96 relations: Affricate consonant, Allophone, Alternation (linguistics), Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Approximant consonant, Back vowel, Belarusian language, Central vowel, Classical language, Clitic, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Compensatory lengthening, Complementary distribution, Consonant, Consonant cluster, Consonant voicing and devoicing, Czech language, Dental consonant, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Dialects of Polish, Diphthong, Free variation, French language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Greater Poland, History of Poland (1918–1939), History of Polish, Homorganic consonant, Inflection, Instrumental case, International Phonetic Alphabet, Jan Brzechwa, John C. Wells, Kresy, Labial consonant, Laminal consonant, Lesser Polish dialect, Loanword, Masurian dialect, Mazurzenie, Monophthong, Morphology (linguistics), Nasal consonant, Nasal palatal approximant, Nasal vowel, New York City, Obstruent, ..., Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Oxford, Palatal consonant, Palatal nasal, Palatalization (sound change), Palate, Palato-alveolar consonant, Phoneme, Phonetics, Phonology, Polish alphabet, Polish language, Polish orthography, Portuguese language, Potato chip, Proto-Slavic, Retroflex consonant, Rhyme, Routledge, Russian language, Semivowel, Slavic languages, Slovak language, Soft sign, Sonorant, Standard Chinese phonology, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Suffix, Syllabic consonant, Syllable, Szczebrzeszyn, TIR Convention, Tongue-twister, Trill consonant, Upper Silesia, Velar consonant, Voice (phonetics), Voiced glottal fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, Vowel shift, West Slavic languages, Yer. Expand index (46 more) » « Shrink index
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
A classical language is a language with a literature that is classical.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Compensatory lengthening in phonology and historical linguistics is the lengthening of a vowel sound that happens upon the loss of a following consonant, usually in the syllable coda, or of a vowel in an adjacent syllable.
In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind in which one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (complementary) set of environments.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
In phonology, voicing (or sonorization) is a sound change where a voiceless consonant becomes voiced due to the influence of its phonological environment; shift in the opposite direction is referred to as devoicing or desonorization.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Modern sources on the Slavic languages normally describe the Polish language as consisting of four major dialect groups, each primarily associated with a certain geographical region, and often further subdivided into subdialectal groups (called gwara in Polish):Roland Sussex and Paul Cubberley (2006).
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Free variation in linguistics is the phenomenon of two (or more) sounds or forms appearing in the same environment without a change in meaning and without being considered incorrect by native speakers.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland.
The History of interwar Poland comprises the period from the re-recreation of the independent Polish state in 1918, until the joint Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
The Polish language is a West Slavic language, and thus descends from Proto-Slavic, and more distantly from Proto-Indo-European.
In phonetics, a homorganic consonant (from homo- "same" and organ "(speech) organ") is a consonant sound articulated in the same place of articulation as another.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Jan Brzechwa, (15 August 1898 – 2 July 1966) was a Polish poet and author, known mostly for his contribution to children's literature.
John Christopher Wells (born 11 March 1939 in Bootle, Lancashire) is a British phonetician and Esperantist.
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue on the top.
The Lesser Polish dialect (dialekt małopolski) is a cluster of regional varieties of the Polish language around the Lesser Poland historical region.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The Masurian ethnolect (Masurian: Mazurská gádka/Mazurská gádkia; Mazurski; Masurisch), according to some linguists, is a dialect group of the Polish language; others consider Masurian as a separate language, spoken by Masurians in a part of East Prussia that is now in Poland.
Mazurzenie or mazuration is the replacement or merger of Polish's series of retroflex fricatives and affricates (written sz, ż, cz, dż) into the alveolar series (written s, z, c, dz).
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The nasal palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some oral languages.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals.
In phonetics, palato-alveolar (or palatoalveolar) consonants are postalveolar consonants, nearly always sibilants, that are weakly palatalized with a domed (bunched-up) tongue.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Potato chips or crisps are thin slices of potato that have been deep fried or baked until crunchy.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (or the same sound) in two or more words, most often in the final syllables of lines in poems and songs.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
The soft sign (Ь, ь, italics Ь, ь; Russian: мягкий знак) also known as the front yer or front er, is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin).
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Szczebrzeszyn ("shcheh-BZHEH-shen") is a city in southeastern Poland in Lublin Voivodeship, in Zamość County, about 20 km west of Zamość.
The Convention on International Transport of Goods Under Cover of TIR Carnets (TIR Convention) is a multilateral treaty that was concluded at Geneva on 14 November 1975 to simplify and harmonise the administrative formalities of international road transport.
A tongue-twister is a phrase that is designed to be difficult to articulate properly, and can be used as a type of spoken (or sung) word game.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk; Silesian Polish: Gůrny Ślůnsk; Horní Slezsko; Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Oberschläsing; Silesia Superior) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The breathy-voiced glottal transition, commonly called a voiced glottal fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
A vowel shift is a systematic sound change in the pronunciation of the vowel sounds of a language.
The West Slavic languages are a subdivision of the Slavic language group.
A yer is one of two letters in Cyrillic alphabets: ъ (ѥръ, jerŭ) and ь (ѥрь, jerĭ).