, Polish-Bolshevist War, Polish-Soviet War, Polish-Soviet War", Polish-Soviet war, Polish-bolshevik war, Polish-soviet war, Polish–Bolshevik War, Soviet-Polish War, Soviet-Polish war.