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Polish orthography

Index Polish orthography

Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language. [1]

73 relations: Acronym, Acute accent, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Apostrophe, Assimilation (phonology), Bar (diacritic), Caron, Ch (digraph), Character encoding, Chojnice, Code page 775, Code page 852, Comma, Conjunction (grammar), Consonant, Consonant cluster, CorelDRAW, Cybina, Czech language, Czech orthography, Dependent clause, Diacritic, Digraph (orthography), Diminutive, Dot (diacritic), Dz (digraph), English alphabet, English name, French language, French name, Hexadecimal, HTML, ISO/IEC 8859-13, ISO/IEC 8859-16, ISO/IEC 8859-2, Kashubian language, Latin alphabet, Letter case, List of Latin-script digraphs, Loanword, Macintosh Central European encoding, Mazovia encoding, Middle Ages, Nasal vowel, New York City, Ogonek, Oxford, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (sound change), Phoneme, ..., Polish Braille, Polish language, Polish manual alphabet, Polish phonology, Professor, Quotation mark, Routledge, Serbo-Croatian, Silesian language, Slavic languages, Slovak language, Slovene language, Sorbian languages, Sz (digraph), Tarzan, Trigraph (orthography), Unicode, UTF-16, UTF-8, Voice (phonetics), Vowel, Windows-1250, Windows-1257. Expand index (23 more) »


An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).

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Acute accent

The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.

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Alveolo-palatal consonant

In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.

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The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.

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Assimilation (phonology)

In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.

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Bar (diacritic)

A bar or stroke is a modification consisting of a line drawn through a grapheme.

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A caron, háček or haček (or; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; >). The use of the haček differs according to the orthographic rules of a language.

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Ch (digraph)

Ch is a digraph in the Latin script.

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Character encoding

Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.

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Chojnice (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Chònice, Konitz) is a town in northern Poland with approximately 40 447 inhabitants (2011), near the famous Tuchola Forest and many other natural reservoirs.

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Code page 775

Code page 775 (also known as CP 775, IBM 00775, OEM 775, MS-DOS Baltic Rim) is a code page used under DOS to write the Estonian, Lithuanian and Latvian languages.

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Code page 852

Code page 852 (also known as CP 852, IBM 00852, OEM 852 (Latin II), MS-DOS Latin 2) is a code page used under DOS to write Central European languages that use Latin script (such as Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Serbian, Slovak or Slovene).

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The comma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages.

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Conjunction (grammar)

In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.

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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Consonant cluster

In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.

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CorelDraw (styled CorelDRAW) is a vector graphics editor developed and marketed by Corel Corporation.

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Cybina is a river in Greater Poland, a right affluent of Warta.

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Czech language

Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.

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Czech orthography

Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.

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Dependent clause

A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.

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A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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Digraph (orthography)

A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

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A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.

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Dot (diacritic)

When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.

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Dz (digraph)

Dz is a digraph of the Latin script, consisting of the consonants D and Z. It may represent,, or, depending on the language.

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English alphabet

The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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English name

English names are names used in, or originating in, England.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French name

This article describes the conventions for using people's names in France, including the norms of custom and practice, as well as the legal aspects.

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In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.

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Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.

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ISO/IEC 8859-13

ISO/IEC 8859-13:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 13: Latin alphabet No.

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ISO/IEC 8859-16

ISO/IEC 8859-16:2001, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 16: Latin alphabet No.

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ISO/IEC 8859-2

ISO/IEC 8859-2:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 2: Latin alphabet No.

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Kashubian language

Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa; język kaszubski, język pomorski, język kaszubsko-słowiński) is a West Slavic language belonging to the Lechitic subgroup along with Polish and Silesian.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Letter case

Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.

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List of Latin-script digraphs

This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Macintosh Central European encoding

Macintosh Central European encoding is used in Apple Macintosh computers to represent texts in Central European and Southeastern European languages that use the Latin script.

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Mazovia encoding

Mazovia encoding is used under DOS to represent Polish texts.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Nasal vowel

A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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The ogonek (Polish:, "little tail", the diminutive of ogon; nosinė, "nasal") is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European languages, and directly under a vowel in several Native American languages.

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Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Palatalization (sound change)

In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Polish Braille

Polish Braille (alfabet Braille'a) is a braille alphabet for writing the Polish language.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Polish manual alphabet

The Polish manual alphabet is a single-handed manual alphabet used in Polish Sign Language.

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Polish phonology

The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.

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Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.

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Quotation mark

Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.

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Silesian language

Silesian or Upper Silesian (Silesian: ślōnskŏ gŏdka, ślůnsko godka (Silesian pronunciation), Slezština, język śląski / etnolekt śląski, Wasserpolnisch) is a West Slavic lect, part of its Lechitic group.

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Slavic languages

The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.

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Slovak language

Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).

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Slovene language

Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.

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Sorbian languages

The Sorbian languages (Serbska rěč, Serbska rěc) are two closely related, but only partially mutually intelligible, West Slavic languages spoken by the Sorbs, a West Slavic minority in the Lusatia region of eastern Germany.

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Sz (digraph)

Sz is a digraph of the Latin script, used in Hungarian, Polish, Kashubian and German, and in the Wade–Giles system of Romanization of Chinese.

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Tarzan (John Clayton, Viscount Greystoke) is a fictional character, an archetypal feral child raised in the African jungle by the Mangani great apes; he later experiences civilization only to largely reject it and return to the wild as a heroic adventurer.

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Trigraph (orthography)

A trigraph (from the τρεῖς, treîs, "three" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a group of three characters used to represent a single sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters combined.

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Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

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UTF-16 (16-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points of Unicode.

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UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Windows-1250 is a code page used under Microsoft Windows to represent texts in Central European and Eastern European languages that use Latin script, such as Polish, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Slovene, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian (Latin script), Romanian (before 1993 spelling reform) and Albanian.

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Windows-1257 (Windows Baltic) is a single byte code page used to support the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian languages under Microsoft Windows.

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Redirects here:

Abecadlo, AmigaPL, ELWRO-Junior, Polish character sets, Polish code pages, Polish codepages, Polish letters, Polish spelling.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_orthography

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